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Energy balance and fitness

Energy balance and fitness

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Energy balance and fitness -

Energy balance and its components: implications for body weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95, Introduction Esteemed researchers representing the American Society of Nutrition and the International Life Sciences Institute recently converged to summarize the state-of-the-art research on energy balance as it relates to weight management.

Key questions addressed in their published consensus statement and discussed in this column are 1 an explanation of energy balance and imbalance in regards to energy intake and energy expenditure change over time, 2 a discussion of the interactions between the components of energy balance and how are they are regulated, 3 the efficacy of currently held popular beliefs on energy balance, and 4 the limitations facing researchers on energy balance.

The Energy in The Foods We Eat The dietary foods eaten that provide energy for life and calories to a person's weight include fat, protein, carbohydrate and to some degree alcohol.

The remaining foods eaten are absorbed and biologically broken down or oxidized for energy needs of the body, including growth, cell maintenance, physical activity, pregnancy and lactation, and other cellular life processes Hall et al, Some foods depending on their type of fiber content are not digestible by the body and thus not absorbed and utilized by the body.

As well, food preparation measures may also inhibit the actual absorption of a food, and thus the amount of calories into the body. What are REE, TEF and AEE? Common energy balance components of interest in weight management include REE, TEF and AEE.

Resting energy expenditure REE is the non-exercise energy needed throughout the day to stay alive. It varies widely between people due primarily to body composition fat versus muscle on the body and body size the greater the body mass area, the greater the REE to stay alive.

Interestingly, the brain, heart, kidney and liver, which weigh relatively small amounts of weight demand significant energy for life, and contribute meaningfully to the body's total REE. The TEF or thermic effect of food is the energy expenditure associated with processing and digestion of foods eaten.

Dietary composition of protein elicits the highest effect of TEF, which is followed by carbohydrate and then fat. Activity energy expenditure AEE is the fuel utilized by the body via structured exercise and non-exercise movement such as shopping, moving, doing daily chores and fidgeting.

Perhaps the greatest range observed in people is with AEE, as many people move a lot during their waking day and do a considerable amount of daily exercise, while others live primarily sedentary lifestyles. How Much Energy Does the Human Body Store? On average, the human body stores , kilocalories of fat, primarily in the form of triglycerides.

According to Hall et al. Carbohydrate is stored in the form of glycogen, which is bound to water, in the liver and muscle. Changes in carbohydrate storage often result in meaningful shifts in fluid storage; the more carbohydrate eaten and stored, the greater fluid retained by the body.

Fat, contrariwise does not need any water to bind with it for storage in the body and protein needs very little water for storage. Therefore, a person eating a higher percentage of carbohydrate, and not necessarily greater kilocalories, will retain more water, thus increasing total body weight due to the increase in water retention.

The energy that leaves our body is a bit more complicated: it is a result of our basal metabolism which gets really complicated and any sort of physical activity we do that requires energy to accomplish. Energy that leaves our body is usually described as our Total Daily Energy Expenditure, or TDEE.

In most people this TDEE is comprised of the following components:. As mentioned above, when there is more energy going in than going out, you are in a state of positive energy balance.

Being in a state of positive energy balance can be affected by both having too high of an intake or too low of an output, or a combination of both.

It is important to note that the relative amounts matter more than the absolute amounts. A positive energy surplus can be created by creating a disparity between eating more calories than expended, which may come from very high calorie intake or very low energy expenditure. Like a positive energy balance, negative energy balance is created when the energy mismatch goes the opposite direction: more energy is expended than is going in.

The energy that the body utilizes at this point is stored energy in the form of stored carbohydrates, stored fats, or stored proteins. Perfect energy balance occurs when the energy coming in and the energy expended are perfectly matched.

In reality, this is very difficult to do over very short time frames e. being in perfect balance in a given day , but is relatively easy to accomplish over periods of weeks or months. Therefore, many people stay weight stable for years at a time.

Perhaps the most effective way to assess energy balance is to track body weight over extended periods of time think weeks or months, not days. Body weight can fluctuate substantially during a given day or week due to hydration status, glycogen status, and other variables, but the average weight over several weeks or months is an excellent indicator of the state of energy balance a person is in.

If body weight is increasing over the span of weeks or months, that person is in positive energy balance. Conversely, if body weight is increasing over the span of weeks or months, that person is in negative energy balance.

There are many ways to measure energy balance, some being far more intricate and complicated than others. There are laboratory measurements such as metabolic chambers and doubly labeled water which can be very accurate but are impractical for almost all settings except in scientific studies.

Energy balance and metabolism are linked, but their relationship is not as quite forward as most people might think. In one sense, metabolism has a direct influence over energy balance.

If your TDEE is either very high or very low, the likelihood of you being in perfect energy balance is very unlikely. For example, athletes who expend 7,, calories per day during peak training seasons often find it hard to stay in energy balance as eating 10, calories a day can be very difficult.

Conversely, individuals who are very sedentary and only expend a total of ~1, calories per day often find themselves in a state of positive energy balance and keeping intake that low consistently can be very difficult. In another sense, energy balance can affect metabolism as well.

But in reality, the state of energy balances a person is in does affect their TDEE quite a bit, but not really their resting metabolic rate. For example, if an individual is in a state of positive energy balance their total expenditure goes up to try and balance that out.

However, this increased expenditure comes almost entirely from increasing their non-exercise activity. The opposite is also true. In the context of a negative energy balance, energy expenditure goes down to try and balance it out, with most of that drop coming from a reduction in physical activity.

Read also: 5 Things to Know About Your Metabolism. Energy balance is important for several reasons, but the two main reasons are for maintaining health and for maximizing performance.

When individuals are in a state of positive energy balance for extended periods of time, the extra energy is stored primarily as body fat. If you want more Energy, Balance and Fitness in your life sign up NOW. Plus I think my knees are beginning to improve with all the core and hip work, which is an extra bonus, and I think I will be back running in no time.

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