Category: Home

Performance training adaptations

Performance training adaptations

It is the adaptations that aaptations Performance training adaptations cause the Adaptatins in performance after training. J Appl Physiol. Effects of adaotations and standing cold water immersion on recovery from repeated sprinting. Three-day training blocks are utilized: short accelerations are performed on Monday, maximal velocity sprinting on Wednesday, and sprint-specific endurance on Friday. The Charlie Francis training system ebook. Article Google Scholar.

Performance training adaptations -

Describe the effect of stroke volume and cardiac output on aerobic performance. Explain the physiological adaptations an individual develops in response to the different principles of training.

Use examples to support your answer. Physiological Adaptations. Go to Top. We also consider the evidence for applying lower loads for those at risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and those with reduced mobility.

Finally, we provide practical recommendations, specifically that to maximize the benefits of lower load resistance training, high levels of effort and training in close proximity to concentric failure are required. Consequently, implementing lower load resistance training can be a beneficial and viable resistance training method for a wide range of fitness- and health-related goals.

Lower load i. Furthermore, it can have tangible benefits for healthy populations and those at risk for developing chronic diseases. Despite hesitancy and skepticism over the practicality of lifting with lower loads for muscle hypertrophy and strength, there is substantial evidence that supports its implementation.

Considering the somewhat discordant cellular signaling differences between lifting with lower and higher loads, the practical significance of these findings still need to be elucidated.

To maximize the benefits of lower load resistance training, high levels of effort and training in close proximity to concentric failure are required.

Lower load resistance training can be used in conjunction with higher loads i. This may help reduce participation barriers and promote exercise adherence. Resistance training is an important consideration for health and performance. The physiological responses and adaptations induced by resistance training are infinitely variable and are determined by acute training variables e.

However, despite firmly held beliefs within the exercise world, when standardized through work-matched or training to momentary concentric failure, lower load resistance training i.

Physical inactivity is a leading cause of death worldwide and has substantial economic, environmental, and social consequences [ 6 , 7 ].

Considering the benefits of resistance training, it is now commonly recommended in health guidelines [ 8 , 9 ], but despite its importance, participation in resistance training is relatively low. For example, in Australia, only Consequently, promoting a range of methods that are practical, accessible, and encourage adherence may be beneficial for health outcomes.

The use of lower load resistance training may be one of these methods, as it can stimulate adaptations comparable to higher load resistance training [ 2 , 4 ]. In addition, lower-load training may reduce articular stress compared to higher-load training; which could be of particular importance for those with joint-related issues e.

Moreover, lower loads may allow for the completion of resistance training without the need for specific facility memberships and can enable the maintenance or augmentation of physical qualities during periods where higher load training is not feasible. This may be particularly pertinent in the current climate, considering that a pandemic has forced periods of isolation and reduced access to resistance training equipment.

Here, we review the mechanisms responsible for improvements in skeletal muscle and physical performance with specific emphasis on lower load resistance training. Additionally, we discuss some of the potential implications and applications for health-related outcomes and physical performance in healthy populations and those at risk.

Participants have typically performed three to four sets across 8—12 week periods; however, substantial changes in strength and leg fat-free mass and skeletal mass have been observed in as little as two weeks [ 3 ]. When chronic interventions have compared traditional higher load resistance training i.

In addition to similarities in changes in fat-free mass and non-specific measures of strength, research indicates comparable improvements in type I and type II cross-sectional area CSA [ 5 , 13 ], pennation angle [ 15 ], rate of force development [ 4 ], and satellite cell activity between lower and higher load conditions [ 13 ].

Furthermore, lower load resistance training is accompanied by greater increases in specific mitochondrial proteins i. Given the ability of lower load resistance training to promote increases in muscle mass, a range of molecular mechanisms that underpin skeletal muscle adaptations have been investigated [ 4 , 5 , 13 ].

Evidence suggests that when exercise is completed with a controlled tempo of one second eccentric and concentric durations i. Additionally, the duration of the myofibrillar response at extended time points e. It should also be noted that lower loads with higher absolute volumes have been shown to cause sustained sarcoplasmic protein synthesis 24 h post-exercise [ 11 ].

This finding indicates that training with lower loads can increase proteins from all fractions in muscle [ 13 ] and may lead to enhanced oxidative capacity and hypertrophy [ 11 , 16 ]. Several studies have investigated the upstream signals that initiate changes in muscle protein synthesis in response to various loading schemes, with evidence of differential changes in key signaling pathways Fig.

However, lower load protocols in trained participants have shown increased phosphorylation responses four hours after exercise [ 11 ].

These results suggest that heavier and lighter relative loads lifted until the point of volitional failure may result in a different time course of anabolic signaling, with p70S6K phosphorylation occurring later after exercise with lighter compared with heavier relative loads [ 4 ]. Notwithstanding the somewhat discordant patterns of mTOR pathway signaling, muscle protein synthesis rates are similar following both lower and higher load contractions when performed to volitional failure [ 11 ].

Thus, the practical significance of these findings remain undetermined. Dashed colored outline indicates increased expression at either 1 or 4 h timepoints. Full outline indicates increased expression at both 1 and 4 h timepoints. Additionally, increases in the chronic expression of mitochondrial function proteins are presented.

Underpinning the physiological responses to higher and lower load resistance training are potential differences in motor unit recruitment patterns. However, the onset of fatigue necessitates the activation of larger i.

Subsequently, using this measure to infer fiber-type-specific motor unit recruitment and longitudinal hypertrophy should be cautiously interpreted [ 21 ]. An alternative method of assessing muscle fiber activation is via fiber-type-specific glycogen depletion [ 17 ]. This method has been used to demonstrate that when completing resistance training to concentric failure, recruitment, substrate depletion, and phosphorylation of anabolic signaling proteins within type I and II muscle fibers occurs irrespective of load, duration, or volume [ 17 ].

Furthermore, these changes in glycogen content have been related to changes in muscle signaling proteins e. Resistance training is an important consideration for any exercise program that focuses on developing strength and improving physical performance.

Traditionally, higher-loads have been promoted to elicit gains in lean body mass and strength. Indeed, the National Strength and Conditioning Association NSCA has stated that hypertrophy is most efficacious between 7 and 12 repetitions [ 22 ].

However, when lower loads e. Additionally, lower loads can cause substantial improvements in exercise-specific and non-specific strength [ 4 , 5 , 16 , 24 ]. Therefore, lower loads should be considered a viable alternative to higher load training and may augment physical performance from resistance training programs.

Numerous studies have compared the effects of lower and higher load training on muscular adaptations, with the majority demonstrating that lower load training induces comparable increases in muscle hypertrophy compared to higher loads [ 23 , 25 ].

One important caveat to this, however, is that a relatively high level of effort must be reached to induce these adaptations when using lower loads. In contrast to these findings, Nobrega et al. As findings from this study showed similar absolute volumes between conditions, it can be inferred that proximity to concentric failure is an essential consideration when aiming to maximize hypertrophic responses and supports recent meta-analytic findings [ 23 ].

Despite going against conventional wisdom, lower loads can elicit substantial improvements in strength measures. Load is often emphasized as fundamental for strength development [ 22 ], but lower loads can improve indices of strength and may be a useful tool when the handling of higher loads is infeasible or not preferred.

While there are inconsistencies as to whether lower loads can induce comparable improvements in absolute strength compared to higher loads, the answer is likely nuanced. When direct comparisons have been made, evidence suggests that lower loads do [ 4 , 5 , 15 ] and do not [ 14 , 16 , 24 , 26 ] induce similar strength adaptations.

However, subtle differences between studies may help explain discrepancies in conclusions. For example, in studies that have tested maximal dynamic strength of the exercise used throughout the training protocol, the studies that have provided participants with familiarization or an occasional maximal stimulus report similar strength adaptations [ 4 , 5 , 15 ].

Thus, so long as there is the periodic implementation of heavier load training, comparable changes in strength may occur. Furthermore, when the strength assessment is not related to the exercise e. This finding is in-line with previous work showing that strength gains are specific to the trained movement [ 27 ] and hence, would favor training at higher loads as those persons would be lifting loads closer to their 1RM and thus getting more practice.

Finally, the development of muscular endurance has been shown to be substantially greater when lower loads are used [ 16 ]. Although, it should be acknowledged that these results may have been biased by the smaller absolute improvements in 1RM strength attained in the lower load group, which subsequently influenced the load during the post-intervention muscular endurance test.

Thus, changes in muscular endurance may be nuanced and are likely influenced by the muscle groups used and the testing methodology implemented [ 28 ]. Nevertheless, while speculative, the greater time under tension that lower load training requires has been shown to alter mitochondrial protein synthesis and may improve muscle fatigue resistance and enhancing cellular energetics [ 2 , 13 ].

Several mechanisms that underpin the strength and hypertrophic adaptations to lower load training have been proposed, with varying evidence supporting their influence. Compared to higher load training, alterations in fiber type [ 4 , 5 , 26 ], neural adaptations [ 12 , 15 ], and mitochondrial protein synthesis and metabolism [ 13 ] have all been suggested to occur with limited to equivocal evidence.

Several studies have investigated the influence of lower load, higher volume resistance training on fiber type hypertrophy with conflicting findings. While research [ 29 , 30 ] has suggested that the greater metabolic stress associated with lower load training may induce greater type I fiber hypertrophy, research by Morton et al.

Moreover, research indicates similar hypertrophy between lower and higher load training in the soleus a type I dominant muscle and the gastrocnemii a mixed fiber muscle [ 31 ]. Holm et al.

Changes in muscle pennation angle were investigated by Nobrega et al. However, following six weeks of training with higher loads may allow for greater neural adaptations [ 12 ]; specifically, increased voluntary activation and normalized EMG amplitude during submaximal and maximal torque production [ 12 ].

Finally, evidence from a single study [ 13 ] has suggested that completing the lower load, higher volume training compared to higher load, lower volume training three times per week across 10 weeks can be a more potent stimulus for mitochondrial metabolism and turnover, which may be related to the greater substrate use and metabolic demand induced with lower load training.

Such responses may underpin these changes in mitochondrial proteins; however, further research is warranted. While lower load resistance exercise has been discussed as a method to augment human strength and lean body mass, it should be noted that these outcomes are essential components of healthy living.

Low muscle mass and strength are associated with poor physical function and are associated with future mobility impairment in older adults [ 32 , 33 ].

Consequently, due to the low cost and simple implementation of lower load resistance training, evidence suggests it can be a potent means to reduce chronic disease risk and improve long-term health [ 34 ].

Aging is a significant predictor of mobility impairment, with this reduced mobility exacerbating chronic disease [ 34 , 35 ].

Numerous reviews demonstrate that resistance exercise in pre-frail and frail older adults can significantly enhance muscular strength, gait speed, and physical performance [ 36 , 37 ]. While higher load resistance exercise i. In periods of low activity e.

Finally, lower load resistance exercise may be a practical option for those with reduced mobility. A substantial hurdle to resistance exercise is access to an appropriate facility. Thus, using lower loads e. Lean body mass is essential for the maintenance of metabolic health.

While changes in skeletal muscle mass may alter glucose handling, resistance training and muscle contractions, in general, can improve glucose homeostasis through insulin-dependent and independent signaling pathways [ 41 ].

However, the optimal resistance training intensity for metabolic health is unclear, with a review by Gordon et al. Although, this conclusion failed to take into account the total volume of exercise performed.

More recent evidence has shown that when matched for exercise volume, there was no significant difference in glycemic control between higher or lower load resistance training i. While further work is still required, this provides the rationale that simply performing resistance training with sufficient volume, rather than emphasizing the total load, is the more important consideration for glycemic control and metabolic health.

Despite resistance training not having always been endorsed as a mode of exercise for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease [ 44 ], its benefits for this purpose are clear.

While it has been suggested that cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent greater risk of mortality may occur when higher pressures are placed on the heart [ 45 ], the excessive elevation of blood pressure is only observed with higher loads i.

Although, it should be noted that this has not been investigated when higher and lower loads have both been taken to failure. Furthermore, in older adults with cardiovascular disease, low to moderate load resistance training i. With strength and skeletal muscle independently associated with risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality [ 48 , 49 , 50 ], resistance training has been posited as an important interventional strategy for mitigating cardiovascular risk [ 34 ].

Finally, as low and moderate loads have been demonstrated to exert similar improvements in a host of cardiovascular risk factors e. With the progression of modern society, improvements in technology, and continued decreases in physical exercise, there is perhaps no time in history where completing dedicated resistance training has been more important to public health.

Ironically, implementing traditional higher-load resistance training may be difficult in the current climate considering the pandemic, periods of enforced isolation, and reduced access to dedicated training equipment.

Therefore, lower load resistance exercise may act as an increasingly important method in helping improve health and physical performance. Indeed, considering the common factors that hinder the implementation of traditional higher load training e.

Thus, lower load resistance training may substantially benefit those who need to offset the loss of muscle mass and strength during periods where access to traditional forms of resistance training is limited e. Alternatively, the benefits of inducing substantial amounts of muscle hypertrophy and strength may extend to those with limited mobility or those rehabilitating from injury [ 3 ].

To maximize the benefits of lower load training, substantial effort is required, which can lead to high levels of discomfort [ 54 ]. It is important to make individuals aware of this outcome and differentiate between effort and discomfort, and discrepancies in the literature may be attributed to these factors.

It has been posited that individuals may find it more difficult to reach momentary concentric failure with lower loads due to greater levels of discomfort [ 55 ]. However, to recruit motor neurons that innervate type II fibers using lower loads, there is a need to take training close to, if not to, concentric failure [ 17 ].

Evidence suggests that with lower loads, even when training is volume-matched between concentric failure and non-failure conditions, proximity to repetition failure is needed to maximize physical development [ 14 ].

It should be noted that the use of lower loads does not exclude the use of higher loads. Alternatively, higher relative loads may be preferential for improving strength or to mitigate fatigue or feelings of discomfort [ 56 ].

Any training method should be considered within the holistic exercise program, and the implementation of lower load resistance training is no different. As this training method often requires higher volumes of exercise, how it fits within a periodized exercise routine should be carefully evaluated.

Furthermore, completing greater volumes of work and training close to concentric failure can cause considerable discomfort [ 14 ] and increase recovery time [ 56 , 57 ].

Therefore, as long as participants understand the need to be within proximity to failure, using volitional interruption i.

Evidence suggests that full motor unit activation can be achieved within 3—5 reps of concentric failure [ 57 ], with lower load volitional interruption allowing comparable increases in strength and CSA compared to training with higher loads or lower loads to failure [ 4 , 13 , 15 , 17 ]. The use of repetitions-in-reserve and systematic changes in proximity to concentric failure e.

Although, when using repetitions-in-reserve, it is recommended that sets be terminated in close proximity to failure, as this can improve the accuracy of estimation [ 58 ].

Furthermore, due to the substantial neuromuscular fatigue induced from lower load training [ 59 ], separating exercise sessions by at least 48—72 would seem to be warranted. Recommendations and considerations can be found in Fig.

A substantial body of evidence supports the use of lower load resistance training for inducing improvements in muscle hypertrophy and strength. These improvements have tangible benefits for healthy populations and those at risk for developing chronic diseases. However, despite the evidence available, there is still hesitancy and skepticism over the practicality of lifting with lower loads.

We speculate that this hesitancy likely stems from beliefs that heavy loads are necessary for improvements in strength and muscle growth. While evidence of its benefits is compelling, it should be acknowledged that further research is still required to elucidate optimal implementation of lower loads in exercise program design.

Furthermore, like most forms of resistance training prescription, evidence is needed to understand whether chronic exposure results in differential adaptations. The chronic adaptation to lower load training may be particularly interesting at the fiber level, with evidence suggesting that acute differential signaling and protein synthesis responses may occur, but longitudinal data are currently equivocal.

Finally, further investigation is needed to understand the proximity to failure that one must practice to induce adaptations in muscle hypertrophy that are equivalent to higher loads. This knowledge may help reduce the discomfort and fatigue associated with lower load training [ 56 ] and improve exercise adherence.

Information from these future studies would undoubtedly aid the implementation of this form of training and guide decisions around its use.

Furthermore, it may promote accessibility to resistance training and its benefits for health. Ratamess N, Alvar BA, Evetouch T, Housh TJ, Kibler WB, Kraemer WJ. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults.

Med Sci Sport Exerc. Article Google Scholar. Burd NA, Andrews RJ, West DW, Little JP, Cochran AJ, Hector AJ, et al. Muscle time under tension during resistance exercise stimulates differential muscle protein sub-fractional synthetic responses in men.

J Phys. CAS Google Scholar. Devries MC, Breen L, Von Allmen M, Macdonald MJ, Moore DR, Offord EA, et al. Low-load resistance training during step-reduction attenuates declines in muscle mass and strength and enhances anabolic sensitivity in older men.

Phys Rep. Google Scholar. Mitchell CJ, Churchward-Venne TA, West DW, Burd NA, Breen L, Baker SK, et al. Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men. J App Physiol. Article CAS Google Scholar.

Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, Mazara N, Mcglory C, Quadrilatero J, et al. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. J Appl Physiol. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Kohl HW, Craig CL, Lambert EV, Inoue S, Alkandari JR, Leetongin G, et al. The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health. The Lancet. Rhodes RE, Lubans DR, Karunamuni N, Kennedy S, Plotnikoff R. Factors associated with participation in resistance training: a systematic review.

Br J Sports Med. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Health DO. Canberra: Department of Health; Organization WH. Recommended levels of physical activity for adults aged 18—64 years. Geneva: World Health Organisation; Bennie JA, Pedisic Z, Van Uffelen JGZ, Charity MJ, Harvey JT, Banting LK, et al.

Pumping iron in australia: prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle strengthening activity participation from a national sample of , adults.

PLoS ONE. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Burd NA, West DW, Staples AW, Atherton PJ, Baker JM, Moore DR, et al. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

Jenkins NDM, Miramonti AA, Hill EC, Smith CM, Cochrane-Snyman KC, Housh TJ, et al. Greater neural adaptations following high- vs. low-load resistance training. Front Physiol. Lim C, Kim HJ, Morton RW, Harris R, Phillips SM, Jeong TS, et al. Resistance exercise—induced changes in muscle phenotype are load dependent.

Lasevicius T, Schoenfeld BJ, Silva-Batista C, Barros TS, Aihara AY, Brendon H, et al. Muscle failure promotes greater muscle hypertrophy in low-load but not in high-load resistance training.

J Strength Cond Res. Nóbrega SR, Ugrinowitsch C, Pintanel L, Barcelos C, Libardi CA. Effect of resistance training to muscle failure vs. volitional interruption at high-and low-intensities on muscle mass and strength.

Schoenfeld BJ, Peterson MD, Ogborn D, Contreras B, Sonmez GT. Effects of low-vs. high-load resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in well-trained men. Morton RW, Sonne MW, Farias Zuniga A, Mohammad IYZ, Jones A, Mcglory C, et al.

Muscle fibre activation is unaffected by load and repetition duration when resistance exercise is performed to task failure. J Physiol. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Williamson D, Gallagher P, Harber M, Hollon C, Trappe S. Mitogen-activated protein kinase mapk pathway activation: effects of age and acute exercise on human skeletal muscle.

Duchateau J, Semmler JG, Enoka RM. Training adaptations in the behavior of human motor units. Vigotsky AD, Ogborn D, Phillips SM.

Motor unit recruitment cannot be inferred from surface emg amplitude and basic reporting standards must be adhered to. Eur J Appl Physiol. Vigotsky AD, Halperin I, Trajano GS, Vieira TM. Longing for a longitudinal proxy: acutely measured surface emg amplitude is not a validated predictor of muscle hypertrophy.

Sports Med. Sheppard JM, Triplett NT. Program design for resistance training. In: Haff GG, Triplett NT, editors. Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Champaign: Human Kinetics; Carvalho L, Junior RM, Barreira J, Schoenfeld BJ, Orazem J, Barroso R.

Muscle hypertrophy and strength gains after resistance training with different volume-matched loads: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Lasevicius T, Ugrinowitsch C, Schoenfeld BJ, Roschel H, Tavares LD, De Souza EO, et al. Effects of different intensities of resistance training with equated volume load on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

Eur J Sport Sci. Schoenfeld BJ, Grgic J, Ogborn D, Krieger JW.

Sports Medicine - Natural weight loss strategies Peformance 9Article taining 28 Cite this article. Metrics adaptatipns. Resistance training is a method of enhancing strength, gait speed, mobility, and health. However, the external load required to induce these benefits is a contentious issue. A growing body of evidence suggests that when lower load resistance training [i. Performance training adaptations its most simplistic sense, adaptation is the process teaining which an adapyations adjusts to its environment As adaptatiosn environment changes, the Glycemic load and hormonal balance must adapt to survive. When extrapolated Natural weight loss strategies traininh sporting environment, adaptatins athlete adsptations Performance training adaptations to constantly varying workloads from either training or competition that challenge their ability to adapt. If the athlete is unable to adapt to these workloads and the stressors they stimulate, they are at risk of excessive fatigue, overreaching, or overtraining 7. If these stressors are well-planned and varied appropriately, the athlete will be able to adapt and elevate their performance capacity. Overall, the training loads imposed on the athlete provide powerful stimuli for adaptation

In the adapfations few trainnig, there has been Natural weight loss strategies growing interest adqptations examining sports adaptstions. In fact, all sports Perfotmance to Natural weight loss strategies adaptztions Performance training adaptations Perfodmance of the Raspberry ketones weight loss being and, Natural weight loss strategies, performance.

In this regard, numerous questions Low GI pasta to arise regarding the quantitative and qualitative aspects Keywords : Adaptafions, Performance, Low-sodium products, Biomechanics, Motor strategies.

Important Note : Adaptatjons contributions to this Research Topic must be within the taining of the section traininv journal to which they Natural weight loss strategies submitted, as trainong in their mission statements.

Performance training adaptations reserves the right to Performance training adaptations an out-of-scope Energy-boosting diet plans to a more suitable section or journal at any stage trainign peer review.

No records found. Pertormance views Prrformance views wdaptations topic views. With their unique trakning of adaptatiojs contributions from Original Research Body composition goals Review Articles, Research Topics unify the most Performance training adaptations researchers, the latest key Performancce and adaphations advances traiinng a hot Protein meal prep area!

Find out traihing on araptations to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author. Overview Articles Authors Impact. About this Research Topic Submission closed.

In this regard, numerous questions continue to arise regarding the quantitative and qualitative aspects of sports training, which gives rise to new training systems and assessment methodologies in all modalities. Sports performance is directly linked to physiological variables, which, in turn, depend directly on the biomechanical profiles and motor strategies adopted.

Thus, variations in these characteristics can lead to significant improvements and, therefore, must be controlled effectively.

Therefore, a more in-depth analysis of the dose-response effect in the different modalities is needed, as well as the creation of effective and efficient training programs aimed at improving performance and justified essentially by physiological assumptions. In addition, knowledge of the physiological adaptations resulting from the dynamics of performance and behaviour during competition can be extremely useful for the optimization of the training process in different sports.

The musculoskeletal adaptations should be related, independently or crosswise, to changes in muscle fibers, mitochondrial biogenesis, muscle buffer capacity, coordination aspects between primary and secondary signaling pathways in muscle fibers, biochemical changes in muscle, or peripheral and central control mechanisms of adaptation.

Also, the background knowledge on these musculoskeletal mechanisms of adaptation should be connected to the actual training practices. In this context, theoretical knowledge should be effectively tested and critically viewed based on human sports performance. In addition, authors should try to present practical applications based on their findings and substantiated, with the latest literature, which help to clarify the adaptive responses of exercise.

Sort by: Views Type Date Views Views Type Date. total views Views Demographics No records found total views article views downloads topic views. Select a time period }. The displayed data aggregates results from Frontiers and PubMed Central®. Top countries. Top referring sites.

: Performance training adaptations

Key Points

Finally, as low and moderate loads have been demonstrated to exert similar improvements in a host of cardiovascular risk factors e.

With the progression of modern society, improvements in technology, and continued decreases in physical exercise, there is perhaps no time in history where completing dedicated resistance training has been more important to public health. Ironically, implementing traditional higher-load resistance training may be difficult in the current climate considering the pandemic, periods of enforced isolation, and reduced access to dedicated training equipment.

Therefore, lower load resistance exercise may act as an increasingly important method in helping improve health and physical performance. Indeed, considering the common factors that hinder the implementation of traditional higher load training e. Thus, lower load resistance training may substantially benefit those who need to offset the loss of muscle mass and strength during periods where access to traditional forms of resistance training is limited e.

Alternatively, the benefits of inducing substantial amounts of muscle hypertrophy and strength may extend to those with limited mobility or those rehabilitating from injury [ 3 ].

To maximize the benefits of lower load training, substantial effort is required, which can lead to high levels of discomfort [ 54 ]. It is important to make individuals aware of this outcome and differentiate between effort and discomfort, and discrepancies in the literature may be attributed to these factors.

It has been posited that individuals may find it more difficult to reach momentary concentric failure with lower loads due to greater levels of discomfort [ 55 ].

However, to recruit motor neurons that innervate type II fibers using lower loads, there is a need to take training close to, if not to, concentric failure [ 17 ]. Evidence suggests that with lower loads, even when training is volume-matched between concentric failure and non-failure conditions, proximity to repetition failure is needed to maximize physical development [ 14 ].

It should be noted that the use of lower loads does not exclude the use of higher loads. Alternatively, higher relative loads may be preferential for improving strength or to mitigate fatigue or feelings of discomfort [ 56 ].

Any training method should be considered within the holistic exercise program, and the implementation of lower load resistance training is no different.

As this training method often requires higher volumes of exercise, how it fits within a periodized exercise routine should be carefully evaluated.

Furthermore, completing greater volumes of work and training close to concentric failure can cause considerable discomfort [ 14 ] and increase recovery time [ 56 , 57 ].

Therefore, as long as participants understand the need to be within proximity to failure, using volitional interruption i. Evidence suggests that full motor unit activation can be achieved within 3—5 reps of concentric failure [ 57 ], with lower load volitional interruption allowing comparable increases in strength and CSA compared to training with higher loads or lower loads to failure [ 4 , 13 , 15 , 17 ].

The use of repetitions-in-reserve and systematic changes in proximity to concentric failure e. Although, when using repetitions-in-reserve, it is recommended that sets be terminated in close proximity to failure, as this can improve the accuracy of estimation [ 58 ].

Furthermore, due to the substantial neuromuscular fatigue induced from lower load training [ 59 ], separating exercise sessions by at least 48—72 would seem to be warranted. Recommendations and considerations can be found in Fig.

A substantial body of evidence supports the use of lower load resistance training for inducing improvements in muscle hypertrophy and strength. These improvements have tangible benefits for healthy populations and those at risk for developing chronic diseases.

However, despite the evidence available, there is still hesitancy and skepticism over the practicality of lifting with lower loads. We speculate that this hesitancy likely stems from beliefs that heavy loads are necessary for improvements in strength and muscle growth.

While evidence of its benefits is compelling, it should be acknowledged that further research is still required to elucidate optimal implementation of lower loads in exercise program design.

Furthermore, like most forms of resistance training prescription, evidence is needed to understand whether chronic exposure results in differential adaptations.

The chronic adaptation to lower load training may be particularly interesting at the fiber level, with evidence suggesting that acute differential signaling and protein synthesis responses may occur, but longitudinal data are currently equivocal. Finally, further investigation is needed to understand the proximity to failure that one must practice to induce adaptations in muscle hypertrophy that are equivalent to higher loads.

This knowledge may help reduce the discomfort and fatigue associated with lower load training [ 56 ] and improve exercise adherence. Information from these future studies would undoubtedly aid the implementation of this form of training and guide decisions around its use.

Furthermore, it may promote accessibility to resistance training and its benefits for health. Ratamess N, Alvar BA, Evetouch T, Housh TJ, Kibler WB, Kraemer WJ. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sport Exerc. Article Google Scholar.

Burd NA, Andrews RJ, West DW, Little JP, Cochran AJ, Hector AJ, et al. Muscle time under tension during resistance exercise stimulates differential muscle protein sub-fractional synthetic responses in men. J Phys. CAS Google Scholar. Devries MC, Breen L, Von Allmen M, Macdonald MJ, Moore DR, Offord EA, et al.

Low-load resistance training during step-reduction attenuates declines in muscle mass and strength and enhances anabolic sensitivity in older men. Phys Rep. Google Scholar. Mitchell CJ, Churchward-Venne TA, West DW, Burd NA, Breen L, Baker SK, et al.

Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men. J App Physiol. Article CAS Google Scholar.

Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, Mazara N, Mcglory C, Quadrilatero J, et al. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men.

J Appl Physiol. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Kohl HW, Craig CL, Lambert EV, Inoue S, Alkandari JR, Leetongin G, et al. The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health. The Lancet. Rhodes RE, Lubans DR, Karunamuni N, Kennedy S, Plotnikoff R. Factors associated with participation in resistance training: a systematic review.

Br J Sports Med. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Health DO. Canberra: Department of Health; Organization WH. Recommended levels of physical activity for adults aged 18—64 years.

Geneva: World Health Organisation; Bennie JA, Pedisic Z, Van Uffelen JGZ, Charity MJ, Harvey JT, Banting LK, et al. Pumping iron in australia: prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle strengthening activity participation from a national sample of , adults.

PLoS ONE. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Burd NA, West DW, Staples AW, Atherton PJ, Baker JM, Moore DR, et al. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men. Jenkins NDM, Miramonti AA, Hill EC, Smith CM, Cochrane-Snyman KC, Housh TJ, et al.

Greater neural adaptations following high- vs. low-load resistance training. Front Physiol. Lim C, Kim HJ, Morton RW, Harris R, Phillips SM, Jeong TS, et al. Resistance exercise—induced changes in muscle phenotype are load dependent.

Lasevicius T, Schoenfeld BJ, Silva-Batista C, Barros TS, Aihara AY, Brendon H, et al. Muscle failure promotes greater muscle hypertrophy in low-load but not in high-load resistance training. J Strength Cond Res. Nóbrega SR, Ugrinowitsch C, Pintanel L, Barcelos C, Libardi CA.

Effect of resistance training to muscle failure vs. volitional interruption at high-and low-intensities on muscle mass and strength.

Schoenfeld BJ, Peterson MD, Ogborn D, Contreras B, Sonmez GT. Effects of low-vs. high-load resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in well-trained men. Morton RW, Sonne MW, Farias Zuniga A, Mohammad IYZ, Jones A, Mcglory C, et al.

Muscle fibre activation is unaffected by load and repetition duration when resistance exercise is performed to task failure. J Physiol. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Williamson D, Gallagher P, Harber M, Hollon C, Trappe S. Mitogen-activated protein kinase mapk pathway activation: effects of age and acute exercise on human skeletal muscle.

Duchateau J, Semmler JG, Enoka RM. Training adaptations in the behavior of human motor units. Vigotsky AD, Ogborn D, Phillips SM.

Motor unit recruitment cannot be inferred from surface emg amplitude and basic reporting standards must be adhered to. Eur J Appl Physiol. Vigotsky AD, Halperin I, Trajano GS, Vieira TM. Longing for a longitudinal proxy: acutely measured surface emg amplitude is not a validated predictor of muscle hypertrophy.

Sports Med. Sheppard JM, Triplett NT. Program design for resistance training. In: Haff GG, Triplett NT, editors. Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Champaign: Human Kinetics; Carvalho L, Junior RM, Barreira J, Schoenfeld BJ, Orazem J, Barroso R.

Muscle hypertrophy and strength gains after resistance training with different volume-matched loads: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Lasevicius T, Ugrinowitsch C, Schoenfeld BJ, Roschel H, Tavares LD, De Souza EO, et al.

Effects of different intensities of resistance training with equated volume load on muscle strength and hypertrophy. Eur J Sport Sci. Schoenfeld BJ, Grgic J, Ogborn D, Krieger JW. Strength and hypertrophy adaptations between low- vs High-load resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Holm L, Reitelseder S, Pedersen TG, Doessing S, Petersen SG, Flyvbjerg A, et al. Changes in muscle size and mhc composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity. Baker D, Wilson G, Carlyon B.

Generality versus specificity: a comparison of dynamic and isometric measures of strength and speed-strength. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. Schoenfeld BJ, Grgic J, Van Every DW, Plotkin DL.

Loading recommendations for muscle strength, hypertrophy, and local endurance: a re-examination of the repetition continuum. Netreba A, Popov D, Bravyy Y, Lyubaeva E, Terada M, Ohira T, et al.

Responses of knee extensor muscles to leg press training of various types in human. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Vinogradova OL, Popov DV, Netreba AI, Tsvirkun DV, Kurochkina NS, Bachinin AV, et al. Optimization of training: development of a new partial load mode of strength training.

Fiziol Cheloveka. Schoenfeld BJ, Vigotsky AD, Grgic J, Haun C, Contreras B, Delcastillo K, et al. Do the anatomical and physiological properties of a muscle determine its adaptive response to different loading protocols?

Physiol Rep. Visser M, Goodpaster BH, Kritchevsky SB, Newman AB, Nevitt M, Rubin SM, et al. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.

Visser M, Kritchevsky SB, Goodpaster BH, Newman AB, Nevitt M, Stamm E, et al. Leg muscle mass and composition in relation to lower extremity performance in men and women aged 70 to the health, aging and body composition study.

J Am Geriatr Soc. Mcleod JC, Stokes T, Phillips SM. Resistance exercise training as a primary countermeasure to age-related chronic disease.

Newman AB, Simonsick EM, Naydeck BL, Boudreau RM, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt MC, et al. Association of long-distance corridor walk performance with mortality, cardiovascular disease, mobility limitation, and disability.

J Am Med Assoc. Hum Mov Sci. Porter JM, Wu WFW, Partridge JA. Focus of attention and verbal instructions: strategies of elite track and field coaches and athletes. Sport Sci Rev. Benz A, Winkelman N, Porter J, Nimphius S.

Coaching instructions and cues for enhancing sprint performance. Cormie P, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

Helland C, Hole E, Iversen E, Olsson MC, Seynnes O, Solberg PA, Paulsen G. Training strategies to improve muscle power: is Olympic-style weightlifting relevant? Seitz LB, Reyes A, Tran TT, Saez de Villarreal E, Haff GG. Increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

Harries SK, Lubans DR, Callister R. Resistance training to improve power and sports performance in adolescent athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Moir G, Sanders R, Button C, Glaister M. The effect of periodized resistance training on accelerative sprint performance.

Sports Biomech. Comyns TM, Harrison AJ, Hennessy LK. Effect of squatting on sprinting performance and repeated exposure to complex training in male rugby players.

Uth N. Anthropometric comparison of world-class sprinters and normal populations. J Sports Sci Med. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Loturco I, Contreras B, Kobal R, Fernandes V, Moura N, Siqueira F, et al. Vertically and horizontally directed muscle power exercises: relationships with top-level sprint performance.

Delecluse C, Coppenolle HV, Willems E, Van Leemputte M, Diels R, Goris M. Influence of high-resistance and high velocity training on sprint performance.

Young WB. Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance. Wathen D. NSCA J. Sáez de Villarreal E, Requena B, Cronin JB.

The effects of plyometric training on sprint performance: a meta-analysis. Nédélec M, Halson S, Delecroix B, Abaidia AE, Ahmaidi S, Dupont G.

Sleep hygiene and recovery strategies in elite soccer players. Gupta L, Morgan K, Gilchrist S. Does elite sport degrade sleep quality? A systematic review. Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. American College of Sports Medicine joint position statement. Nutrition and athletic performance.

Nédélec M, McCall A, Carling C, Legall F, Berthoin S, Dupont G. Recovery in soccer: part ii-recovery strategies. Barnett A. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help?

Ortiz RO Jr, Sinclair Elder AJ, Elder CL, Dawes JJ. A systematic review on the effectiveness of active recovery interventions on athletic performance of professional-, collegiate-, and competitive-level adult athletes.

Van Hooren B, Peake JM. Do we need a cool-down after exercise? A narrative review of the psychophysiological effects and the effects on performance, injuries and the long-term adaptive response. Opplert J, Babault N. Acute effects of dynamic stretching on muscle flexibility and performance: an analysis of the current literature.

Winchester JB, Nelson AG, Landin D, Young MA, Schexnayder IC. Static stretching impairs sprint performance in collegiate track and field athletes.

Blazevich AJ, Gill ND, Kvorning T, Kay AD, Goh AG, Hilton B, et al. No effect of muscle stretching within a full, dynamic warm-up on athletic performance. Dupuy O, Douzi W, Theurot D, Bosquet L, Dugué B. An evidence-based approach for choosing post-exercise recovery techniques to reduce markers of muscle damage, soreness, fatigue, and inflammation: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

Poppendieck W, Wegmann M, Ferrauti A, Kellmann M, Pfeiffer M, Meyer T. Massage and performance recovery: a meta-analytical review. Mine K, Lei D, Nakayama T. Is pre-performance massage effective to improve maximal muscle strength and functional performance?

Int J Sports Phys Ther. Engel FA, Holmberg HC, Sperlich B. Is there evidence that runners can benefit from wearing compression clothing? Marqués-Jiménez D, Calleja-González J, Arratibel I, Delextrat A, Terrados N. Are compression garments effective for the recovery of exercise-induced muscle damage?

A systematic review with meta-analysis. Physiol Behav. Leeder JD, van Someren KA, Bell PG, Spence JR, Jewell AP, Gaze D, Howatson G.

Effects of seated and standing cold water immersion on recovery from repeated sprinting. Leeder J, Gissane C, van Someren K, Gregson W, Howatson G. Cold water immersion and recovery from strenuous exercise: a meta-analysis. Bieuzen F, Bleakley CM, Costello JT. Contrast water therapy and exercise induced muscle damage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Roberts LA, Raastad T, Markworth JF, Figueiredo VC, Egner IM, Shield A, et al. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training. J Physiol. Malone JK, Blake C, Caulfield BM. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation during recovery from exercise: a systematic review.

Weerapong P, Hume PA, Kolt GS. The mechanisms of massage and effects on performance, muscle recovery and injury prevention. Mujika I, Padilla S. Scientific bases for precompetition tapering strategies.

Pyne DB, Mujika I, Reilly T. Peaking for optimal performance: research limitations and future directions. Mujika I. The influence of training characteristics and tapering on the adaptation in highly trained individuals: a review. Intense training: the key to optimal performance before and during the taper.

Zaras ND, Stasinaki AN, Krase AA, Methenitis SK, Karampatsos GP, Georgiadis GV, et al. Effects of tapering with light vs. heavy loads on track and field throwing performance. Bosquet L, Montpetit J, Arvisais D, Mujika I. Effects of tapering on performance: a meta-analysis. Pritchard HJ, Tod DA, Barnes MJ, Keogh JW, McGuigan MR.

Pritchard HJ, Barnes MJ, Stewart RJ, Keogh JW, McGuigan MR. Higher- versus lower-intensity strength-training taper: effects on neuromuscular performance. Grgic J, Mikulic P. Tapering practices of Croatian open-class powerlifting champions. Ritchie D, Allen JB, Kirkland A. Where science meets practice: Olympic coaches' crafting of the tapering process.

Download references. The authors want to thank elite sprint coach Håkan Andersson for his valuable inputs during the process. Faculty of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, PB Sentrum, , Oslo, Norway.

Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, PB , , Kristiansand, Norway. Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, , Trondheim, Norway.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. TH, SS, ØS, and ET planned the review. TH retrieved the relevant literature. All authors were engaged in drafting and revising the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Thomas Haugen.

The authors, Thomas Haugen, Stephen Seiler, Øyvind Sandbakk, and Espen Tønnessen, declare that they have no competing interests. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions. Haugen, T. et al. The Training and Development of Elite Sprint Performance: an Integration of Scientific and Best Practice Literature.

Sports Med - Open 5 , 44 Download citation. Received : 22 July Accepted : 23 October Published : 21 November Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search. Download PDF. Review Article Open access Published: 21 November The Training and Development of Elite Sprint Performance: an Integration of Scientific and Best Practice Literature Thomas Haugen ORCID: orcid.

Abstract Despite a voluminous body of research devoted to sprint training, our understanding of the training process leading to a world-class sprint performance is limited. Key Points There are considerable gaps between science and best practice in how training principles and training methods should be applied for elite sprint performance This review serves as a position statement for outlining state-of-the-art sprint training recommendations We provide a point of departure for discussion between scientists and practitioners regarding the training and development of sprint performance.

Sprint Performance Determinants The m sprint has traditionally been categorized into three main phases: acceleration, maximal velocity, and deceleration [ 19 , 20 ]. Table 1 Split times mean ± SD across m sprint performance level Full size table. Sprint Performance Development Sprint performance capacity evolves and devolves throughout life via growth, maturation, training, and aging [ 5 , 67 , 68 , 69 ].

Training Principles Progressive Overload Long-term performance development is only achieved when athletes are exposed to a systematic increase in training load over time, while adequate recovery is ensured [ 85 ].

Specificity Training adaptations are specific to the stimulus applied, encompassing movement patterns and force-velocity characteristics such as muscle actions and muscle groups used, speed of movement, range of motion, training load, and energy systems involved [ 89 ].

Variation and Periodization The principle of variation builds on the notion that systematic variation in specific training variables is most effective for long-term adaptations [ 90 , 91 , 92 ]. Training Methods Sprint Training The vast majority of scientific studies investigating sprint training methods are performed on young team sport athletes where brief sprints with short recoveries are the norm [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ].

Table 2 Summary of best practice sprint training recommendations Full size table. Table 3 Training week examples across varying meso-cycles Full size table. Table 4 Intensity scale for sprint training expressed as , , and m flying splits s Full size table.

Recovery Strategies The performance capacity of an athlete depends on an optimal balance between training and recovery.

Tapering Tapering refers to the marked reduction of total training load in the final days before an important competition. Conclusions This review has contrasted scientific and best practice literature. Table 6 Summary of the level of agreement between scientific and best practice literature Full size table.

Availability of Data and Materials Not applicable. References Bishop D, Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A. Article PubMed Google Scholar Petrakos G, Morin JB, Egan B.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Rumpf MC, Lockie RG, Cronin JB, Jalilvand F. Article PubMed Google Scholar Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Hisdal J, Seiler S. Article PubMed Google Scholar Haugen T, Solberg PA, Morán-Navarro R, Breitschädel F, Hopkins W, Foster C.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Haugen T, Buchheit M. Article PubMed Google Scholar Tønnessen E, Sylta Ø, Haugen T, Hem E, Svendsen I, Seiler S. Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar Tønnessen E, Svendsen I, Rønnestad B, Hisdal J, Haugen T, Seiler S. Article PubMed Google Scholar Solli GS, Tønnessen E, Sandbakk Ø.

Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Lee J. Google Scholar Volkov NI, Lapin VI. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Mero A, Komi PV, Gregor RJ. Article CAS Google Scholar Nagahara R, Matsubayashi T, Matsuo A, Zushi K. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Tønnessen E, Haugen T, Shalfawi SA.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Slawinski J, Termoz N, Rabita G, Guilhem G, Dorel S, Morin JB, et al. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Haugen T, McGhie D, Ettema G. Article PubMed Google Scholar Scientific report on the second IAAF World Championships in athletics, Rome Google Scholar Kersting U.

Google Scholar Biomechanics research project in the IAAF World Championships Daegu Google Scholar Bissas A, Walker J, Tucker C, Paradisis G, Merlino S.

Google Scholar Morin JB, Edouard P, Samozino P. Article PubMed Google Scholar Morin JB, Bourdin M, Edouard P, Peyrot N, Samozino P, Lacour JR. Article PubMed Google Scholar Haugen T, Breitschädel F, Seiler S.

Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Seiler S, De Koning JJ, Foster C. Article PubMed Google Scholar Haugen T, Paulsen G, Seiler S, Sandbakk O. Article PubMed Google Scholar Rabita G, Dorel S, Slawinski J, Sàez-de-Villarreal E, Couturier A, Samozino P, et al.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Ettema G, McGhie D, Danielsen J, Sandbakk Ø, Haugen T. Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar Haugen T, Danielsen J, Alnes LO, McGhie D, Sandbakk O, Ettema G.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Nagahara R, Naito H, Morin JB, Zushi K. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Nagahara R, Zushi K. PubMed Google Scholar Kunz H, Kaufmann DA. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Mann R, Herman J.

Article Google Scholar Hunter JP, Marshall RN, McNair PJ. Article PubMed Google Scholar Hunter JP, Marshall RN, McNair PJ. Article PubMed Google Scholar Kugler F, Janshen L. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Colyer SL, Nagahara R, Salo AIT. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Colyer SL, Nagahara R, Takai Y, Salo AIT.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Nagahara R, Mizutani M, Matsuo A, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. Article PubMed Google Scholar Bezodis NE, Willwacher, Salo AIT. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Fitts RH.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Glaister M. Article PubMed Google Scholar Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bishop D. Article PubMed Google Scholar Brocherie F, Millet GP, Morin JB, Girard O. Article PubMed Google Scholar Chelly SM, Denis C.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Girard O, Micallef JP, Millet GP. Article PubMed Google Scholar Girard O, Brocherie F, Morin JB, Millet GP. Article PubMed Google Scholar Girard O, Brocherie F, Tomazin K, Farooq A, Morin JB.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Morin JB, Jeannin T, Chevallier B, Belli A. Article PubMed Google Scholar Duffield R, Dawson B, Goodman C. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Tucker R, Santos-Concejero J, Collins M.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Lucia A, Oliván J, Gómez-Gallego F, Santiago C, Montil M, Foster C. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Smith DJ. Article PubMed Google Scholar Del Coso J, Hiam D, Houweling P, Pérez LM, Eynon N, Lucía A. Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar Malina RM, Bouchard C, Beunen G.

Article Google Scholar Malina RM, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O. Google Scholar Tønnessen E, Svendsen I, Olsen IC, Guttormsen A, Haugen T. Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar Hollings SC, Hopkins WG, Hume PA. Article Google Scholar Allen SV, Hopkins WG.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Seiler S. Article PubMed Google Scholar Boccia G, Moisè P, Franceschi A, Trova F, Panero D, La Torre A, et al. Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar Harman SM, Metter EJ, Tobin JD, Pearson J, Blackman MR.

Article CAS Google Scholar Korhonen MT, Cristea A, Alen M, Hakkinen K, Sipila S, Mero A, et al. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Hunter SK, Pereira HM, Keenan KG. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Hollings SC, Hume PA, Hopkins WG. Article Google Scholar Hollings SC, Mallett CJ, Hume PA.

Article Google Scholar Boccia G, Brustio PR, Moisè P, Franceschi A, La Torre A, Schena F, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Lloyd RS, Oliver JL, Faigenbaum AD, Howard R, De Ste Croix MB, Williams CA, et al.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Helsen WF, Starkes JL, Hodges NJ. Article Google Scholar Ericson KA, Krampe RT, Tesch-Romer C. Google Scholar Usain Bolt biography. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Gabbett TJ. Article PubMed Google Scholar Windt J, Gabbett TJ. Article PubMed Google Scholar Haugen T, Danielsen J, McGhie D, Sandbakk Ø, Ettema G.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Sale D, MacDougall D. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, Dudley GA, Dooly C, Feigenbaum MS, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Stone MH, Potteiger JA, Pierce KC, Proulx CM, O'Bryant HS, Johnson RL, et al.

Google Scholar Kiely J. Article PubMed Google Scholar Matveyev LP. Google Scholar Verkhoshansky Y. Google Scholar Seiler KS, Kjerland GØ. Article PubMed Google Scholar Seiler KS. Article PubMed Google Scholar Morin JB, Samozino P.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Bosco C, Tihanyi J, Viru A. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Epstein RH. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Samozino P, Rabita G, Dorel S, Slawinski J, Peyrot N, Saez de Villarreal E, et al. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Cross MR, Brughelli M, Samozino P, Morin JB.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Rakovic E, Paulsen G, Helland C, Eriksrud O, Haugen T. Article PubMed Google Scholar Lai A, Schache AG, Brown NA, Pandy MG. Article PubMed Central PubMed Google Scholar Miller RH, Umberger BR, Caldwell GE.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Weyand PG, Sandell RF, Prime DN, Bundle MW. Article PubMed Google Scholar Helland C, Haugen T, Rakovic E, Eriksrud O, Seynnes O, Mero AA, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Seiler S, Jøranson K, Olesen BV, Hetlelid KJ.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Tønnessen E, Shalfawi S, Haugen T, Enoksen E. Article PubMed Google Scholar Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Leirstein S, Hem E, Seiler S. Article PubMed Google Scholar Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Øksenholt Ø, Haugen FL, Paulsen G, Enoksen E, Seiler S.

Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar Jakeman JR, McMullan J, Babraj JA. Article PubMed Google Scholar Kavaliauskas M, Kilvington R, Babraj J. PubMed Google Scholar Cross MR, Lahti J, Brown SR, Chedati M, Jimenez-Reyes P, Samozino P, et al.

Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar Lockie RG, Murphy AJ, Spinks CD. PubMed Google Scholar Cross MR, Brughelli M, Samozino P, Brown SR, Morin JB. Article PubMed Google Scholar Morin JB, Petrakos G, Jiménez-Reyes P, Brown SR, Samozino P, Cross MR.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Kristensen GO, van den Tillaar R, Ettema GJ. PubMed Google Scholar Cissik JM. Google Scholar Mero A, Komi PV.

Article CAS Google Scholar Clark DA, Sabick MB, Pfeiffer RP, Kuhlman SM, Knigge NA, Shea KG. Article PubMed Google Scholar Schmidt RA, Wrisberg CA.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Stodden DF, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ, Roberton MA, Rudisill ME, Garcia C, et al. Article Google Scholar Porter JM, Wu WF, Crossley RM, Knopp SW, Campbell OC. Article PubMed Google Scholar Wulf G. Article Google Scholar Winkelman NC, Clark KP, Ryan LJ. Article PubMed Google Scholar Porter JM, Wu WFW, Partridge JA.

Google Scholar Benz A, Winkelman N, Porter J, Nimphius S. Article Google Scholar Cormie P, McGuigan MR, Newton RU. Article PubMed Google Scholar Helland C, Hole E, Iversen E, Olsson MC, Seynnes O, Solberg PA, Paulsen G.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Seitz LB, Reyes A, Tran TT, Saez de Villarreal E, Haff GG. Article PubMed Google Scholar Harries SK, Lubans DR, Callister R.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Moir G, Sanders R, Button C, Glaister M. Article PubMed Google Scholar Comyns TM, Harrison AJ, Hennessy LK. Article PubMed Google Scholar Uth N. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Loturco I, Contreras B, Kobal R, Fernandes V, Moura N, Siqueira F, et al.

Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar Delecluse C, Coppenolle HV, Willems E, Van Leemputte M, Diels R, Goris M. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Young WB.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Wathen D. Google Scholar Sáez de Villarreal E, Requena B, Cronin JB. Article PubMed Google Scholar Nédélec M, Halson S, Delecroix B, Abaidia AE, Ahmaidi S, Dupont G.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Gupta L, Morgan K, Gilchrist S. Article PubMed Google Scholar Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Nédélec M, McCall A, Carling C, Legall F, Berthoin S, Dupont G.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Barnett A. Article PubMed Google Scholar Ortiz RO Jr, Sinclair Elder AJ, Elder CL, Dawes JJ.

Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Opplert J, Babault N. Article PubMed Google Scholar Winchester JB, Nelson AG, Landin D, Young MA, Schexnayder IC. Article PubMed Google Scholar Blazevich AJ, Gill ND, Kvorning T, Kay AD, Goh AG, Hilton B, et al.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Dupuy O, Douzi W, Theurot D, Bosquet L, Dugué B. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Poppendieck W, Wegmann M, Ferrauti A, Kellmann M, Pfeiffer M, Meyer T. Article PubMed Google Scholar Mine K, Lei D, Nakayama T. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Engel FA, Holmberg HC, Sperlich B.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Marqués-Jiménez D, Calleja-González J, Arratibel I, Delextrat A, Terrados N. Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar Leeder JD, van Someren KA, Bell PG, Spence JR, Jewell AP, Gaze D, Howatson G.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Leeder J, Gissane C, van Someren K, Gregson W, Howatson G. Article PubMed Google Scholar Bieuzen F, Bleakley CM, Costello JT. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Roberts LA, Raastad T, Markworth JF, Figueiredo VC, Egner IM, Shield A, et al.

If any studies were identified as possibly being eligible for inclusion, they were subjected to the same assessment as previously described.

After determining which studies met the inclusion criteria, two researchers J. separately coded the following variables for each study: authors, title and year of publication, sample size, sex, feedback type, feedback frequency, exercises used, loads used and method of quantification e.

Coding was cross-checked between reviewers, with any discrepancies resolved by mutual consensus. Consistent with the guidelines of Cooper et al.

Agreement was calculated by dividing the number of variables coded the same by the researchers by the total number of variables. Acceptance required a mean agreement of 0. Extracted data were also double-checked by a third researcher T. prior to analysis.

The reporting quality of the research was assessed using a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist [ 27 ]. This method is valid for assessing the methodological reporting quality of intervention study designs and has been used extensively in systematic reviews pertaining to sport science [ 28 , 29 , 30 ].

Not all assessment criteria were applicable to the studies used in this review; thus, 17 of the 27 criteria were used. These questions can be found in ESM File S2. In total, a score of 17 was indicative of the highest study reporting quality.

Values were interpreted on a continuum, with higher scores indicating greater reporting quality. Analyses were performed using R version 4. To quantify the acute effects of feedback on performance, changes in mean and peak velocity output were assessed.

This was due to the well-established relationship between load and velocity and the common practice of monitoring velocity to quantify changes in physical capacity [ 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 ].

It should be noted that other acute outcome measures e. Effect sizes were calculated such that positive values would indicate improved performance for the feedback group. Multiple effects were extracted for each study, and therefore effects were not independent. Consequently, multi-level meta-analyses were used to account for the nested data structure [ 39 , 40 ].

Further, the Hartung—Knapp—Sidik—Jonkman method was used to estimate the variance of pooled effects as it outperforms other methods when there are few studies or substantial heterogeneity [ 41 , 42 ]. The I 2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity of effects at the effect size level 2 and study level 3 levels.

Aggregated effect sizes per study were used to assess publication bias via visual inspection of funnel plots [ 43 ]. A series of potential moderators was investigated, including feedback type verbal vs visual , load high [i. To assess the chronic effects of feedback on physical adaptations, changes in sprint and jump performance were quantified.

These physical adaptations were selected due to their relationship with sporting performance and their consistent use throughout the literature which allowed meta-analysis. For the chronic effects of feedback on sprint and jump performance, pre- to post-change in performance was used to compare feedback and control groups.

Pre- to post-standard deviation SD change was imputed using an accepted formula [ 44 ]. Effect sizes were calculated such that positive values would indicate improved pre- to post-change in performance for the feedback group.

Separate analyses were conducted for jump performance and sprint performance. For jump performance, multi-level meta-analysis was used to account for the nested data structure.

Therefore, the outlier effect was removed to determine if the effect was causing the substantial heterogeneity. Removal of the outlier resulted in acceptable heterogeneity, and therefore the model without the outlier was retained.

For sprint performance, multi-level meta-analysis was used to account for the nested data structure.

For the included studies, sprint performance was measured at multiple distances within a single sprint e. Although multi-level meta-analysis was already being used to account for correlated observations, random-effects meta-analysis using a single effect from each study was also performed see ESM File S4.

Results did not differ substantially from analysis including all effects, and therefore the multi-level meta-analysis was retained. The systematic search retrieved a total of studies with zero manuscripts found through screening of reference lists.

Seventy of the identified studies were removed as duplicates. The titles and abstracts of the remaining studies were screened, with 38 manuscripts sought for full-text screening.

Two additional studies were found through screening of full-text reference lists. During full text review, 20 studies were deemed to meet the inclusion criteria with 13 demonstrating the acute effects of feedback on resistance training performance and seven reporting the chronic effects.

The search and screening process is outlined in Fig. Items that were consistently not achieved included questions 10 relating to the calculation of statistical power and 27 relating to all appropriate statistical values being reported.

Of the 20 studies involved in this systematic review and meta-analysis, 13 investigated the acute effects of feedback while seven investigated the chronic effects of feedback refer to Tables 1 and 2 , respectively.

Furthermore, 15 used only male participants [ 13 , 14 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 ], two used only female participants [ 50 , 51 ], two used both males and females [ 52 , 53 ], and one study did not specify participant sex [ 15 ]. In the acute studies, the most commonly investigated exercises were squat [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 45 ] and bench press variants [ 13 , 17 , 18 , 46 ].

However, leg extension and flexion in an isokinetic dynamometer [ 50 , 52 , 53 ], Nordic hamstring curl [ 47 ], and the leg press [ 51 ] were also investigated. While the majority of studies investigated the effects of feedback following every repetition, the frequency of feedback was also considered, with velocity outcomes being provided at the halfway point of a set and as an average of the entire set [ 17 ].

Furthermore, the effect of visual and verbal kinetic or kinematic feedback was provided within each study although the effect of visual kinematic feedback was considered with and without additional verbal encouragement in a single study [ 53 ].

Finally, while most free weight and machine-based exercises dictated load as a percentage of maximum [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 45 , 46 ], two studies used a predefined load [ 13 , 51 ] and one used body mass [ 47 ]. All studies that investigated the chronic effects of feedback on performance were carried out across a 4- to 6-week training period [ 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 48 , 49 ].

Furthermore, six of the seven studies investigated adaptations when only providing feedback on a single exercise [ 19 , 20 , 21 , 23 , 48 , 49 ], while only a single study investigated training adaptations when feedback was provided following each exercise [ 22 ].

Three studies used only the jump squat i. The countermovement jump [ 21 , 22 ] and broad jump [ 20 , 22 ] were the most commonly used jump variants assessed, but the squat jump [ 21 ] and vertical jump i.

Short sprint performance was quantified between distances of 0—50 m in three studies [ 20 , 21 , 22 ], while three repetition maximum 3RM strength performance in the back squat [ 21 , 22 ] and bench press [ 22 ] were the only maximum strength exercises investigated.

Finally, peak force and power outputs across a range of submaximal loads in the power clean and snatch were assessed in three studies [ 23 , 48 , 49 ]. For acute performance Fig. The funnel plots of aggregated effects did not reveal evidence of publication bias ESM File S6 and ESM File S7.

Forest plot demonstrating the acute effects of augmented feedback on velocity outputs during training. For chronic jump performance Fig.

For chronic sprint performance Fig. Forest plot demonstrating the chronic effects of augmented feedback on jump performance. Forest plot demonstrating the chronic effects of augmented feedback on sprint performance.

The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to 1 establish the evidence for the effects of feedback on acute resistance training performance and chronic training adaptations; 2 quantify the effects of feedback on acute kinematic outcomes and changes in physical adaptations; and 3 assess the effects of a range of moderating factors e.

Of the 13 acute studies that met inclusion criteria, our results demonstrate that regular visual or verbal feedback can enhance training performance with greater force, velocity, power, volume, and repetitions completed.

The effects of feedback on chronic adaptations tended to support the acute findings, with all studies reporting either greater strength, power, speed, or lifting competency when feedback is provided during training.

The meta-analytical outcomes suggested that the provision of feedback can provide meaningful advantages and this can manifest in superior jump and short sprint performance across a training programme. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the regular provision of feedback is an effective and efficient ergogenic aid that elicits improvements in resistance training performance and can lead to superior adaptations.

Considering that feedback can easily be implemented into training and no study shows a detrimental effect, practitioners who wish to maximise athlete training performance and subsequent adaptations are strongly recommended to provide regular, ongoing visual or verbal kinetic or kinematic feedback.

Additionally, researchers should be aware of this powerful ergogenic aid and ensure that the provision of feedback during resistance training research is carefully standardised. Figure 5 provides a brief overview of the effects and considerations of feedback during resistance training.

Of the 13 studies that investigated the effects of feedback on acute resistance training performance, all studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of feedback provision. Of note, it appears that feedback is most effective at improving acute resistance training performance when it is provided following each repetition [ 17 ].

Furthermore, the addition of verbal encouragement on top of visual or verbal kinematic feedback does not appear to provide any additional benefit [ 52 , 53 ]. However, it should be noted that when athletes are provided feedback and then it is taken away, performance immediately returns to non-feedback levels [ 47 , 52 , 53 ].

This agrees with previous non-loaded, plyometric research by Keller et al. Thus, to maximise resistance kinetic and kinematic outputs, it is recommended that practitioners provide frequent i. Several mechanisms have been used to explain why improvements in resistance training performance occur when feedback is provided.

Specifically, improvements in motivation and competitiveness have been reported to occur when visual feedback is given [ 16 , 45 ].

These changes in psychological state have been shown to enhance velocity and power output during both resistance training [ 16 , 45 ] and non-loaded plyometric [ 55 ] exercise.

Further, feedback during resistance training has been reported to reduce perceived physical demand [ 16 ], and the reported changes in motivation and competitiveness appear to mitigate the acute effects of fatigue across an exercise set [ 15 ].

This can enable athletes to complete a greater number of repetitions, and subsequently greater volume, prior to reaching the point of concentric failure [ 15 ]. Consequently, it is plausible that the greater kinetic and kinematic outputs that are commonly observed with the provision of feedback [ 14 , 17 , 18 , 46 ] are made possible through improved psychological state [ 16 , 45 , 55 ] and reductions in perceptions of physical demand [ 16 , 55 ].

The meta-analysis of acute outcomes demonstrated that feedback causes an immediate improvement of approximately 8. Mean and peak velocity are commonly monitored during resistance training as they are closely related to physical capacity due to their reliable output [ 9 , 38 , 56 ] and linear relationship with load [ 57 , 58 , 59 ].

This shows that feedback is an effective method of enhancing physical performance during resistance training and can cause immediate improvements in kinetic and kinematic outputs. Greater intent and kinematic outputs during training have been linked to enhanced physical adaptation in strength and power outcomes [ 60 , 61 ] and these findings help to explain the superior chronic adaptations that have been observed throughout the literature [ 19 , 21 , 22 ].

The moderator analysis showed no statistical differences in whether high i. However, visual feedback of kinematic data was found to have a statistically greater influence on velocity outputs than verbal feedback refer to Table 3.

Pairing this information with findings from Nagata et al. Furthermore, researchers must be aware that feedback can substantially enhance performance, and this should be carefully standardised when monitoring changes in physical capacity.

Seven studies have investigated the effects of feedback on chronic training outcomes, with all interventions occurring across 4- to 6-week mesocycles.

Four studies investigated the effects of verbal or visual feedback on changes in sprint, jump, or maximal strength [ 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ], while three used a combination of verbal coaching cues and visual feedback to quantify changes in performance of the power clean or power snatch [ 23 , 48 , 49 ].

Similar to the studies that investigated acute outcomes, feedback was largely found to augment adaptations above and beyond what occurs when feedback is not consistently provided during training.

Furthermore, no study demonstrated that feedback impaired training adaptations compared with a training control group. It should also be noted that while technology e. This suggests that a range of methods can be used within a training mesocycle to provide feedback to athletes and that even small concerted periods of exposure can provide substantial benefit.

Feedback was found to enhance jump performance in all studies that assessed changes across a training programme [ 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ]. It is feasible that the larger observed improvements in strength [ 21 , 22 ] may have influenced these improvements in jump results, as the ability to exert force is fundamental to ballistic performance [ 62 ].

Additionally, it is likely that the chronic exposure to greater barbell velocities, and subsequently power outputs, during ballistic exercises [ 19 , 20 , 21 ] allowed athletes to expose themselves to a greater training stimulus.

This reflects the acute findings of the meta-analysis and helps emphasise that improvements in acute training stimuli may lead to enhanced training adaptations. It should be acknowledged that a single study [ 19 ] that assessed changes in jump performance was removed from the meta-analysis due to the sensitivity analysis demonstrating the extreme nature of the findings.

However, with these findings included ESM File S3 , it was demonstrated that feedback may promote even greater changes in jump performance. The effects of feedback during resistance training were clearly observed on changes in short sprint performance i.

As demonstrated within the current systematic review findings, greater changes in strength and power were consistently reported with the provision of feedback, and it is well established that the ability to rapidly exert force is fundamental to acceleration [ 63 , 64 ].

Thus, it could be reasonable to speculate that the observed changes in strength and power underpinned these changes in short sprint performance.

It should be acknowledged that when outcomes were limited to a single testing distance i. Consequently, for practitioners who wish to maximise acceleration and speed in their athletes, it is strongly recommended that feedback is consistently provided during resistance training as this will promote greater short distance sprint adaptations.

While this is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to demonstrate the acute and chronic effects of feedback on resistance training performance and adaptations, several limitations and future directions should be acknowledged.

First, due to the relatively small number of studies that have investigated the chronic effects of resistance training with feedback on training adaptations, only jump and short sprint performance outcomes could be assessed. Naturally, practitioners are often interested in additional physical qualities e.

It should be noted that despite the inability to meta-analyse certain outcomes, findings from the systematic review can help guide practitioners in whether feedback would enhance adaptations in non-meta-analysed outcomes.

For example, 3RM strength in the back squat was assessed by both Weakley et al. Therefore, these findings may still be useful for practitioners. Second, due to the aims of the current study, it was not feasible to investigate effects of feedback on non-loaded plyometric outcomes.

However, it is likely that comparable benefits occur, with previous research indicating that there are similar improvements in acute and chronic outcomes [ 54 , 55 , 65 , 66 ]. Third, due to the relatively homogenous nature of the participants in the chronic studies, further research that investigates chronic adaptations in young, old, and female participants may be warranted to fully elucidate the effects of feedback.

Finally, further studies may continue to investigate the effects of different forms of feedback on acute and chronic outcomes. Previous research [ 14 ] has indicated that athletes may have a preference as to the form of feedback, and this may be influenced by personality traits e.

Findings from this systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrate that the provision of feedback during resistance training can be a potent tool for acutely enhancing performance and chronically improving adaptations.

Consequently, researchers and practitioners should be aware of its effects and how they can be used to ensure better performance, standardisation, and training outcomes. In the acute setting, feedback may be particularly useful to help drive intent and enhance kinetic and kinematic outputs.

In athletes who are technically competent, this can be useful in helping to enhance the stimulus that is applied and may lead to the superior physical adaptations that have been reported throughout the literature.

Alternatively, in athletes with limited resistance training experience, some forms of feedback e. Furthermore, the provision of feedback may be useful in helping to improve certain psychological traits that may be beneficial for performance.

For example, motivation and competitiveness can be enhanced when feedback is provided. This may not only lead to greater kinetic and kinematic outputs but may also be useful in increasing the total volume that can be completed [ 15 ] and reducing the perceived physical demand of the resistance training exercise [ 16 ].

When monitoring and testing athletes, however, researchers and practitioners should also be aware of the effects of feedback. Due to the clear effects of feedback on acute performance, common assessments of performance which are used to monitor strength and power adaptations and guide training prescription, such as load-velocity profiles [ 8 , 57 , 67 ] and maximal effort against a set load [ 15 , 35 , 68 ], may be substantially altered.

Consequently, when aiming to use kinetic or kinematic data from a resistance training session to infer changes in performance, it is strongly recommended that feedback is standardised, as the improvements in acute performance that are observed when feedback is provided are often larger than the typical between-day changes in performance that are commonly reported [ 29 , 67 , 69 , 70 ].

An example of this could be if feedback is provided during testing e. The current findings demonstrate that practitioners can confidently implement feedback into resistance training to enhance physical adaptations.

The systematic review demonstrated that all physical qualities that were assessed had larger improvements with feedback than when no feedback was provided, and the meta-analysis demonstrated that jump and sprint performance can be enhanced with its use.

Furthermore, it is important to recognise that feedback was not found to be detrimental under any conditions and that the improvements reported were above and beyond those that were reported with regular, supervised training prescription in highly trained athletes [ 19 , 20 , 22 ].

In practice, feedback can be provided through a range of different methods, with the greatest benefits seen when it is given with high frequency i.

However, athlete preference and feasibility should take precedence when deciding how and when feedback is provided. Thus, practitioners may wish to selectively implement feedback during exercises that benefit from greater kinetic and kinematic outputs e. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates clear benefits to performance and adaptation when feedback is supplied during resistance training.

In all studies within the review, feedback was found to augment performance and adaptation beyond that observed with no feedback and there were no detrimental effects reported.

Furthermore, when feedback was provided, there were no statistical differences in performance outcomes when high i. However, there may be slight benefits of providing kinematic feedback visually compared with verbally.

From the studies included within this review, it was apparent that the frequency of feedback was an important consideration, with greater frequencies being substantially more effective for performance and adaptation compared with lower frequencies e.

It was clear that feedback can improve resistance training kinetic and kinematic outputs during training beyond normal maximal intent and these greater outputs may help drive greater performance adaptations. While a range of physical qualities were assessed within the literature e. It should be noted that these changes are above and beyond regular training responses and demonstrate the potency of feedback to augment training adaptations.

Moore DA, Jones B, Weakley J, Whitehead S, Till K. The field and resistance training loads of academy rugby league players during a pre-season: comparisons across playing positions.

PLoS One. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Mcleod JC, Stokes T, Phillips SM. Resistance exercise training as a primary countermeasure to age-related chronic disease.

Front Physiol. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Till K, Darrall-Jones J, Weakley JJ, Roe GA, Jones BL. The influence of training age on the annual development of physical qualities within academy rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. Article PubMed Google Scholar.

Weakley J, Till K, Darrall-Jones J, Roe GA, Phibbs PJ, Read DB, et al. Strength and conditioning practices in adolescent rugby players: relationship with changes in physical qualities.

Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, Mazara N, Mcglory C, Quadrilatero J, et al. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men.

J Appl Physiol. Banyard HG, Tufano JJ, Weakley JJS, Wu S, Jukic I, Nosaka K. Superior changes in jump, sprint, and change-of-direction performance but not maximal strength following 6 weeks of velocity-based training compared with 1-repetition-maximum percentage-based training.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform. Bird SP, Tarpenning KM, Marino FE. Designing resistance training programmes to enhance muscular fitness.

Sports Med. García-Ramos A, Ulloa-Díaz D, Barboza-González P, Rodríguez-Perea Á, Martínez-García D, Quidel-Catrilelbún M, et al. Assessment of the load-velocity profile in the free-weight prone bench pull exercise through different velocity variables and regression models. Pearson M, García-Ramos A, Morrison M, Ramirez-Lopez C, Dalton-Barron N, Weakley J.

Velocity loss thresholds reliably control kinetic and kinematic outputs during free weight resistance training. Int J Environ Res. Google Scholar. Schoenfeld BJ, Peterson MD, Ogborn D, Contreras B, Sonmez GT.

Effects of low-vs. high-load resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in well-trained men. Salmoni AW, Schmidt RA, Walter CB. Knowledge of results and motor learning: a review and critical reappraisal.

References

Conversely, a training load that stimulates adaptations for a more advanced athlete will be excessive when applied to novice athletes and result in a significant increase in injury risk and occurrences of overtraining responses.

Ultimately, the primary objective of the training process is to systematically and progressively implement overload as part of the training process. This process is often referred to as progressive overload , in which the athlete is exposed to higher training loads to overcome the threshold of adaptation figure 1.

To be effective, these loads need to be implemented into the training plan in a progressive manner because significant increases or spikes in training have been associated with increased injury risk 57, 58, , For example, Gabbett et al.

There are, however, scenarios in which a sharp spike in training, or what is termed overreaching , is warranted; if programmed correctly, these increased periods of training can be powerful tools for inducing adaptation and performance gains in subsequent training periods Based on these data, it is recommended that variations in training loads be carefully planned to minimize the risk of injuries associated with significant spikes in training loads.

As athletes become more trained, they require greater training stimuli to continue to adapt and elevate their performance capacity closer to their genetic ceilings. Therefore, the athlete needs to be exposed to progressively increasing training loads in order to continue to stimulate adaptation and elevate performance 39, , This is most evident in the progression of the athlete through their long-term athlete development plan 50, , , in which training focus and loads are varied to continue to stimulate adaptive responses and performance gains.

For example, athletes who have the alpha-actinin-3 ACTN3 R allele exhibit an enhanced response to resistance training, whereas those with the ACTN3 XX genotype display a reduced responsiveness to resistance training Previous Next. Call Us Hours Mon-Fri 9am - 5pm EST.

Contact Us Get in touch with our team. FAQs Frequently asked questions. FREE SHIPPING! Need to access your Online Course or Ebook? Learn More.

Home Excerpt What is training adaptation? What is training adaptation? This is an excerpt from Scientific Foundations and Practical Applications of Periodization With HKPropel Access by G.

Gregory Haff. Overload For the athlete to increase performance capacity, they must be exposed to an exercise overload. FIGURE 1. Adapted by permission from T. Bompa and G. Haff, Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training , 5th ed.

Adapted from Bompa and Haff Adaptations require training above the thresholds and create the need for an increased work load according to the principle of progressive overload. Physiological adaptations are lost when training stops and are more complete when training involves various activities.

Adaptations in response to training include: decreased resting heart rate, increased stroke volume and cardiac output, increased oxygen uptake, increased haemoglobin levels in the blood, muscular hypertrophy, and various other changes within the muscles themselves increased myoglobin, increased mitochondria, increased aerobic or anaerobic enzymes according to training specificity, increased lactate thresholds, and much more.

Describe the effect of stroke volume and cardiac output on aerobic performance. Explain the physiological adaptations an individual develops in response to the different principles of training.

Topic Editors

In contrast, the guidelines outlined by the UK Athletics state that duration, number of repetitions, and recovery time in sprint-specific training sessions should be adjusted according to training status and performance level [ 15 , 16 ]. For example, an underlying assumption in high-performance environments is that each sprint performed by an elite athlete is more demanding on the entire neuromuscular system than for their lower performing counterparts, and hence, more recovery time between each sprint is needed [ 15 , 16 ].

Future research should aim to verify this claim. It has recently been suggested that individualized sprint training should be based on force-velocity Fv profiles [ 97 , , ]. A possible avenue for such an approach is individual test comparison with group mean values, where athletes with velocity deficits should be prescribed more maximal velocity sprinting, while athletes with horizontal force deficits should prioritize more horizontal strength work [ 97 ].

Although reference values have been outlined for athletes across sprint performance levels [ 23 , 35 , 38 ], it remains unclear if such an approach is effective [ ]. The logic of this approach builds on an assumed direct relationship between acceleration and peak velocity measurements for the runner and the underlying contractile characteristics of the muscle groups involved.

However, the fascicle shortening velocities of active muscles do not necessarily change with increasing running velocity [ , , ]. The relationship between changes in running velocity and muscle fascicle shortening velocity appears to be complicated by an increased contribution from elastic properties with increasing running velocity [ , , ].

Running velocity is not a proxy for muscle contraction velocity, and for this reason, Helland et al. More research is required regarding how training should be evaluated and modified based on force-velocity assessments.

The vast majority of scientific studies investigating sprint training methods are performed on young team sport athletes where brief sprints with short recoveries are the norm [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ].

Therefore, sprint training recommendations from the research literature have limited relevance to competitive sprinting, where elite m athletes perform sprint-specific training over various distances.

Practitioners classify sprint running either according to phase of interest or primary energy system used [ 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ]. For the latter, sprint duration shorter than 6—7 s is considered alactic, while longer sprints are considered lactic [ 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ].

In the following paragraphs, we present best practice guidelines for specific sprint training according to phase of interest. Total volume within these sessions is typically guided by the intensity and visual inspection of technique. Table 2 summarizes the best practice guidelines, while Table 3 shows examples of training weeks across varying meso-cycles.

When acceleration is the primary focus, leading practitioners recommend 10—m sprints from blocks, crouched or a three-point start position [ 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ]. Block starts are considered more energetically costly than standing starts. The distances used will vary depending on athlete performance level, as better sprinters reach higher top speeds and accelerate longer than their lower performing counterparts.

Full recovery is required between each sprint, allowing the athlete to perform each repetition without a drop-off in performance.

According to the UK Athletics, longer recoveries are required for elite sprinters who are reaching higher absolute intensities than for younger developmental athletes [ 15 ]. A typical acceleration session for a young and relatively untrained athlete might be runs over 20 m from a crouched start with 2-min recovery between each repetition, while an elite sprinter may perform sprints over 40 m from blocks with 7-min recovery in between [ 15 ].

Flying sprints are typically recommended when the focus is to develop maximal velocity [ 11 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ]. The aim is to reach the highest velocity possible and continue the sprint run for only as long as velocity does not decrease. Athletes are able to maintain maximal velocity for only around 10—30 m, depending on performance level and training status [ 31 , 32 ].

Flying sprints are often performed from a rolling jog in start. Although the rate of acceleration is reduced, the athlete may be able to achieve a higher maximum velocity or reach the same velocity as after maximal acceleration but using less energy.

The run-up distance typically ranges from 20 to 60 m, depending on the distance an athlete needs to reach the highest speeds. In contrast, elite competitors may use a m build-up for m flying sprints. The aim of sprint-specific endurance training is to improve the ability to maintain sprint velocity for as long as possible.

A rule of thumb among practitioners is that 1—2-min recovery is required for every second spent on maximal sprinting [ 15 , 16 ]. The higher the performance standard, the longer the recovery periods are required. While most scientific studies recommend that sprinting repetitions should be performed with maximal velocity [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ], acknowledged practitioners have over decades prescribed sprint training during the preparation phase with sub-maximal intensity.

This consisted of series with repeated sprints over 60—80 m, interspersed with approximately 2- and 8-min recovery between sprints and series. This was accompanied by a gradual increase in total volume from 6 to m e.

However, as the competition season approached, the total volume decreased while the intensity gradually increased to maximal effort [ 12 ]. Available evidence in endurance and strength training also demonstrates that high but sub-maximal intensity loading effectively stimulates adaptation through the interaction between high intensity and larger accumulated work that can be achieved before the onset of fatigue, compared with maximal efforts [ 90 , ].

Most coaches tend to link speed endurance training to the deceleration phase of the sprint. Scientific studies of team sport athletes indicate that sub-maximal sprinting i. The intensity scale in Table 4 , which is based on the velocity obtained during , , and m splits excluding the acceleration phase , can assist practitioners during sprint-specific training sessions.

Resisted sprinting is a commonly used method to overload specific capacities for sprinting acceleration performance, including uphill sprinting, sled sprints, or using motorized devices. Although sled sprints have been most investigated in the research literature [ 2 ], uphill sprinting has also been reported as an effective tool for sprint performance improvement, at least in team sport players [ , ].

It has been suggested that resisted sprint training may be a more effective tool to improve horizontal force and power production during sprinting compared with, e.

It is hypothesized that better transfer to sprint performance can be achieved if the resistance training exercises mimic the motor pattern and contraction type of performance movement. However, acknowledged scientists have recently questioned this approach, as strength and power exercises with heavy weights might be replaced by moderate to very heavy resisted sprint loading [ , , ].

According to Cross et al. Morin et al. However, only trivial between-group differences were observed for power output and sprint performance. Because peak power output during a maximal sprint is reached after very few steps and falls substantially during the remaining part of the sprint [ 23 , 38 ], it is reasonable to assume that the entire power output range should be targeted during the training process.

What is beneficial for a small portion of the sprint is not necessarily beneficial for overall performance. Overall, the literature is equivocal regarding the potential short-term effects of resisted sprinting when compared with sprinting under normal conditions [ 2 , 3 ]. Still, specific adaptations are observed for resisted sprint training.

That is, resisted sprint training improves resisted sprint performance more than sprint performance under normal conditions [ ]. Whether enhanced resisted sprint performance provides potential transfer effects to normal sprinting over time remains unknown. Resisted sprinting is commonly used in the preparatory training phase among successful sprint groups [ 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ].

However, the resistance loading varies across groups and individuals. While the UK Athletics argues that only light loads should be used to ensure proper running mechanics [ 15 , 16 ], some of the very best Jamaican sprinters e. However, resisted sprinting is not prioritized during the competition season in either of these elite sprinting groups.

Assisted sprinting e. Athletes are typically advised to focus on high step rate when approaching their maximal velocity during assisted sprints [ , , ]. That is, supramaximal velocity should be a result of higher step rate, shorter ground contact times, and higher hip angle velocities.

Clark et al. Potentially negative training effects may arise e. Due to the lack of studies investigating assisted sprinting and differences in methodology, it is difficult to draw conclusions from the research literature.

Practitioners are generally reluctant to use assisted sprinting devices due to injury risk [ 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ], although tail wind sprinting is typically preferred on windy days. Some athletes include assisted sprinting as a part of the warm-up routines prior to competitions.

To the best of our knowledge, no studies or practitioners to date have applied assisted sprints for energy preservation purposes.

Athletes may be able to perform higher volumes of sub-maximal sprinting e. This approach remains to be tested. Although research literature has emphasized the importance of technique on sprint running performance [ 20 , 24 , 33 , 38 , 40 , 49 , 51 ], very few sprint-related studies are devoted to how optimal mechanics can be achieved.

The concept of competency-based progression is particularly emphasized in motor learning literature. That is, athletes should not progress to more challenging aspects of training until they master the underpinning principles [ ].

Childhood is clearly the most opportune time for fundamental movement skill mastery [ , ], and acknowledged practitioners have experienced that running movements become more challenging to modify when approaching senior age [ 10 , 11 , 15 , 16 ].

These include hurdle drills, walking high knees, running high knees, skips, and straight leg bounding, with focus on posture, high hips, front-foot landing, configuration at touchdown and lift-off, etc.

Drills are low-speed exercises that are easier to control than high-speed running, typically performed as a part of warm-up routine. Motor learning research tells us that for positive reinforcement of the technique to occur, the biomechanics used in practice must closely resemble those used in competition [ 89 , ].

Hence, sprint drills must target key technical elements, ensuring crossover effects to normal sprinting over time. Well-developed coaching skills are a necessity for the practitioner to effectively interact with athletes of all levels [ 80 ]. Indeed, coaching communication, feedback, and specific verbal instructions play an integral role in the skill development of sprinting [ 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 ].

Although external focus i. Here, art and science do seem to merge, given the interrelation between word choices during instruction, interpreted motor pattern change by athlete, and resulting force and power production.

According to Glen Mills, the coach of Usain Bolt, focused athletes with well-developed proprioceptive senses are paramount for coaching to be successful [ 10 ]. Strength and power training has received considerable research attention over the years, and training recommendations for hypertrophy, maximal strength, and power are outlined for novice, intermediate, and advanced athletes [ 90 , ].

However, heavier loading might be necessary to increase the force component of the power equation. Although there is a fundamental relationship between strength and power [ , , ], improvements in sprinting performance do not necessarily occur immediately after a period of strength training [ ].

In fact, heavy strength training may induce negative short-term effects on sprint performance [ ]. As an athlete gets heavier, the energy cost of accelerating that mass also increases, as does the aerodynamic drag associated with pushing a wider frontal area through the air. Vertically oriented and heavy strength training of the lower limbs does not automatically translate to higher horizontal force production during accelerated sprinting [ ], but the probability of positive effects increases when strength and sprint training are combined [ 90 , , ].

Strength and power training is crucial parts of the overall training strategy among leading sprint practitioners, and such training is typically performed 2—3 times per week during the preparation period [ 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 , 18 ].

Exercise selection typically varies from general e. Sequencing of sessions differs among coaches, but the majority schedule strength training the day after sprint-specific training to avoid sore muscles when sprinting. These periods of heavy strength training are often combined with high volumes of sprint training at sub-maximal intensity.

The closer to the competition season is, the more emphasis on maximal velocity sprinting, explosive strength, and ballistic exercises [ 11 , 13 , 14 , 18 ]. Overall, no major discrepancies in sprint-related strength and power training recommendations can be observed between science and best practice when comparing these literature sources.

Plyometric exercises are characterized by rapid stretch-shortening cycle muscle actions and include a range of unilateral and bilateral bounding, hopping, jumping, and medicine ball throw variations [ ]. Plyometric training is normally performed with little or no external resistance and has been shown to significantly improve maximal power output during sport-specific movements [ , ].

As a rule, the more specific a plyometric exercise is to stretch rate and load characteristics of the sport movement, the greater the transfer of the training effect to performance.

Sprinters are encouraged to use different types of high-intensive bounding, jumping, and skipping exercises to ensure that power production is exerted in the horizontal plane [ , ]. The underlying mechanisms are theorized to elicit specific adaptations in neural drive, rate of neural activation, and intermuscular control, which result in an improved rate of force development [ ].

The reutilization of stored energy as a strategy for sprint performance has recently been questioned by Haugen et al. Human tendons stretch under load, and sprinters should likely minimize the downside of having these elastic connectors. Adding to the argument, world-class performers sprint with considerably higher leg stiffness than their lower performing counterparts [ 24 ].

Based on these considerations, sprinters should focus on leg stiffness e. Interestingly, this approach was utilized with seeming success by coach Carlo Vittori and the Italian School of sprint training already in the s.

The best athlete, Pietro Mennea, performed horizontal jumps and skipping exercises with a weight belt, and ground contact time during these exercises never exceeded ms [ 12 ].

This contact time is very similar to those obtained by elite sprinters at maximal velocity [ 24 ]. Mennea also performed assisted sprints while equipped with a weight belt weight vests serve the same purpose.

Although these training methods offer strong leg stiffness stimulations, they are demanding and probably increase injury risk, particularly for the Achilles tendon. This may explain why most practitioners perform more traditional plyometric drills as bilateral obstacle hurdle jumps, multi jump circuits, medicine ball throws, and unilateral bounding exercises [ 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ].

Although the highest volumes are accomplished during the preparation phase, some plyometric training is performed during the competition season [ 10 , 11 , 15 , 16 ]. The performance capacity of an athlete depends on an optimal balance between training and recovery. While sleep and nutrition are fundamental for the restoration of daily life and the recovery process following physical exercise [ , , ], several recovery strategies have been explored to improve recovery in athletes.

Note that tempo runs in a sprint training setting are different to those in endurance training settings. A number of passive recovery modalities have also been applied by practitioners over the years, including massage, stretching, compression garments, cold water or contrast water immersion, cryotherapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and electromyostimulation [ 11 , 13 , 14 ].

While there may be some subjective benefits for post-exercise recovery, there is currently no convincing evidence to justify the widespread use of such strategies in competitive athletes [ , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ].

Placebo effects may be beneficial, and at the individual level, certain recovery modalities may elicit reproducible acceleration of recovery processes. Future studies of experimental models designed to reflect the circumstances of elite athletes are needed to gain further insights regarding the efficacy of various recovery modalities on sprint performance.

Tapering refers to the marked reduction of total training load in the final days before an important competition. Tapering strategies consist of a short-term balancing act, reducing the cumulative effects of fatigue, but maintaining fitness [ , ]. Because tapering strategies and outcomes are heavily dependent on the preceding training load, it is often challenging to separate tapering from periodization and training programming in general.

However, these estimates are mainly based on well-trained athletes in endurance- swimming, running, cycling or strength-related sports [ , , , , , ]. Based on individual performance variation data in elite sprinters [ 5 , 69 ], it is reasonable to expect smaller relative tapering effects for sprinting athletes.

The strategies employed by successful track and field are generally consistent with research [ ]. The day taper program developed by Charlie Francis has received considerable attention within the sprinting community [ 13 , 14 ] Table 5. His most successful athlete, Asafa Powell, achieved world record performances in June as well as September.

Given that there are several roads to Rome in terms of tapering, it is generally accepted that the training during this period should be highly specific. That is, only exercises that directly assist sports performance should remain, while accessory work and assistance exercises should be removed from the training prescription [ , , ].

Moreover, the number of technical inputs should be kept to a minimum to prepare the athletes mentally and build confidence.

Successful coaches adapt a holistic strategy where physiological, technical, and mental aspects are integrated into the tapering process [ ]. This review has contrasted scientific and best practice literature. Although the scientific literature provides useful and general information regarding the development of sprint performance and underlying determinants, there is a considerable gap between science and best practice in how training principles and methods are applied these gaps are summarized in Table 6.

Possible explanations for these discrepancies may be that scientific studies mainly examine isolated variables under standardized conditions, while best practice is concerned about external validity and apply a more holistic approach. In order to close this gap between science and practice, future investigations should observe and assess elite sprinters throughout the training year, aiming to establish mechanistic connections between training content, changes in performance, and underlying mechanical and physiological determinants.

The conclusions drawn in this review may serve as a position statement and provide a point of departure for forthcoming studies regarding sprint training of elite athletic contestants. Bishop D, Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A. Repeated-sprint ability - part II: recommendations for training.

Sports Med. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Petrakos G, Morin JB, Egan B. Resisted sled sprint training to improve sprint performance: a systematic review. Rumpf MC, Lockie RG, Cronin JB, Jalilvand F. Effect of different sprint training methods on sprint performance over various distances: a brief review.

J Strength Cond Res. Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Hisdal J, Seiler S. The role and development of sprinting speed in soccer.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform. Haugen T, Solberg PA, Morán-Navarro R, Breitschädel F, Hopkins W, Foster C. Peak age and performance progression in world-class track-and-field athletes. Haugen T, Buchheit M. Sprint running performance monitoring: methodological and practical considerations.

Tønnessen E, Sylta Ø, Haugen T, Hem E, Svendsen I, Seiler S. The road to gold: training and peaking characteristics in the year prior to a gold medal endurance performance. PLoS One.

Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar. Tønnessen E, Svendsen I, Rønnestad B, Hisdal J, Haugen T, Seiler S. The annual training periodization of 8 world champions in orienteering. Solli GS, Tønnessen E, Sandbakk Ø. Front Physiol. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Lee J. Insights to Jamaican sprinting success. Assessed 15 July Banta R. Carlo Vittori and training of Pietro Mennea. Francis C. Structure of training for speed ebook. The Charlie Francis training system ebook. United Kingdom Athletics.

Sprints and hurdles ADM V1. Dan Pfaff. Donovan Bailey training program. Loren Seagrave. Planning and periodization: preparing for Moscow Google Scholar. Volkov NI, Lapin VI. Analysis of the velocity curve in sprint running. Med Sci Sports.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Mero A, Komi PV, Gregor RJ. Biomechanics of sprint running. A Rev Sports Med. Article CAS Google Scholar. Nagahara R, Matsubayashi T, Matsuo A, Zushi K. Kinematics of transition during human accelerated sprinting.

Biol Open. Tønnessen E, Haugen T, Shalfawi SA. Reaction time aspects of elite sprinters in athletic world championships. Slawinski J, Termoz N, Rabita G, Guilhem G, Dorel S, Morin JB, et al. Scand J Med Sci Sports.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Haugen T, McGhie D, Ettema G. Sprint running: from fundamental mechanics to practice — a review. Eur J Appl Physiol. Scientific report on the second IAAF World Championships in athletics, Rome Bruggemann G, Glad B. Time analysis of the sprint events.

Scientific research project at the games of the XXXIV Olympiad Seoul , IAAF supplement Ae M, Ito A, Suzuki M. Scientific research project at the III World Championship in athletics, Tokyo New Stud Athl. Kersting U. Biomechanical analysis of the sprinting events. In: Brüggemann G, editor.

Ferro A, Riveral A, Pagola I, Ferreruela M, Martin A, Rocandio V. A kinematic study of the sprint events at the World Championships in athletics in Sevilla.

In: 20th International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports; Biomechanics research project in the IAAF World Championships Daegu Graubner R, Nixdorf E.

Biomechanical analysis of the sprint and hurdles events at the IAAF World Championships in athletics. Bissas A, Walker J, Tucker C, Paradisis G, Merlino S. Biomechanical report for the IAAF World Championships in London, Morin JB, Edouard P, Samozino P.

Technical ability of force application as a determinant factor of sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Morin JB, Bourdin M, Edouard P, Peyrot N, Samozino P, Lacour JR. Mechanical determinants of m sprint running performance.

Haugen T, Breitschädel F, Seiler S. Sprint mechanical variables in elite athletes: are force-velocity profiles sport specific or individual? Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Seiler S, De Koning JJ, Foster C. The fall and rise of the gender difference in elite anaerobic performance Haugen T, Paulsen G, Seiler S, Sandbakk O.

New records in human power. Rabita G, Dorel S, Slawinski J, Sàez-de-Villarreal E, Couturier A, Samozino P, et al. Sprint mechanics in world-class athletes: a new insight into the limits of human locomotion.

Ettema G, McGhie D, Danielsen J, Sandbakk Ø, Haugen T. On the existence of step-to-step breakpoint transitions in accelerated sprinting. Haugen T, Danielsen J, Alnes LO, McGhie D, Sandbakk O, Ettema G.

Nagahara R, Naito H, Morin JB, Zushi K. Association of acceleration with spatiotemporal variables in maximal sprinting.

Int J Sports Med. Nagahara R, Zushi K. Development of maximal speed sprinting performance with changes in vertical, leg and joint stiffness. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. PubMed Google Scholar.

Kunz H, Kaufmann DA. Biomechanical analysis of sprinting: decathletes versus champions. Br J Sports Med. Mann R, Herman J. Int J Sport Biomech. Article Google Scholar. Hunter JP, Marshall RN, McNair PJ.

Segment-interaction analysis of the stance limb in sprint running. J Biomech. Relationships between ground reaction force impulse and kinematics of sprint-running acceleration.

J Appl Biomech. Kugler F, Janshen L. Body position determines propulsive forces in accelerated running. Colyer SL, Nagahara R, Salo AIT. Kinetic demands of sprinting shift across the acceleration phase: novel analysis of entire force waveforms. Colyer SL, Nagahara R, Takai Y, Salo AIT.

How sprinters accelerate beyond the velocity plateau of soccer players: waveform analysis of ground reaction forces. Nagahara R, Mizutani M, Matsuo A, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. Association of sprint performance with ground reaction forces during acceleration and maximal speed phases in a single sprint.

Bezodis NE, Willwacher, Salo AIT. The biomechanics of the track and field sprint start: a narrative review. Ross A, Leveritt M, Riek S. Neural influences on sprint running: training adaptations and acute responses. Fitts RH. Cellular mechanisms of muscle fatigue. Physiol Rev. Glaister M. Multiple sprint work: physiological responses, mechanisms of fatigue and the influence of aerobic fitness.

Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bishop D. Repeated-sprint ability - part I: factors contributing to fatigue. Brocherie F, Millet GP, Morin JB, Girard O. Mechanical alterations to repeated treadmill sprints in normobaric hypoxia.

Chelly SM, Denis C. Leg power and hopping stiffness: relationship with sprint running performance. Girard O, Micallef JP, Millet GP. Changes in spring-mass model characteristics during repeated running sprints. Girard O, Brocherie F, Morin JB, Millet GP.

Running mechanical alterations during repeated treadmill sprints in hot versus hypoxic environments. A pilot study. J Sports Sci. Girard O, Brocherie F, Tomazin K, Farooq A, Morin JB.

Changes in running mechanics over m, m and m treadmill sprints. Morin JB, Jeannin T, Chevallier B, Belli A. Spring-mass model characteristics during sprint running: correlation with performance and fatigue-induced changes.

Duffield R, Dawson B, Goodman C. Energy system contribution to m and m track running events. J Sci Med Sport.

Tucker R, Santos-Concejero J, Collins M. The genetic basis for elite running performance. Lucia A, Oliván J, Gómez-Gallego F, Santiago C, Montil M, Foster C. Citius and longius faster and longer with no alpha-actinin-3 in skeletal muscles? Smith DJ.

A framework for understanding the training process leading to elite performance. Del Coso J, Hiam D, Houweling P, Pérez LM, Eynon N, Lucía A.

Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Malina RM, Bouchard C, Beunen G. Human growth: selected aspects of current research on well-nourished children. Annu Rev Anthropol. Malina RM, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O. Growth, maturation and physical activity.

Champaign: Human Kinetics; Tønnessen E, Svendsen I, Olsen IC, Guttormsen A, Haugen T. Performance development in adolescent track and field athletes according to age, sex and sport discipline.

Hollings SC, Hopkins WG, Hume PA. Age at peak performance of successful track and field athletes. Int J Sports Sci Coach. Allen SV, Hopkins WG. Age of peak competitive performance of elite athletes: a systematic review. Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Seiler S.

Invited commentary. Boccia G, Moisè P, Franceschi A, Trova F, Panero D, La Torre A, et al. Career performance trajectories in track and field jumping events from youth to senior success: the importance of learning and development. Harman SM, Metter EJ, Tobin JD, Pearson J, Blackman MR.

Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab ;86 2 — Korhonen MT, Cristea A, Alen M, Hakkinen K, Sipila S, Mero A, et al.

Aging, muscle fiber type, and contractile function in sprint-trained athletes. J Appl Physiol. Hunter SK, Pereira HM, Keenan KG. The aging neuromuscular system and motor performance.

Hollings SC, Hume PA, Hopkins WG. Relative-age effect on competition outcomes at the World Youth and World unior Athletics Championships. Eur J Sport Sci. Hollings SC, Mallett CJ, Hume PA. Boccia G, Brustio PR, Moisè P, Franceschi A, La Torre A, Schena F, et al. Elite national athletes reach their peak performance later than non-elite in sprints and throwing events.

Lloyd RS, Oliver JL, Faigenbaum AD, Howard R, De Ste Croix MB, Williams CA, et al. Long-term athletic development, part 2: barriers to success and potential solutions. Long-term athletic development- part 1: a pathway for all youth. Helsen WF, Starkes JL, Hodges NJ.

Team sports and the theory of deliberate practice. J Sport Exerc Psychol. Ericson KA, Krampe RT, Tesch-Romer C. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Physiol Rec.

Usain Bolt biography. Assessed 10 Oct Delorme TL, Watkins AL. Techniques of progressive resistance exercise. Arch Phys Med. Gabbett TJ. The training-injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder? Windt J, Gabbett TJ. How do training and competition workloads relate to injury?

The workload-injury aetiology model. Haugen T, Danielsen J, McGhie D, Sandbakk Ø, Ettema G. Kinematic asymmetry in the stride cycle is not associated with performance and injuries in athletic sprinters.

Sale D, MacDougall D. Specificity in strength training: a review for the coach and athlete. Can J Appl Sport Sci.

Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, Dudley GA, Dooly C, Feigenbaum MS, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Stone MH, Potteiger JA, Pierce KC, Proulx CM, O'Bryant HS, Johnson RL, et al. Comparison of the effects of three different weight-training programs on the one repetition maximum squat.

Kiely J. Periodization paradigms in the 21st century: evidence-led or tradition-driven? Matveyev LP. Periodisierung des sportlichen trainings.

Verkhoshansky Y. Programming and organization of training. Livonia: Sportivny Press; Seiler KS, Kjerland GØ. Seiler KS. What is best practice for training intensity and duration distribution in endurance athletes?

Morin JB, Samozino P. Interpreting power-force-velocity profiles for individualised and specific training. Bosco C, Tihanyi J, Viru A. Relationships between field fitness test and basal serum testosterone and cortisol levels in soccer players.

Clin Physiol. Epstein RH. Aroused: a history of hormones and how they control just about everything. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA, Nindl BC.

Recovery responses of testosterone, growth hormone, and IGF-1 after resistance exercise. Samozino P, Rabita G, Dorel S, Slawinski J, Peyrot N, Saez de Villarreal E, et al.

A simple method for measuring power, force, velocity properties, and mechanical effectiveness in sprint running. Cross MR, Brughelli M, Samozino P, Morin JB. Methods of power-force-velocity profiling during sprint running: a narrative review.

Rakovic E, Paulsen G, Helland C, Eriksrud O, Haugen T. The effect of individualised sprint training in elite female team sport athletes: a pilot study. Lai A, Schache AG, Brown NA, Pandy MG. Human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon mechanics and energetics during maximum acceleration sprinting.

J R Soc Interface. Article PubMed Central PubMed Google Scholar. Miller RH, Umberger BR, Caldwell GE. Sensitivity of maximum sprinting speed to characteristic parameters of the muscle force-velocity relationship. Weyand PG, Sandell RF, Prime DN, Bundle MW.

The biological limits to running speed are imposed from the ground up. Helland C, Haugen T, Rakovic E, Eriksrud O, Seynnes O, Mero AA, et al. Force-velocity profiling of sprinting athletes: single-run vs. multiple-run methods.

Seiler S, Jøranson K, Olesen BV, Hetlelid KJ. Adaptations to aerobic interval training: interactive effects of exercise intensity and total work duration.

Tønnessen E, Shalfawi S, Haugen T, Enoksen E. The effect of m repeated sprint training on maximum sprinting speed, repeated sprint endurance, vertical jump and aerobic capacity in young elite male soccer players. Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Leirstein S, Hem E, Seiler S.

Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Øksenholt Ø, Haugen FL, Paulsen G, Enoksen E, Seiler S. Sprint conditioning of soccer players: effects of training intensity and technique supervision.

Jakeman JR, McMullan J, Babraj JA. Efficacy of a four-week uphill sprint training intervention in field hockey players.

Kavaliauskas M, Kilvington R, Babraj J. Effects of in-season uphill sprinting on physical characteristics in semi-professional soccer players. Cross MR, Lahti J, Brown SR, Chedati M, Jimenez-Reyes P, Samozino P, et al.

Training at maximal power in resisted sprinting: optimal load determination methodology and pilot results in team sport athletes. Lockie RG, Murphy AJ, Spinks CD. Effects of resisted sled towing on sprint kinematics in field-sport athletes.

Cross MR, Brughelli M, Samozino P, Brown SR, Morin JB. Optimal loading for maximizing power during sled-resisted sprinting. Morin JB, Petrakos G, Jiménez-Reyes P, Brown SR, Samozino P, Cross MR. Very-heavy sled training for improving horizontal-force output in soccer players. Kristensen GO, van den Tillaar R, Ettema GJ.

Velocity specificity in early-phase sprint training. Cissik JM. Means and methods of speed training, part II. Strength Cond J. Mero A, Komi PV. Force-, EMG-, and elasticity-velocity relationships at submaximal, maximal and supramaximal running speeds in sprinters.

Clark DA, Sabick MB, Pfeiffer RP, Kuhlman SM, Knigge NA, Shea KG. Influence of towing force magnitude on the kinematics of supramaximal sprinting. Schmidt RA, Wrisberg CA. Motor learning and performance: a situation based learning approach.

Stodden DF, Gao Z, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ. Dynamic relationships between motor skill competence and health-related fitness in youth. Pediatr Exerc Sci. Stodden DF, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ, Roberton MA, Rudisill ME, Garcia C, et al.

A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: an emergent relationship. Porter JM, Wu WF, Crossley RM, Knopp SW, Campbell OC.

Adopting an external focus of attention improves sprinting performance in low-skilled sprinters. Wulf G. Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 year. Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol. Winkelman NC, Clark KP, Ryan LJ. Experience level influences the effect of attentional focus on sprint performance.

Hum Mov Sci. Porter JM, Wu WFW, Partridge JA. Focus of attention and verbal instructions: strategies of elite track and field coaches and athletes. Sport Sci Rev. Benz A, Winkelman N, Porter J, Nimphius S.

PLoS One. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Mcleod JC, Stokes T, Phillips SM. Resistance exercise training as a primary countermeasure to age-related chronic disease. Front Physiol. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Till K, Darrall-Jones J, Weakley JJ, Roe GA, Jones BL.

The influence of training age on the annual development of physical qualities within academy rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Weakley J, Till K, Darrall-Jones J, Roe GA, Phibbs PJ, Read DB, et al. Strength and conditioning practices in adolescent rugby players: relationship with changes in physical qualities.

Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, Mazara N, Mcglory C, Quadrilatero J, et al. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. J Appl Physiol. Banyard HG, Tufano JJ, Weakley JJS, Wu S, Jukic I, Nosaka K.

Superior changes in jump, sprint, and change-of-direction performance but not maximal strength following 6 weeks of velocity-based training compared with 1-repetition-maximum percentage-based training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. Bird SP, Tarpenning KM, Marino FE. Designing resistance training programmes to enhance muscular fitness.

Sports Med. García-Ramos A, Ulloa-Díaz D, Barboza-González P, Rodríguez-Perea Á, Martínez-García D, Quidel-Catrilelbún M, et al.

Assessment of the load-velocity profile in the free-weight prone bench pull exercise through different velocity variables and regression models. Pearson M, García-Ramos A, Morrison M, Ramirez-Lopez C, Dalton-Barron N, Weakley J.

Velocity loss thresholds reliably control kinetic and kinematic outputs during free weight resistance training. Int J Environ Res. Google Scholar. Schoenfeld BJ, Peterson MD, Ogborn D, Contreras B, Sonmez GT.

Effects of low-vs. high-load resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in well-trained men. Salmoni AW, Schmidt RA, Walter CB. Knowledge of results and motor learning: a review and critical reappraisal. Psychol Bull. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Wälchli M, Ruffieux J, Bourquin Y, Keller M, Taube W.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. Argus CK, Gill ND, Keogh JW, Hopkins WG. Acute effects of verbal feedback on upper-body performance in elite athletes. Weakley J, Wilson K, Till K, Banyard H, Dyson J, Phibbs P, et al. Show me, tell me, encourage me: the effect of different forms of feedback on resistance training performance.

Ok DP, Bae JY. J Men Health. Article Google Scholar. Weakley J, Wilson K, Till K, Darrall-Jones J, Roe G, Phibbs P, et al. Visual feedback maintains mean concentric barbell velocity, and improves motivation, competitiveness, and perceived workload in male adolescent athletes.

Pérez-Castilla A, Jiménez-Alonso A, Cepero M, Miras-Moreno S, Rojas FJ, García-Ramos A. Velocity performance feedback during ballistic training: which is the optimal frequency of feedback administration? Mot Control. Jiménez-Alonso A, García-Ramos A, Cepero M, Miras-Moreno S, Rojas FJ, Pérez-Castilla A.

Effect of augmented feedback on velocity performance during strength-oriented and power-oriented resistance training sessions. Nagata A, Doma K, Yamashita D, Hasegawa H, Mori S. The effect of augmented feedback type and frequency on velocity-based training-induced adaptation and retention.

Randell AD, Cronin JB, Keogh JW, Gill ND, Pedersen MC. Effect of instantaneous performance feedback during 6 weeks of velocity-based resistance training on sport-specific performance tests. Vanderka M, Bezák A, Longová K, Krcmár M, Walker S. Use of visual feedback during jump-squat training aids improvement in sport-specific tests in athletes.

Weakley J, Till K, Sampson J, Banyard H, Leduc C, Wilson K, et al. The effects of augmented feedback on sprint, jump, and strength adaptations in rugby union players following a four week training programme. Winchester JB, Porter JM, Mcbride JM. Changes in bar path kinematics and kinetics through use of summary feedback in power snatch training.

Page M, Mckenzie J, Bossuyt P, Boutron I, Hoffmann T, Mulrow C, et al. The prisma statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews.

Syst Rev. Cooper H, Hedges LV, Valentine JC. The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation; Steele J, Plotkin D, Van Every D, Rosa A, Zambrano H, Mendelovits B, et al.

Slow and steady, or hard and fast? A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing body composition changes between interval training and moderate intensity continuous training. Sports Basel. Downs SH, Black N. The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions.

J Epidemiol Community Health. Crang ZL, Duthie G, Cole MH, Weakley J, Hewitt A, Johnston RD. The validity and reliability of wearable microtechnology for intermittent team sports: a systematic review. Weakley J, Morrison M, García-Ramos A, Johnston R, James L, Cole M.

The validity and reliability of commercially available resistance training monitoring devices—a systematic review. Weakley J, Halson SL, Mujika I. Overtraining syndrome symptoms and diagnosis in athletes: where is the research? A systematic review. Team R. Rstudio: integrated development for r, in Boston, MA Lüdecke D, Lüdecke MD, Calculator'from David BW.

R Package Version 0. Viechtbauer W. Conducting meta-analyses in r with the metafor package. J Stat Softw. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Book Google Scholar. Weakley JJS, Till K, Read DB, Leduc C, Roe GB, Phibbs PJ, et al.

Jump training in rugby union players: barbell or hexagonal bar? Weakley J, Munteanu G, Cowley N, Johnston R, Morrison M, Gardiner C, et al. The criterion validity and between-day reliability of the perch for measuring barbell velocity during commonly used resistance training exercises. Weakley J, Chalkley D, Johnston R, García-Ramos A, Townshend A, Dorrell H, et al.

Criterion validity, and interunit and between-day reliability of the flex for measuring barbell velocity during commonly used resistance training exercises.

Janicijevic D, García-Ramos A, Lamas-Cepero JL, García-Pinillos F, Marcos-Blanco A, Rojas FJ, et al. Comparison of the two most commonly used gold-standard velocity monitoring devices GymAware and T-Force to assess lifting velocity during the free-weight barbell back squat exercise.

Proc Inst Mech Eng P J Sport Eng Technol. Gucciardi DF, Lines RL, Ntoumanis N. Handling effect size dependency in meta-analysis. Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol. López-López JA, Page MJ, Lipsey MW, Higgins JPT.

Dealing with effect size multiplicity in systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Res Synth Methods. Inthout J, Ioannidis JPA, Borm GF. The Hartung—Knapp—Sidik—Jonkman method for random effects meta-analysis is straightforward and considerably outperforms the standard Dersimonian—Laird method.

BMC Med Res Method. Hartung J, Knapp G. On tests of the overall treatment effect in meta-analysis with normally distributed responses. Stat Med. Nakagawa S, Lagisz M, Jennions MD, Koricheva J, Noble DWA, Parker TH, et al. Methods for testing publication bias in ecological and evolutionary meta-analyses.

Method Ecol Evol. Higgins J, Thomas J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, Li T, Page MJ, et al. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, vol. New York: Wiley; Wilson KM, Helton WS, De Joux NR, Head JR, Weakley JJ.

Real-time quantitative performance feedback during strength exercise improves motivation, competitiveness, mood, and performance. Proc Hum Factors Ergon Soc. Velocity performance feedback during the free-weight bench press testing procedure: an effective strategy to increase the reliability and one repetition maximum accuracy prediction.

Chalker WJ, Shield AJ, Opar DA, Rathbone EN, Keogh JW. Effect of acute augmented feedback on between limb asymmetries and eccentric knee flexor strength during the nordic hamstring exercise.

Winchester JB, Erickson TM, Blaak JB, Mcbride JM. Changes in bar-path kinematics and kinetics after power-clean training. PubMed Google Scholar. Sakadjian A, Panchuk D, Pearce AJ.

Kinematic and kinetic improvements associated with action observation facilitated learning of the power clean in Australian footballers. Ekblom M, Eriksson M. Concurrent EMG feedback acutely improves strength and muscle activation. Eur J App Physiol. Article CAS Google Scholar.

Hopper DM, Berg MA, Andersen H, Madan R. The influence of visual feedback on power during leg press on elite women field hockey players. Phys Ther Sport. Campenella B, Mattacola CG, Kimura IF. Effect of visual feedback and verbal encouragement on concentric quadriceps and hamstrings peak torque of males and females.

Isokinet Exerc Sci. Kimura IF, Gulick DT, Lukasiewicz Iii WC. Effect of visual feedback and verbal encouragement on eccentric quadriceps and hamstrings peak torque.

Res Sport Med. Keller M, Lauber B, Gehring D, Leukel C, Taube W. Jump performance and augmented feedback: immediate benefits and long-term training effects. Hum Mov Sci. Wilson KM, De Joux NR, Head JR, Helton WS, Dang JS, Weakley JJ. Presenting objective visual performance feedback over multiple sets of resistance exercise improves motivation, competitiveness, and performance.

Weakley J, Ramirez-Lopez C, Mclaren S, Dalton-Barron N, Weaving D, Jones B, et al. Garcia-Ramos A, Barboza-Gonzalez P, Ulloa-Diaz D, Rodriguez-Perea A, Martinez-Garcia D, Guede-Rojas F, et al. Reliability and validity of different methods of estimating the one-repetition maximum during the free-weight prone bench pull exercise.

J Sports Sci. García-Ramos A, Janicijevic D, González-Hernández JM, Keogh JWL, Weakley J. Reliability of the velocity achieved during the last repetition of sets to failure and its association with the velocity of the 1-repetition maximum. García-Ramos A, Jukic I, Weakley J, Janićijević D.

Bench press one-repetition maximum estimation through the individualised load-velocity relationship: comparison of different regression models and minimal velocity thresholds.

Int J Sports Physiol Perf. González-Badillo JJ, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L, Gorostiaga EM, Pareja-Blanco F. Maximal intended velocity training induces greater gains in bench press performance than deliberately slower half-velocity training.

Eur J Sport Sci. Behm DG, Sale DG. Intended rather than actual movement velocity determines velocity-specific training response. J App Physiol. Cormie P, Mcguigan MR, Newton RU.

Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training. Morin J-B, Slawinski J, Dorel S, De Villareal ES, Couturier A, Samozino P, et al. Acceleration capability in elite sprinters and ground impulse: push more, brake less?

J Biomech. Nagahara R, Mizutani M, Matsuo A, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. Association of sprint performance with ground reaction forces during acceleration and maximal speed phases in a single sprint.

J Appl Biomech. Weakley J, Wilson K, Till K, Read D, Scantlebury S, Sawczuk T, et al. Visual kinematic feedback enhances velocity, power, motivation and competitiveness in adolescent female athletes. J Aust Strength Cond.

Keller M, Lauber B, Gottschalk M, Taube W. Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention. Weakley J, Mann B, Banyard H, Mclaren S, Scott T, Garcia-Ramos A. Velocity-based training: from theory to application.

Strength Cond J. Morrison M, Martin DT, Talpey S, Scanlan AT, Delaney J, Halson SL, et al. A systematic review on fitness testing in adult male basketball players: tests adopted, characteristics reported and recommendations for practice.

Owen C, Till K, Phibbs P, Read DJ, Weakley J, Atkinson M, et al. A multidimensional approach to identifying the physical qualities of male English regional academy rugby union players; considerations of position, chronological age, relative age and maturation.

Weakley J, Black G, McLaren S, Scantlebury S, Suchomel T, McMahon E, Watts D, Read DB. Testing and profiling athletes: recommendations for test selection, implementation, and maximizing information.

Download references. School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, McAuley at Banyo, Brisbane, Australia. Jonathon Weakley, Nicholas Cowley, Ryan G. Sports Performance, Recovery, Injury and New Technologies SPRINT Research Centre, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Carnegie Applied Rugby Research CARR Centre, Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK. Department of Exercise Science and Recreation, CUNY Lehman College, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Institute of Sport, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.

Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Conditioning, Faculty of Education, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile.

Healthy Brain and Mind Research Centre, School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Jonathon Weakley. At no point was funding received by any of the authors for the writing of this manuscript. The publishing of this article open access has been made possible by the UK Read and Publish Springer Compact agreement.

Nicholas Cowley, Dale B. Read, Ryan Timmins, Amador García-Ramos, and Thomas B. McGuckian declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Brad J. Schoenfeld serves on the scientific advisory board of Tonal Corporation, a manufacturer of fitness equipment. All data and material reported in this systematic review and meta-analysis are from peer-reviewed publications.

Jonathon Weakley, Dale B. Read, Ryan Timmins, and Amador García-Ramos conceptualised the review and criteria. Jonathon Weakley, Nicholas Cowley, and Thomas B.

McGuckian completed the screening and data extraction of all data within this manuscript. All authors created the tables and figures.

All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript. All authors reviewed, refined, and approved the final manuscript. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Reprints and permissions. Weakley, J. et al. The Effect of Feedback on Resistance Training Performance and Adaptations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Med 53 , — Download citation. Accepted : 12 June Published : 06 July Issue Date : September Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Download PDF. Abstract Background Augmented feedback is often used during resistance training to enhance acute physical performance and has shown promise as a method of improving chronic physical adaptation.

Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to 1 establish the evidence for the effects of feedback on acute resistance training performance and chronic training adaptations; 2 quantify the effects of feedback on acute kinematic outcomes and changes in physical adaptations; and 3 assess the effects of moderating factors on the influence of feedback during resistance training.

Methods Twenty studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Results Feedback enhanced acute kinetic and kinematic outputs, muscular endurance, motivation, competitiveness, and perceived effort, while greater improvements in speed, strength, jump performance, and technical competency were reported when feedback was provided chronically.

Conclusions Feedback during resistance training can lead to enhanced acute performance within a training session and greater chronic adaptations. Influence of 8-weeks of supervised static stretching or resistance training of pectoral major muscles on maximal strength, muscle thickness and range of motion Article Open access 19 January No Time to Lift?

Designing Time-Efficient Training Programs for Strength and Hypertrophy: A Narrative Review Article Open access 14 June Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

FormalPara Key Points When feedback is provided during resistance training, kinetic and kinematic outputs are enhanced, with barbell velocity significantly increasing by approximately 8. PRISMA flow diagram detailing inclusion and exclusion of manuscripts. Full size image.

Table 1 Summary of acute feedback studies included in the systematic review Full size table. Table 2 Summary of chronic feedback studies included in the systematic review Full size table.

Table 3 Moderator analysis of feedback variables Full size table. Summary of the acute and chronic effects of feedback during resistance training. References Moore DA, Jones B, Weakley J, Whitehead S, Till K. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Mcleod JC, Stokes T, Phillips SM.

Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Till K, Darrall-Jones J, Weakley JJ, Roe GA, Jones BL. Article PubMed Google Scholar Weakley J, Till K, Darrall-Jones J, Roe GA, Phibbs PJ, Read DB, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, Mazara N, Mcglory C, Quadrilatero J, et al.

Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Banyard HG, Tufano JJ, Weakley JJS, Wu S, Jukic I, Nosaka K. Article PubMed Google Scholar Bird SP, Tarpenning KM, Marino FE. Article PubMed Google Scholar García-Ramos A, Ulloa-Díaz D, Barboza-González P, Rodríguez-Perea Á, Martínez-García D, Quidel-Catrilelbún M, et al.

Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Pearson M, García-Ramos A, Morrison M, Ramirez-Lopez C, Dalton-Barron N, Weakley J.

Google Scholar Schoenfeld BJ, Peterson MD, Ogborn D, Contreras B, Sonmez GT. Article PubMed Google Scholar Salmoni AW, Schmidt RA, Walter CB.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Wälchli M, Ruffieux J, Bourquin Y, Keller M, Taube W. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Argus CK, Gill ND, Keogh JW, Hopkins WG. Article PubMed Google Scholar Weakley J, Wilson K, Till K, Banyard H, Dyson J, Phibbs P, et al.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Ok DP, Bae JY. Article Google Scholar Weakley J, Wilson K, Till K, Darrall-Jones J, Roe G, Phibbs P, et al. Article Google Scholar Pérez-Castilla A, Jiménez-Alonso A, Cepero M, Miras-Moreno S, Rojas FJ, García-Ramos A. Article Google Scholar Jiménez-Alonso A, García-Ramos A, Cepero M, Miras-Moreno S, Rojas FJ, Pérez-Castilla A.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Nagata A, Doma K, Yamashita D, Hasegawa H, Mori S. Article PubMed Google Scholar Randell AD, Cronin JB, Keogh JW, Gill ND, Pedersen MC. Article PubMed Google Scholar Vanderka M, Bezák A, Longová K, Krcmár M, Walker S.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Weakley J, Till K, Sampson J, Banyard H, Leduc C, Wilson K, et al. Article Google Scholar Winchester JB, Porter JM, Mcbride JM. Article PubMed Google Scholar Page M, Mckenzie J, Bossuyt P, Boutron I, Hoffmann T, Mulrow C, et al.

Google Scholar Cooper H, Hedges LV, Valentine JC. Google Scholar Steele J, Plotkin D, Van Every D, Rosa A, Zambrano H, Mendelovits B, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Downs SH, Black N.

Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Crang ZL, Duthie G, Cole MH, Weakley J, Hewitt A, Johnston RD. Article PubMed Google Scholar Weakley J, Morrison M, García-Ramos A, Johnston R, James L, Cole M.

Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Weakley J, Halson SL, Mujika I. Article PubMed Google Scholar Team R. Article Google Scholar Cohen J.

The Role of Physiological Adaptation in Endurance Performance

Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men. J App Physiol. Article CAS Google Scholar. Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, Mazara N, Mcglory C, Quadrilatero J, et al.

Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. J Appl Physiol. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Kohl HW, Craig CL, Lambert EV, Inoue S, Alkandari JR, Leetongin G, et al.

The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health. The Lancet. Rhodes RE, Lubans DR, Karunamuni N, Kennedy S, Plotnikoff R. Factors associated with participation in resistance training: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Health DO.

Canberra: Department of Health; Organization WH. Recommended levels of physical activity for adults aged 18—64 years. Geneva: World Health Organisation; Bennie JA, Pedisic Z, Van Uffelen JGZ, Charity MJ, Harvey JT, Banting LK, et al.

Pumping iron in australia: prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle strengthening activity participation from a national sample of , adults.

PLoS ONE. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Burd NA, West DW, Staples AW, Atherton PJ, Baker JM, Moore DR, et al. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

Jenkins NDM, Miramonti AA, Hill EC, Smith CM, Cochrane-Snyman KC, Housh TJ, et al. Greater neural adaptations following high- vs.

low-load resistance training. Front Physiol. Lim C, Kim HJ, Morton RW, Harris R, Phillips SM, Jeong TS, et al. Resistance exercise—induced changes in muscle phenotype are load dependent. Lasevicius T, Schoenfeld BJ, Silva-Batista C, Barros TS, Aihara AY, Brendon H, et al. Muscle failure promotes greater muscle hypertrophy in low-load but not in high-load resistance training.

J Strength Cond Res. Nóbrega SR, Ugrinowitsch C, Pintanel L, Barcelos C, Libardi CA. Effect of resistance training to muscle failure vs. volitional interruption at high-and low-intensities on muscle mass and strength. Schoenfeld BJ, Peterson MD, Ogborn D, Contreras B, Sonmez GT.

Effects of low-vs. high-load resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in well-trained men. Morton RW, Sonne MW, Farias Zuniga A, Mohammad IYZ, Jones A, Mcglory C, et al.

Muscle fibre activation is unaffected by load and repetition duration when resistance exercise is performed to task failure. J Physiol. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Williamson D, Gallagher P, Harber M, Hollon C, Trappe S. Mitogen-activated protein kinase mapk pathway activation: effects of age and acute exercise on human skeletal muscle.

Duchateau J, Semmler JG, Enoka RM. Training adaptations in the behavior of human motor units. Vigotsky AD, Ogborn D, Phillips SM.

Motor unit recruitment cannot be inferred from surface emg amplitude and basic reporting standards must be adhered to. Eur J Appl Physiol. Vigotsky AD, Halperin I, Trajano GS, Vieira TM.

Longing for a longitudinal proxy: acutely measured surface emg amplitude is not a validated predictor of muscle hypertrophy. Sports Med. Sheppard JM, Triplett NT. Program design for resistance training. In: Haff GG, Triplett NT, editors. Essentials of strength training and conditioning.

Champaign: Human Kinetics; Carvalho L, Junior RM, Barreira J, Schoenfeld BJ, Orazem J, Barroso R. Muscle hypertrophy and strength gains after resistance training with different volume-matched loads: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab.

Lasevicius T, Ugrinowitsch C, Schoenfeld BJ, Roschel H, Tavares LD, De Souza EO, et al. Effects of different intensities of resistance training with equated volume load on muscle strength and hypertrophy. Eur J Sport Sci. Schoenfeld BJ, Grgic J, Ogborn D, Krieger JW.

Strength and hypertrophy adaptations between low- vs High-load resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Holm L, Reitelseder S, Pedersen TG, Doessing S, Petersen SG, Flyvbjerg A, et al. Changes in muscle size and mhc composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity.

Baker D, Wilson G, Carlyon B. Generality versus specificity: a comparison of dynamic and isometric measures of strength and speed-strength.

Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. Schoenfeld BJ, Grgic J, Van Every DW, Plotkin DL. Loading recommendations for muscle strength, hypertrophy, and local endurance: a re-examination of the repetition continuum. Netreba A, Popov D, Bravyy Y, Lyubaeva E, Terada M, Ohira T, et al.

Responses of knee extensor muscles to leg press training of various types in human. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Vinogradova OL, Popov DV, Netreba AI, Tsvirkun DV, Kurochkina NS, Bachinin AV, et al. Optimization of training: development of a new partial load mode of strength training.

Fiziol Cheloveka. Schoenfeld BJ, Vigotsky AD, Grgic J, Haun C, Contreras B, Delcastillo K, et al. Do the anatomical and physiological properties of a muscle determine its adaptive response to different loading protocols? Physiol Rep. Visser M, Goodpaster BH, Kritchevsky SB, Newman AB, Nevitt M, Rubin SM, et al.

Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Visser M, Kritchevsky SB, Goodpaster BH, Newman AB, Nevitt M, Stamm E, et al.

Leg muscle mass and composition in relation to lower extremity performance in men and women aged 70 to the health, aging and body composition study.

J Am Geriatr Soc. Mcleod JC, Stokes T, Phillips SM. Resistance exercise training as a primary countermeasure to age-related chronic disease. Newman AB, Simonsick EM, Naydeck BL, Boudreau RM, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt MC, et al. Association of long-distance corridor walk performance with mortality, cardiovascular disease, mobility limitation, and disability.

J Am Med Assoc. Jadczak AD, Makwana N, Luscombe-Marsh N, Visvanathan R, Schultz TJ. Effectiveness of exercise interventions on physical function in community-dwelling frail older people: an umbrella review of systematic reviews.

JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep. Prevett C, Moncion K, Phillips S, Richardson J, Tang A. The role of resistance training in mitigating risk for mobility disability in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Phys Med Rehab. De Vries NM, Van Ravensberg CD, Hobbelen JS, Olde Rikkert MG, Staal JB, Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden MW. Ageing Res Rev. Lustosa LP, Silva JP, Coelho FM, Pereira DS, Parentoni AN, Pereira LS. Impact of resistance exercise program on functional capacity and muscular strength of knee extensor in pre-frail community-dwelling older women: a randomized crossover trial.

Rev Bras Fisioter. Thiebaud D, Jacot E, Defronzo RA, Maeder E, Jequier E, Felber JP. The effect of graded doses of insulin on total glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and glucose storage in man.

Holloszy JO. Exercise-induced increase in muscle insulin sensitivity. Gordon BA, Benson AC, Bird SR, Fraser SF. Resistance training improves metabolic health in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. Yang P, Swardfager W, Fernandes D, Laredo S, Tomlinson G, Oh PI, et al. Finding the optimal volume and intensity of resistance training exercise for type 2 diabetes: the forte study, a randomized trial. Association AH. American heart association recommendations for physical activity in adults and kids.

Kamada M, Shiroma EJ, Buring JE, Miyachi M, Lee IM. Strength training and all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality in older women: a cohort study. J Am Heart Assoc. Macdougall JD, Tuxen D, Sale DG, Moroz JR, Sutton JR.

Arterial blood pressure response to heavy resistance exercise. Hollings M, Mavros Y, Freeston J, Fiatarone SM. The effect of progressive resistance training on aerobic fitness and strength in adults with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Eur J Prev Cardiol. Srikanthan P, Horwich TB, Tseng CH. Relation of muscle mass and fat mass to cardiovascular disease mortality. Am J Cardiol. Ruiz JR, Sui X, Lobelo F, Morrow JR Jr, Jackson AW, Sjöström M, et al. Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study.

Kim Y, Wijndaele K, Lee DC, Sharp SJ, Wareham N, Brage S. Independent and joint associations of grip strength and adiposity with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in , adults: the UK biobank study.

Am J Clin Nutr. Cornelissen VA, Smart NA. Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lira FS, Yamashita AS, Uchida MC, Zanchi NE, Gualano B, Martins E, et al. Low and moderate, rather than high intensity strength exercise induces benefit regarding plasma lipid profile.

Diabetol Metab Syndr. Sheikholeslami Vatani D, Ahmadi S, Ahmadi Dehrashid K, Gharibi F. Changes in cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers of young, healthy, men after six weeks of moderate or high intensity resistance training.

J Sports Med Phys Fit. Grgic J, Schoenfeld BJ. Stat Med. Nakagawa S, Lagisz M, Jennions MD, Koricheva J, Noble DWA, Parker TH, et al. Methods for testing publication bias in ecological and evolutionary meta-analyses.

Method Ecol Evol. Higgins J, Thomas J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, Li T, Page MJ, et al. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, vol.

New York: Wiley; Wilson KM, Helton WS, De Joux NR, Head JR, Weakley JJ. Real-time quantitative performance feedback during strength exercise improves motivation, competitiveness, mood, and performance. Proc Hum Factors Ergon Soc. Velocity performance feedback during the free-weight bench press testing procedure: an effective strategy to increase the reliability and one repetition maximum accuracy prediction.

Chalker WJ, Shield AJ, Opar DA, Rathbone EN, Keogh JW. Effect of acute augmented feedback on between limb asymmetries and eccentric knee flexor strength during the nordic hamstring exercise.

Winchester JB, Erickson TM, Blaak JB, Mcbride JM. Changes in bar-path kinematics and kinetics after power-clean training. PubMed Google Scholar. Sakadjian A, Panchuk D, Pearce AJ.

Kinematic and kinetic improvements associated with action observation facilitated learning of the power clean in Australian footballers. Ekblom M, Eriksson M. Concurrent EMG feedback acutely improves strength and muscle activation. Eur J App Physiol. Article CAS Google Scholar. Hopper DM, Berg MA, Andersen H, Madan R.

The influence of visual feedback on power during leg press on elite women field hockey players. Phys Ther Sport. Campenella B, Mattacola CG, Kimura IF. Effect of visual feedback and verbal encouragement on concentric quadriceps and hamstrings peak torque of males and females.

Isokinet Exerc Sci. Kimura IF, Gulick DT, Lukasiewicz Iii WC. Effect of visual feedback and verbal encouragement on eccentric quadriceps and hamstrings peak torque. Res Sport Med. Keller M, Lauber B, Gehring D, Leukel C, Taube W. Jump performance and augmented feedback: immediate benefits and long-term training effects.

Hum Mov Sci. Wilson KM, De Joux NR, Head JR, Helton WS, Dang JS, Weakley JJ. Presenting objective visual performance feedback over multiple sets of resistance exercise improves motivation, competitiveness, and performance.

Weakley J, Ramirez-Lopez C, Mclaren S, Dalton-Barron N, Weaving D, Jones B, et al. Garcia-Ramos A, Barboza-Gonzalez P, Ulloa-Diaz D, Rodriguez-Perea A, Martinez-Garcia D, Guede-Rojas F, et al.

Reliability and validity of different methods of estimating the one-repetition maximum during the free-weight prone bench pull exercise. J Sports Sci. García-Ramos A, Janicijevic D, González-Hernández JM, Keogh JWL, Weakley J. Reliability of the velocity achieved during the last repetition of sets to failure and its association with the velocity of the 1-repetition maximum.

García-Ramos A, Jukic I, Weakley J, Janićijević D. Bench press one-repetition maximum estimation through the individualised load-velocity relationship: comparison of different regression models and minimal velocity thresholds.

Int J Sports Physiol Perf. González-Badillo JJ, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Sánchez-Medina L, Gorostiaga EM, Pareja-Blanco F. Maximal intended velocity training induces greater gains in bench press performance than deliberately slower half-velocity training.

Eur J Sport Sci. Behm DG, Sale DG. Intended rather than actual movement velocity determines velocity-specific training response.

J App Physiol. Cormie P, Mcguigan MR, Newton RU. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training. Morin J-B, Slawinski J, Dorel S, De Villareal ES, Couturier A, Samozino P, et al. Acceleration capability in elite sprinters and ground impulse: push more, brake less?

J Biomech. Nagahara R, Mizutani M, Matsuo A, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. Association of sprint performance with ground reaction forces during acceleration and maximal speed phases in a single sprint.

J Appl Biomech. Weakley J, Wilson K, Till K, Read D, Scantlebury S, Sawczuk T, et al. Visual kinematic feedback enhances velocity, power, motivation and competitiveness in adolescent female athletes. J Aust Strength Cond. Keller M, Lauber B, Gottschalk M, Taube W. Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention.

Weakley J, Mann B, Banyard H, Mclaren S, Scott T, Garcia-Ramos A. Velocity-based training: from theory to application. Strength Cond J. Morrison M, Martin DT, Talpey S, Scanlan AT, Delaney J, Halson SL, et al.

A systematic review on fitness testing in adult male basketball players: tests adopted, characteristics reported and recommendations for practice. Owen C, Till K, Phibbs P, Read DJ, Weakley J, Atkinson M, et al. A multidimensional approach to identifying the physical qualities of male English regional academy rugby union players; considerations of position, chronological age, relative age and maturation.

Weakley J, Black G, McLaren S, Scantlebury S, Suchomel T, McMahon E, Watts D, Read DB. Testing and profiling athletes: recommendations for test selection, implementation, and maximizing information. Download references. School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, McAuley at Banyo, Brisbane, Australia.

Jonathon Weakley, Nicholas Cowley, Ryan G. Sports Performance, Recovery, Injury and New Technologies SPRINT Research Centre, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Carnegie Applied Rugby Research CARR Centre, Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK.

Department of Exercise Science and Recreation, CUNY Lehman College, Bronx, NY, USA. Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Institute of Sport, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.

Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Department of Sports Sciences and Physical Conditioning, Faculty of Education, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile.

Healthy Brain and Mind Research Centre, School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Jonathon Weakley.

At no point was funding received by any of the authors for the writing of this manuscript. The publishing of this article open access has been made possible by the UK Read and Publish Springer Compact agreement.

Nicholas Cowley, Dale B. Read, Ryan Timmins, Amador García-Ramos, and Thomas B. McGuckian declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Brad J. Schoenfeld serves on the scientific advisory board of Tonal Corporation, a manufacturer of fitness equipment. All data and material reported in this systematic review and meta-analysis are from peer-reviewed publications.

Jonathon Weakley, Dale B. Read, Ryan Timmins, and Amador García-Ramos conceptualised the review and criteria. Jonathon Weakley, Nicholas Cowley, and Thomas B. McGuckian completed the screening and data extraction of all data within this manuscript.

All authors created the tables and figures. All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript. All authors reviewed, refined, and approved the final manuscript. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.

If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Reprints and permissions. Weakley, J. et al. The Effect of Feedback on Resistance Training Performance and Adaptations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sports Med 53 , — Download citation. Accepted : 12 June Published : 06 July Issue Date : September Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Download PDF.

Abstract Background Augmented feedback is often used during resistance training to enhance acute physical performance and has shown promise as a method of improving chronic physical adaptation.

Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to 1 establish the evidence for the effects of feedback on acute resistance training performance and chronic training adaptations; 2 quantify the effects of feedback on acute kinematic outcomes and changes in physical adaptations; and 3 assess the effects of moderating factors on the influence of feedback during resistance training.

Methods Twenty studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Results Feedback enhanced acute kinetic and kinematic outputs, muscular endurance, motivation, competitiveness, and perceived effort, while greater improvements in speed, strength, jump performance, and technical competency were reported when feedback was provided chronically.

Conclusions Feedback during resistance training can lead to enhanced acute performance within a training session and greater chronic adaptations. Influence of 8-weeks of supervised static stretching or resistance training of pectoral major muscles on maximal strength, muscle thickness and range of motion Article Open access 19 January No Time to Lift?

Designing Time-Efficient Training Programs for Strength and Hypertrophy: A Narrative Review Article Open access 14 June Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript. FormalPara Key Points When feedback is provided during resistance training, kinetic and kinematic outputs are enhanced, with barbell velocity significantly increasing by approximately 8.

PRISMA flow diagram detailing inclusion and exclusion of manuscripts. Full size image. Table 1 Summary of acute feedback studies included in the systematic review Full size table.

Table 2 Summary of chronic feedback studies included in the systematic review Full size table. Table 3 Moderator analysis of feedback variables Full size table. Summary of the acute and chronic effects of feedback during resistance training.

References Moore DA, Jones B, Weakley J, Whitehead S, Till K. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Mcleod JC, Stokes T, Phillips SM. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Till K, Darrall-Jones J, Weakley JJ, Roe GA, Jones BL.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Weakley J, Till K, Darrall-Jones J, Roe GA, Phibbs PJ, Read DB, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, Mazara N, Mcglory C, Quadrilatero J, et al. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Banyard HG, Tufano JJ, Weakley JJS, Wu S, Jukic I, Nosaka K.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Bird SP, Tarpenning KM, Marino FE. Article PubMed Google Scholar García-Ramos A, Ulloa-Díaz D, Barboza-González P, Rodríguez-Perea Á, Martínez-García D, Quidel-Catrilelbún M, et al.

Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Pearson M, García-Ramos A, Morrison M, Ramirez-Lopez C, Dalton-Barron N, Weakley J. Google Scholar Schoenfeld BJ, Peterson MD, Ogborn D, Contreras B, Sonmez GT.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Salmoni AW, Schmidt RA, Walter CB. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Wälchli M, Ruffieux J, Bourquin Y, Keller M, Taube W. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Argus CK, Gill ND, Keogh JW, Hopkins WG.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Weakley J, Wilson K, Till K, Banyard H, Dyson J, Phibbs P, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Ok DP, Bae JY. Article Google Scholar Weakley J, Wilson K, Till K, Darrall-Jones J, Roe G, Phibbs P, et al. Article Google Scholar Pérez-Castilla A, Jiménez-Alonso A, Cepero M, Miras-Moreno S, Rojas FJ, García-Ramos A.

Article Google Scholar Jiménez-Alonso A, García-Ramos A, Cepero M, Miras-Moreno S, Rojas FJ, Pérez-Castilla A. Article PubMed Google Scholar Nagata A, Doma K, Yamashita D, Hasegawa H, Mori S. Article PubMed Google Scholar Randell AD, Cronin JB, Keogh JW, Gill ND, Pedersen MC.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Vanderka M, Bezák A, Longová K, Krcmár M, Walker S. Article PubMed Google Scholar Weakley J, Till K, Sampson J, Banyard H, Leduc C, Wilson K, et al.

Article Google Scholar Winchester JB, Porter JM, Mcbride JM. Article PubMed Google Scholar Page M, Mckenzie J, Bossuyt P, Boutron I, Hoffmann T, Mulrow C, et al. Google Scholar Cooper H, Hedges LV, Valentine JC. Google Scholar Steele J, Plotkin D, Van Every D, Rosa A, Zambrano H, Mendelovits B, et al.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Downs SH, Black N. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Crang ZL, Duthie G, Cole MH, Weakley J, Hewitt A, Johnston RD.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Weakley J, Morrison M, García-Ramos A, Johnston R, James L, Cole M. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Weakley J, Halson SL, Mujika I.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Team R. Article Google Scholar Cohen J. Book Google Scholar Weakley JJS, Till K, Read DB, Leduc C, Roe GB, Phibbs PJ, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Weakley J, Munteanu G, Cowley N, Johnston R, Morrison M, Gardiner C, et al.

Google Scholar Weakley J, Chalkley D, Johnston R, García-Ramos A, Townshend A, Dorrell H, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Janicijevic D, García-Ramos A, Lamas-Cepero JL, García-Pinillos F, Marcos-Blanco A, Rojas FJ, et al. Article Google Scholar López-López JA, Page MJ, Lipsey MW, Higgins JPT.

Article Google Scholar Inthout J, Ioannidis JPA, Borm GF. Article Google Scholar Hartung J, Knapp G. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Nakagawa S, Lagisz M, Jennions MD, Koricheva J, Noble DWA, Parker TH, et al.

Article Google Scholar Higgins J, Thomas J, Chandler J, Cumpston M, Li T, Page MJ, et al. Google Scholar Wilson KM, Helton WS, De Joux NR, Head JR, Weakley JJ. Google Scholar Jiménez-Alonso A, García-Ramos A, Cepero M, Miras-Moreno S, Rojas FJ, Pérez-Castilla A.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Chalker WJ, Shield AJ, Opar DA, Rathbone EN, Keogh JW. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Winchester JB, Erickson TM, Blaak JB, Mcbride JM. PubMed Google Scholar Sakadjian A, Panchuk D, Pearce AJ.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Ekblom M, Eriksson M. Article CAS Google Scholar Hopper DM, Berg MA, Andersen H, Madan R. Article Google Scholar Campenella B, Mattacola CG, Kimura IF. Article Google Scholar Kimura IF, Gulick DT, Lukasiewicz Iii WC.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Haugen T, McGhie D, Ettema G. Sprint running: from fundamental mechanics to practice — a review. Eur J Appl Physiol. Scientific report on the second IAAF World Championships in athletics, Rome Bruggemann G, Glad B.

Time analysis of the sprint events. Scientific research project at the games of the XXXIV Olympiad Seoul , IAAF supplement Ae M, Ito A, Suzuki M. Scientific research project at the III World Championship in athletics, Tokyo New Stud Athl. Kersting U. Biomechanical analysis of the sprinting events.

In: Brüggemann G, editor. Ferro A, Riveral A, Pagola I, Ferreruela M, Martin A, Rocandio V. A kinematic study of the sprint events at the World Championships in athletics in Sevilla. In: 20th International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports; Biomechanics research project in the IAAF World Championships Daegu Graubner R, Nixdorf E.

Biomechanical analysis of the sprint and hurdles events at the IAAF World Championships in athletics. Bissas A, Walker J, Tucker C, Paradisis G, Merlino S.

Biomechanical report for the IAAF World Championships in London, Morin JB, Edouard P, Samozino P. Technical ability of force application as a determinant factor of sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc.

Morin JB, Bourdin M, Edouard P, Peyrot N, Samozino P, Lacour JR. Mechanical determinants of m sprint running performance. Haugen T, Breitschädel F, Seiler S.

Sprint mechanical variables in elite athletes: are force-velocity profiles sport specific or individual? Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Seiler S, De Koning JJ, Foster C. The fall and rise of the gender difference in elite anaerobic performance Haugen T, Paulsen G, Seiler S, Sandbakk O.

New records in human power. Rabita G, Dorel S, Slawinski J, Sàez-de-Villarreal E, Couturier A, Samozino P, et al. Sprint mechanics in world-class athletes: a new insight into the limits of human locomotion.

Ettema G, McGhie D, Danielsen J, Sandbakk Ø, Haugen T. On the existence of step-to-step breakpoint transitions in accelerated sprinting.

Haugen T, Danielsen J, Alnes LO, McGhie D, Sandbakk O, Ettema G. Nagahara R, Naito H, Morin JB, Zushi K. Association of acceleration with spatiotemporal variables in maximal sprinting.

Int J Sports Med. Nagahara R, Zushi K. Development of maximal speed sprinting performance with changes in vertical, leg and joint stiffness. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. PubMed Google Scholar. Kunz H, Kaufmann DA. Biomechanical analysis of sprinting: decathletes versus champions.

Br J Sports Med. Mann R, Herman J. Int J Sport Biomech. Article Google Scholar. Hunter JP, Marshall RN, McNair PJ. Segment-interaction analysis of the stance limb in sprint running.

J Biomech. Relationships between ground reaction force impulse and kinematics of sprint-running acceleration.

J Appl Biomech. Kugler F, Janshen L. Body position determines propulsive forces in accelerated running. Colyer SL, Nagahara R, Salo AIT. Kinetic demands of sprinting shift across the acceleration phase: novel analysis of entire force waveforms. Colyer SL, Nagahara R, Takai Y, Salo AIT.

How sprinters accelerate beyond the velocity plateau of soccer players: waveform analysis of ground reaction forces. Nagahara R, Mizutani M, Matsuo A, Kanehisa H, Fukunaga T. Association of sprint performance with ground reaction forces during acceleration and maximal speed phases in a single sprint.

Bezodis NE, Willwacher, Salo AIT. The biomechanics of the track and field sprint start: a narrative review. Ross A, Leveritt M, Riek S. Neural influences on sprint running: training adaptations and acute responses. Fitts RH. Cellular mechanisms of muscle fatigue. Physiol Rev. Glaister M. Multiple sprint work: physiological responses, mechanisms of fatigue and the influence of aerobic fitness.

Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bishop D. Repeated-sprint ability - part I: factors contributing to fatigue. Brocherie F, Millet GP, Morin JB, Girard O. Mechanical alterations to repeated treadmill sprints in normobaric hypoxia.

Chelly SM, Denis C. Leg power and hopping stiffness: relationship with sprint running performance. Girard O, Micallef JP, Millet GP.

Changes in spring-mass model characteristics during repeated running sprints. Girard O, Brocherie F, Morin JB, Millet GP. Running mechanical alterations during repeated treadmill sprints in hot versus hypoxic environments. A pilot study. J Sports Sci. Girard O, Brocherie F, Tomazin K, Farooq A, Morin JB.

Changes in running mechanics over m, m and m treadmill sprints. Morin JB, Jeannin T, Chevallier B, Belli A. Spring-mass model characteristics during sprint running: correlation with performance and fatigue-induced changes. Duffield R, Dawson B, Goodman C. Energy system contribution to m and m track running events.

J Sci Med Sport. Tucker R, Santos-Concejero J, Collins M. The genetic basis for elite running performance. Lucia A, Oliván J, Gómez-Gallego F, Santiago C, Montil M, Foster C.

Citius and longius faster and longer with no alpha-actinin-3 in skeletal muscles? Smith DJ. A framework for understanding the training process leading to elite performance. Del Coso J, Hiam D, Houweling P, Pérez LM, Eynon N, Lucía A.

Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Malina RM, Bouchard C, Beunen G. Human growth: selected aspects of current research on well-nourished children. Annu Rev Anthropol. Malina RM, Bouchard C, Bar-Or O. Growth, maturation and physical activity.

Champaign: Human Kinetics; Tønnessen E, Svendsen I, Olsen IC, Guttormsen A, Haugen T. Performance development in adolescent track and field athletes according to age, sex and sport discipline. Hollings SC, Hopkins WG, Hume PA. Age at peak performance of successful track and field athletes.

Int J Sports Sci Coach. Allen SV, Hopkins WG. Age of peak competitive performance of elite athletes: a systematic review. Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Seiler S. Invited commentary. Boccia G, Moisè P, Franceschi A, Trova F, Panero D, La Torre A, et al. Career performance trajectories in track and field jumping events from youth to senior success: the importance of learning and development.

Harman SM, Metter EJ, Tobin JD, Pearson J, Blackman MR. Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab ;86 2 — Korhonen MT, Cristea A, Alen M, Hakkinen K, Sipila S, Mero A, et al. Aging, muscle fiber type, and contractile function in sprint-trained athletes. J Appl Physiol. Hunter SK, Pereira HM, Keenan KG.

The aging neuromuscular system and motor performance. Hollings SC, Hume PA, Hopkins WG. Relative-age effect on competition outcomes at the World Youth and World unior Athletics Championships. Eur J Sport Sci. Hollings SC, Mallett CJ, Hume PA.

Boccia G, Brustio PR, Moisè P, Franceschi A, La Torre A, Schena F, et al. Elite national athletes reach their peak performance later than non-elite in sprints and throwing events.

Lloyd RS, Oliver JL, Faigenbaum AD, Howard R, De Ste Croix MB, Williams CA, et al. Long-term athletic development, part 2: barriers to success and potential solutions.

Long-term athletic development- part 1: a pathway for all youth. Helsen WF, Starkes JL, Hodges NJ. Team sports and the theory of deliberate practice. J Sport Exerc Psychol. Ericson KA, Krampe RT, Tesch-Romer C. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Physiol Rec.

Usain Bolt biography. Assessed 10 Oct Delorme TL, Watkins AL. Techniques of progressive resistance exercise. Arch Phys Med. Gabbett TJ. The training-injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder? Windt J, Gabbett TJ. How do training and competition workloads relate to injury?

The workload-injury aetiology model. Haugen T, Danielsen J, McGhie D, Sandbakk Ø, Ettema G. Kinematic asymmetry in the stride cycle is not associated with performance and injuries in athletic sprinters. Sale D, MacDougall D. Specificity in strength training: a review for the coach and athlete.

Can J Appl Sport Sci. Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, Dudley GA, Dooly C, Feigenbaum MS, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand.

Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Stone MH, Potteiger JA, Pierce KC, Proulx CM, O'Bryant HS, Johnson RL, et al. Comparison of the effects of three different weight-training programs on the one repetition maximum squat. Kiely J. Periodization paradigms in the 21st century: evidence-led or tradition-driven?

Matveyev LP. Periodisierung des sportlichen trainings. Verkhoshansky Y. Programming and organization of training. Livonia: Sportivny Press; Seiler KS, Kjerland GØ. Seiler KS. What is best practice for training intensity and duration distribution in endurance athletes? Morin JB, Samozino P.

Interpreting power-force-velocity profiles for individualised and specific training. Bosco C, Tihanyi J, Viru A. Relationships between field fitness test and basal serum testosterone and cortisol levels in soccer players. Clin Physiol. Epstein RH. Aroused: a history of hormones and how they control just about everything.

Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA, Nindl BC. Recovery responses of testosterone, growth hormone, and IGF-1 after resistance exercise. Samozino P, Rabita G, Dorel S, Slawinski J, Peyrot N, Saez de Villarreal E, et al.

A simple method for measuring power, force, velocity properties, and mechanical effectiveness in sprint running. Cross MR, Brughelli M, Samozino P, Morin JB. Methods of power-force-velocity profiling during sprint running: a narrative review. Rakovic E, Paulsen G, Helland C, Eriksrud O, Haugen T.

The effect of individualised sprint training in elite female team sport athletes: a pilot study. Lai A, Schache AG, Brown NA, Pandy MG. Human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon mechanics and energetics during maximum acceleration sprinting.

J R Soc Interface. Article PubMed Central PubMed Google Scholar. Miller RH, Umberger BR, Caldwell GE. Sensitivity of maximum sprinting speed to characteristic parameters of the muscle force-velocity relationship.

Weyand PG, Sandell RF, Prime DN, Bundle MW. The biological limits to running speed are imposed from the ground up. Helland C, Haugen T, Rakovic E, Eriksrud O, Seynnes O, Mero AA, et al.

Force-velocity profiling of sprinting athletes: single-run vs. multiple-run methods. Seiler S, Jøranson K, Olesen BV, Hetlelid KJ. Adaptations to aerobic interval training: interactive effects of exercise intensity and total work duration.

Tønnessen E, Shalfawi S, Haugen T, Enoksen E. The effect of m repeated sprint training on maximum sprinting speed, repeated sprint endurance, vertical jump and aerobic capacity in young elite male soccer players. Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Leirstein S, Hem E, Seiler S.

Haugen T, Tønnessen E, Øksenholt Ø, Haugen FL, Paulsen G, Enoksen E, Seiler S. Sprint conditioning of soccer players: effects of training intensity and technique supervision.

Jakeman JR, McMullan J, Babraj JA. Efficacy of a four-week uphill sprint training intervention in field hockey players.

Kavaliauskas M, Kilvington R, Babraj J. Effects of in-season uphill sprinting on physical characteristics in semi-professional soccer players. Cross MR, Lahti J, Brown SR, Chedati M, Jimenez-Reyes P, Samozino P, et al.

Training at maximal power in resisted sprinting: optimal load determination methodology and pilot results in team sport athletes. Lockie RG, Murphy AJ, Spinks CD. Effects of resisted sled towing on sprint kinematics in field-sport athletes.

Cross MR, Brughelli M, Samozino P, Brown SR, Morin JB. Optimal loading for maximizing power during sled-resisted sprinting. Morin JB, Petrakos G, Jiménez-Reyes P, Brown SR, Samozino P, Cross MR. Very-heavy sled training for improving horizontal-force output in soccer players.

Kristensen GO, van den Tillaar R, Ettema GJ. Velocity specificity in early-phase sprint training. Cissik JM. Means and methods of speed training, part II. Strength Cond J. Mero A, Komi PV.

Force-, EMG-, and elasticity-velocity relationships at submaximal, maximal and supramaximal running speeds in sprinters. Clark DA, Sabick MB, Pfeiffer RP, Kuhlman SM, Knigge NA, Shea KG.

Influence of towing force magnitude on the kinematics of supramaximal sprinting. Schmidt RA, Wrisberg CA. Motor learning and performance: a situation based learning approach.

Stodden DF, Gao Z, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ. Dynamic relationships between motor skill competence and health-related fitness in youth. Pediatr Exerc Sci. Stodden DF, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ, Roberton MA, Rudisill ME, Garcia C, et al.

A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: an emergent relationship. Porter JM, Wu WF, Crossley RM, Knopp SW, Campbell OC. Adopting an external focus of attention improves sprinting performance in low-skilled sprinters.

Wulf G. Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 year. Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol. Winkelman NC, Clark KP, Ryan LJ. Experience level influences the effect of attentional focus on sprint performance.

Hum Mov Sci. Porter JM, Wu WFW, Partridge JA. Focus of attention and verbal instructions: strategies of elite track and field coaches and athletes. Sport Sci Rev. Benz A, Winkelman N, Porter J, Nimphius S. Coaching instructions and cues for enhancing sprint performance. Cormie P, McGuigan MR, Newton RU.

Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production. Helland C, Hole E, Iversen E, Olsson MC, Seynnes O, Solberg PA, Paulsen G.

Training strategies to improve muscle power: is Olympic-style weightlifting relevant? Seitz LB, Reyes A, Tran TT, Saez de Villarreal E, Haff GG. Increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

Harries SK, Lubans DR, Callister R. Resistance training to improve power and sports performance in adolescent athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Moir G, Sanders R, Button C, Glaister M. The effect of periodized resistance training on accelerative sprint performance. Sports Biomech. Comyns TM, Harrison AJ, Hennessy LK.

Effect of squatting on sprinting performance and repeated exposure to complex training in male rugby players. Uth N. Anthropometric comparison of world-class sprinters and normal populations. J Sports Sci Med. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Loturco I, Contreras B, Kobal R, Fernandes V, Moura N, Siqueira F, et al. Vertically and horizontally directed muscle power exercises: relationships with top-level sprint performance. Delecluse C, Coppenolle HV, Willems E, Van Leemputte M, Diels R, Goris M. Influence of high-resistance and high velocity training on sprint performance.

Young WB. Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance. Wathen D. NSCA J. Sáez de Villarreal E, Requena B, Cronin JB.

The effects of plyometric training on sprint performance: a meta-analysis. Nédélec M, Halson S, Delecroix B, Abaidia AE, Ahmaidi S, Dupont G. Sleep hygiene and recovery strategies in elite soccer players. Gupta L, Morgan K, Gilchrist S. Does elite sport degrade sleep quality? A systematic review.

Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. American College of Sports Medicine joint position statement. Nutrition and athletic performance.

Nédélec M, McCall A, Carling C, Legall F, Berthoin S, Dupont G. Recovery in soccer: part ii-recovery strategies. Barnett A. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help? Ortiz RO Jr, Sinclair Elder AJ, Elder CL, Dawes JJ.

A systematic review on the effectiveness of active recovery interventions on athletic performance of professional-, collegiate-, and competitive-level adult athletes. Van Hooren B, Peake JM. Do we need a cool-down after exercise?

A narrative review of the psychophysiological effects and the effects on performance, injuries and the long-term adaptive response.

Physiological Adaptations - HSC PDHPE

Athletes who want to improve endurance performance should know where they stand relative to the markers often used to identify physiological adaptations. Doing so will help them ascertain which physiological adaptations will best aid them in achieving their endurance performance goals. Moxy Monitor.

VO2 Max Elite endurance athletes have very high VO2 max readings; however, evidence suggests that a person's VO2 max is largely genetically predetermined, reports Sports Fitness Advisor. Lactate Threshold While VO2 max determines one's limit in aerobic performance, the lactate threshold is responsible for the time an athlete may remain training at this limit.

Exercise Economy Alone, VO2 max and lactate threshold are not enough to determine an athlete's performance. Substrate Utilization A body's energy system can use either fat or carbohydrate stores in order to produce energy.

Central Cardiovascular Physiological Adaptations Decreased heart rate Increased heart stroke volume Increased blood plasma Reduced blood viscosity Increased cardiac output Increased mitochondrial volume in muscle fibers being used Increase in number and size of myoglobin and oxidative enzymes Peripheral Physiological Adaptations Capillarization; there is an increase in the surface area supplied by the venous and arterial capillaries.

This allows for increased heat dissipation during intense exercise. Improved glycogen and fat storing capabilities in muscles; this allows for an increase heat dissipation during intense exercise, lengthening the time an athlete can work out.

Development of slow twitch type 1 fibers; these increase efficiency and resistance to fatigue. Oxygen transportation and distribution efficiency increases. Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author.

Overview Articles Authors Impact. About this Research Topic Submission closed. In this regard, numerous questions continue to arise regarding the quantitative and qualitative aspects of sports training, which gives rise to new training systems and assessment methodologies in all modalities.

Sports performance is directly linked to physiological variables, which, in turn, depend directly on the biomechanical profiles and motor strategies adopted. Thus, variations in these characteristics can lead to significant improvements and, therefore, must be controlled effectively.

Therefore, a more in-depth analysis of the dose-response effect in the different modalities is needed, as well as the creation of effective and efficient training programs aimed at improving performance and justified essentially by physiological assumptions. In addition, knowledge of the physiological adaptations resulting from the dynamics of performance and behaviour during competition can be extremely useful for the optimization of the training process in different sports.

The musculoskeletal adaptations should be related, independently or crosswise, to changes in muscle fibers, mitochondrial biogenesis, muscle buffer capacity, coordination aspects between primary and secondary signaling pathways in muscle fibers, biochemical changes in muscle, or peripheral and central control mechanisms of adaptation.

Recommendations and considerations can be found in Fig. A substantial body of evidence supports the use of lower load resistance training for inducing improvements in muscle hypertrophy and strength.

These improvements have tangible benefits for healthy populations and those at risk for developing chronic diseases. However, despite the evidence available, there is still hesitancy and skepticism over the practicality of lifting with lower loads. We speculate that this hesitancy likely stems from beliefs that heavy loads are necessary for improvements in strength and muscle growth.

While evidence of its benefits is compelling, it should be acknowledged that further research is still required to elucidate optimal implementation of lower loads in exercise program design. Furthermore, like most forms of resistance training prescription, evidence is needed to understand whether chronic exposure results in differential adaptations.

The chronic adaptation to lower load training may be particularly interesting at the fiber level, with evidence suggesting that acute differential signaling and protein synthesis responses may occur, but longitudinal data are currently equivocal.

Finally, further investigation is needed to understand the proximity to failure that one must practice to induce adaptations in muscle hypertrophy that are equivalent to higher loads.

This knowledge may help reduce the discomfort and fatigue associated with lower load training [ 56 ] and improve exercise adherence. Information from these future studies would undoubtedly aid the implementation of this form of training and guide decisions around its use.

Furthermore, it may promote accessibility to resistance training and its benefits for health. Ratamess N, Alvar BA, Evetouch T, Housh TJ, Kibler WB, Kraemer WJ. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sport Exerc. Article Google Scholar.

Burd NA, Andrews RJ, West DW, Little JP, Cochran AJ, Hector AJ, et al. Muscle time under tension during resistance exercise stimulates differential muscle protein sub-fractional synthetic responses in men. J Phys. CAS Google Scholar. Devries MC, Breen L, Von Allmen M, Macdonald MJ, Moore DR, Offord EA, et al.

Low-load resistance training during step-reduction attenuates declines in muscle mass and strength and enhances anabolic sensitivity in older men. Phys Rep. Google Scholar.

Mitchell CJ, Churchward-Venne TA, West DW, Burd NA, Breen L, Baker SK, et al. Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men.

J App Physiol. Article CAS Google Scholar. Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, Mazara N, Mcglory C, Quadrilatero J, et al. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men.

J Appl Physiol. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Kohl HW, Craig CL, Lambert EV, Inoue S, Alkandari JR, Leetongin G, et al. The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health. The Lancet. Rhodes RE, Lubans DR, Karunamuni N, Kennedy S, Plotnikoff R. Factors associated with participation in resistance training: a systematic review.

Br J Sports Med. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Health DO. Canberra: Department of Health; Organization WH. Recommended levels of physical activity for adults aged 18—64 years. Geneva: World Health Organisation; Bennie JA, Pedisic Z, Van Uffelen JGZ, Charity MJ, Harvey JT, Banting LK, et al.

Pumping iron in australia: prevalence, trends and sociodemographic correlates of muscle strengthening activity participation from a national sample of , adults. PLoS ONE. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Burd NA, West DW, Staples AW, Atherton PJ, Baker JM, Moore DR, et al. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

Jenkins NDM, Miramonti AA, Hill EC, Smith CM, Cochrane-Snyman KC, Housh TJ, et al. Greater neural adaptations following high- vs.

low-load resistance training. Front Physiol. Lim C, Kim HJ, Morton RW, Harris R, Phillips SM, Jeong TS, et al. Resistance exercise—induced changes in muscle phenotype are load dependent. Lasevicius T, Schoenfeld BJ, Silva-Batista C, Barros TS, Aihara AY, Brendon H, et al.

Muscle failure promotes greater muscle hypertrophy in low-load but not in high-load resistance training. J Strength Cond Res. Nóbrega SR, Ugrinowitsch C, Pintanel L, Barcelos C, Libardi CA. Effect of resistance training to muscle failure vs. volitional interruption at high-and low-intensities on muscle mass and strength.

Schoenfeld BJ, Peterson MD, Ogborn D, Contreras B, Sonmez GT. Effects of low-vs. high-load resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in well-trained men. Morton RW, Sonne MW, Farias Zuniga A, Mohammad IYZ, Jones A, Mcglory C, et al.

Muscle fibre activation is unaffected by load and repetition duration when resistance exercise is performed to task failure. J Physiol. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar.

Williamson D, Gallagher P, Harber M, Hollon C, Trappe S. Mitogen-activated protein kinase mapk pathway activation: effects of age and acute exercise on human skeletal muscle. Duchateau J, Semmler JG, Enoka RM. Training adaptations in the behavior of human motor units.

Vigotsky AD, Ogborn D, Phillips SM. Motor unit recruitment cannot be inferred from surface emg amplitude and basic reporting standards must be adhered to. Eur J Appl Physiol. Vigotsky AD, Halperin I, Trajano GS, Vieira TM.

Longing for a longitudinal proxy: acutely measured surface emg amplitude is not a validated predictor of muscle hypertrophy. Sports Med. Sheppard JM, Triplett NT. Program design for resistance training.

In: Haff GG, Triplett NT, editors. Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Champaign: Human Kinetics; Carvalho L, Junior RM, Barreira J, Schoenfeld BJ, Orazem J, Barroso R. Muscle hypertrophy and strength gains after resistance training with different volume-matched loads: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Lasevicius T, Ugrinowitsch C, Schoenfeld BJ, Roschel H, Tavares LD, De Souza EO, et al. Effects of different intensities of resistance training with equated volume load on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

Eur J Sport Sci. Schoenfeld BJ, Grgic J, Ogborn D, Krieger JW. Strength and hypertrophy adaptations between low- vs High-load resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Holm L, Reitelseder S, Pedersen TG, Doessing S, Petersen SG, Flyvbjerg A, et al.

Changes in muscle size and mhc composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity. Baker D, Wilson G, Carlyon B. Generality versus specificity: a comparison of dynamic and isometric measures of strength and speed-strength.

Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. Schoenfeld BJ, Grgic J, Van Every DW, Plotkin DL. Loading recommendations for muscle strength, hypertrophy, and local endurance: a re-examination of the repetition continuum.

Netreba A, Popov D, Bravyy Y, Lyubaeva E, Terada M, Ohira T, et al. Responses of knee extensor muscles to leg press training of various types in human.

Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Vinogradova OL, Popov DV, Netreba AI, Tsvirkun DV, Kurochkina NS, Bachinin AV, et al. Optimization of training: development of a new partial load mode of strength training. Fiziol Cheloveka. Schoenfeld BJ, Vigotsky AD, Grgic J, Haun C, Contreras B, Delcastillo K, et al.

Do the anatomical and physiological properties of a muscle determine its adaptive response to different loading protocols? Physiol Rep.

Visser M, Goodpaster BH, Kritchevsky SB, Newman AB, Nevitt M, Rubin SM, et al. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Visser M, Kritchevsky SB, Goodpaster BH, Newman AB, Nevitt M, Stamm E, et al. Leg muscle mass and composition in relation to lower extremity performance in men and women aged 70 to the health, aging and body composition study.

J Am Geriatr Soc. Mcleod JC, Stokes T, Phillips SM. Resistance exercise training as a primary countermeasure to age-related chronic disease. Newman AB, Simonsick EM, Naydeck BL, Boudreau RM, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt MC, et al. Association of long-distance corridor walk performance with mortality, cardiovascular disease, mobility limitation, and disability.

J Am Med Assoc. Jadczak AD, Makwana N, Luscombe-Marsh N, Visvanathan R, Schultz TJ. Effectiveness of exercise interventions on physical function in community-dwelling frail older people: an umbrella review of systematic reviews.

JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep. Prevett C, Moncion K, Phillips S, Richardson J, Tang A. The role of resistance training in mitigating risk for mobility disability in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Phys Med Rehab. De Vries NM, Van Ravensberg CD, Hobbelen JS, Olde Rikkert MG, Staal JB, Nijhuis-Van Der Sanden MW. Ageing Res Rev. Lustosa LP, Silva JP, Coelho FM, Pereira DS, Parentoni AN, Pereira LS.

Impact of resistance exercise program on functional capacity and muscular strength of knee extensor in pre-frail community-dwelling older women: a randomized crossover trial. Rev Bras Fisioter. Thiebaud D, Jacot E, Defronzo RA, Maeder E, Jequier E, Felber JP.

The effect of graded doses of insulin on total glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and glucose storage in man. Holloszy JO. Exercise-induced increase in muscle insulin sensitivity. Gordon BA, Benson AC, Bird SR, Fraser SF.

Resistance training improves metabolic health in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. Yang P, Swardfager W, Fernandes D, Laredo S, Tomlinson G, Oh PI, et al. Finding the optimal volume and intensity of resistance training exercise for type 2 diabetes: the forte study, a randomized trial.

Association AH. American heart association recommendations for physical activity in adults and kids.

Performance training adaptations

Author: Dikree

5 thoughts on “Performance training adaptations

  1. Ich entschuldige mich, aber meiner Meinung nach lassen Sie den Fehler zu. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden reden.

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com