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Raspberry ketones for reducing oxidative stress

Raspberry ketones for reducing oxidative stress

View cart Atress Coconut Oil for Cooking Continue ooxidative. Mateusz Maciejczyk. We inferred that Reduding could relieve NAFLD progression Raspberry ketones for reducing oxidative stress regulating glucose and lipid metabolism and alleviating oxidative stress in vivo. Customers say. Galeano D, Li S, Gerstein M, Paccanaro A Predicting the frequencies of drug side effects. Supports Healthy Weight Management: Raspberry ketones are often recognized for their role in weight management.

Raspberry ketones for reducing oxidative stress -

In the review of the scientific literature, limited studies suggests that different polyphenolic components of red raspberries have biological activity that could be clinically relevant in reducing disease risk and or management of diabetes, including helping to improve insulin responses and reducing blood glucose levels.

Additional research is needed in at risk individuals to better understand the role of red raspberries in reducing diabetes disease risk.

Obesity Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for type-II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. In the U. Research conducted in mice fed a high fat diet found that the addition of raspberry ketones decreased body weight and increased the breakdown of fat.

Raspberries have the highest fiber content compared to other berries 9 grams per cup. Dietary fiber is associated with satiety and helping to reduce food intake, which can assist with weight control. Alzheimer's Disease Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, impaired glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as elevated triglycerides and low concentrations of high density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol.

In addition to increasing the risk for heart disease and diabetes, the metabolic syndrome has also been linked with cognitive impairment, dementia and development of Alzheimer's. Studies on the role of red raspberries with respect to Alzheimer's disease are very limited, although the association between red raspberry or its polyphenol components in reducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and improving insulin signaling can be considered promising for Alzheimer's disease risk reduction as well slowing the aging process.

Burton-Freeman suggests that the available data supports further research on the role of red raspberries in preserving brain health. About the National Processed Raspberry Council Created in , the National Processed Raspberry Council NPRC represents the processed raspberry industry and is supported by assessments from both domestic producers and importers.

NPRC's mission is to conduct nutrition research and promote the health benefits of processed raspberries. The NPRC is responsible for marketing processed raspberries in the U.

and is committed to promoting the growth of the entire industry. Processed raspberries are frozen at the peak of ripeness to lock in flavor and nutrition.

Visit redrazz. Metrics details. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD is characterized by diffused hepatocyte bullous fat in the liver, which is not caused by alcohol or drugs like amiodarone and tamoxifen.

Presently, no drug is approved for NAFLD treatment. In this study, we extracted and purified raspberry ketone, a natural phenolic compound from red raspberry Rubus ideaus L.

by an ultrasonic-assisted ethanol extraction method. The structure of red raspberry ketone RRK was determined using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and the purity of RRK was found as Besides, the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and total triglyceride TG decreased and the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum increased drastically.

Moreover, the level of liver damage indicators aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase and the levels of glucose, insulin, free-fatty acid, tumor necrotic factor-α in the liver decreased distinctly.

The levels of TG and malondialdehyde in the liver decreased, whereas the levels of superoxide dismutase, total glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase drastically increased. We also found that RRK reduced the uneven size of liver cells and blurred boundaries of hepatic lobules, and alleviated hepatic steatosis and inflammation caused by NAFLD.

We inferred that RRK could relieve NAFLD progression by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism and alleviating oxidative stress in vivo.

This study sheds new light on the use of RRK as a functional food for NAFLD prevention. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex. Metabolic abnormalities caused by excess fat in the liver and the development of inflammation can trigger NAFLD. The theory states that the first hit is caused by abnormal lipid intake or abnormal mitochondrial function in the body because of obesity or type 2 diabetes, which causes massive lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes.

Recently, some researchers also found the multiple hit theory was also another explanation of the pathogenesis of NAFLD, such hits were associated with insulin resistance and abnormal glucolipid metabolism, which is harmful to our health [ 6 , 7 ].

NAFLD has a high incidence in developed industrial countries in recent years [ 8 ]. NAFLD treatment consists mainly of lifestyle changes and adjunctive medication. However, no definitive drug is available for the NAFLD-treatment [ 9 ]. Drugs that are used for the NAFLD-treatment include statins and fibrates, which can alleviate NAFLD by regulating abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

However, these drugs have some side effects such as gastrointestinal discomfort and impairment of liver and kidney function [ 10 ]. To address this concern, some studies have focused on the effectiveness of the nature bioactive compounds such as Lee et al.

Moreover, Li et al. also reported that a plant based bioactive compounds, eugenol, had a positive effect on NAFLD via regulate lipid metabolism [ 13 ].

Similarly, another study also reported that an extract from cranberry can improve insulin sensitivity to lower blood glucose levels and increase antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo [ 14 ].

Red raspberry Rubus ideaus L. is a natural plant that has a distinctive red color and a delicious flavor that is popular among consumers. Red raspberry is recommended worldwide by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations as one of the key fruits of the third generation, i.

the fruits distributed in the wild forest area which has not been exploited and some newly developed special fruits. Previous study has reported that red raspberry is rich in active ingredients, such as ellagic acid and anthocyanin, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties [ 16 ].

Red raspberry can also improve glucolipid metabolism [ 17 ]. Luo et al. reported that the consumption of red raspberries every day markedly reduces hepatic lipid accumulation in vivo.

Raspberry ketone is a group of natural phenolic compounds in red raspberry [ 18 ]. Pure raspberry ketone is a translucent white short needle-like crystal powder, which is a class of natural phenolic compounds in red raspberry.

Raspberry ketone and esters, aldehydes, alcohols, terpenes, ketones and pyrazines together form a complex mixture of volatile aroma components of red raspberries.

Raspberry ketone can regulate body weight, prevent obesity, and alleviate obesity-induced hyperlipidemia in vivo [ 19 ]. Besides, raspberry ketones can increase insulin secretion and possesses hypoglycemic properties [ 20 ].

However, only a few studies have focused on the raspberry ketones extracted from red raspberry and determined their ability to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism to alleviate NAFLD.

In the present study, we extracted and purified raspberry ketones from red raspberries and characterized their structure. We hypothesized that raspberry ketones from red raspberries can alleviate NAFLD.

Moreover, we also investigated its effects in NAFLD model rats. We believe this study can provide a basis for the application of functional foods in the regulation and treatment of NAFLD. was obtained from ShangZhi District, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province.

AB-8 macroporous resin and polyamide resin were purchased from Macklin Reagent Company Shanghai, China. Other reagents were of analytical grade. Afterward, the extract was purified by sequential elution using an AB-8 macroporous resin and polyamide resin.

It was then freeze-dried under vacuum conditions to obtain purified red raspberry ketone RRK. The purity of RRK was determined by gas chromatography—mass spectroscopy GC—MS.

Briefly, RRK was dissolved in ethanol 0. The injection port temperature was °C, and the detector temperature was °C. The column oven temperature was °C, the carrier gas was N 2 , and the split flow was , and the sample injection volume was 10 μL. The structure of RRK was detected by a Fourier transform infrared FT-IR spectrophotometer Perkin-Elmer , Perkin Elmer Company, USA by KBr pressing method.

The wavelength range was — cm —1. All the rats were provided with natural light and ad libitum access to food and water. After acclimatization for 7 days, 8 rats were selected in the control group NC and fed with a normal diet, whereas the remaining rats were fed with a high-fat diet.

After continuous feeding for 28 days, the presence of heavy rats with serum levels of total triglyceride TG and total cholesterol TC higher than those of the NC group was an indicator of successful modeling. After 28 days of treatment, the rats in each group underwent fasting for 12 h.

They were weighed and then sacrificed. The serum of the rats was extracted from the blood by centrifugation at 4 °C 3, rpm for 10 min. The liver tissue in each rat was also obtained and divided into two sections. One section was used for histopathological staining and the other section was homogenized for testing biochemical indicators [ 22 , 23 ].

All procedures used in this experiment were approved by the Institutional Animal Care the Animal Protection and Use Committee of the Harbin University of Commerce. The biochemical parameters, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C , total cholesterol TC , triglyceride TG , alanine aminotransferase ALT , aspartate aminotransferase AST , alkaline phosphatase AKP , glucose GLU , free fatty acid FFA and tumor necrosis factor-α TNF-α , in serum, were evaluated using standard kits Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute Co.

The biochemical parameters, such as triglyceride TG , malondialdehyde MDA , superoxide dismutase SOD , total glutathione T-GSH , and glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px , in the liver tissue was evaluated using standard kits Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute Co. The fixed liver tissues were embedded, sectioned, stained, and sealed, and finally, each group of tissues was microscopically photographed.

The experimental data were analyzed using SPSS All the figures were drawn using Origin OriginLab Corp. The FT-IR spectra of RRK obtained by ultrasonic-assisted ethanol are shown in Fig.

We observed a strong and wide absorption peak at We also observed an absorption peak around cm —1 , which was associated with a benzene ring. We inferred that a phenolic hydroxyl structure was present in RRK [ 24 , 25 ]. Structure characterization of RRK.

The spectra of raspberry ketone standard obtained from GC—MS are shown in Fig. As shown in Fig. The purity of RRK was Changes of rats after modeling. A : Changes in body weight after modeling; B : Changes in serum lipid level.

During the administration period, the rats administered with RRK by oral gavage were more stable, moved freely, and had a better mental state and a shiny coat. Their diet and water intake were normal, and they did not show any abnormalities.

This indicated that RRK can decrease the body weight of NAFLD model rats Fig. We also observed that the HDL-C levels of the NAFLD model rats increased, and the LDL-C, TC, and TG levels remarkably decreased after the treatment with RRK.

This indicated that RRK can promote the breakdown and metabolism of lipids in the serum, and the ability to transport cholesterol and triglycerides was improved in the NAFLD model rats.

Thus, RRK has a positive effect on the removal of the deposited lipids from the arterial wall of blood vessels. Effect of red raspberry ketone RRK on body weight and the level of lipid biochemical indicators in serum. A : Effects of red raspberry ketone RRK on body weights of rats.

B — E : Effects of RRK on TC B , total triglyceride TG C , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C D , and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C E in serum of rats.

Some studies have also found similar results. Reem et al. found Garcinia cambogia Garcinia gummi-gutta and raspberry ketone could alleviate hepatocyte inflammation, fatty changes, and oxidative stress caused by a high-fat fructose diet [ 27 ]. Moreover, Wang et al. also found that raspberry ketone could protect the liver and reduce fat in the body against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [ 28 ].

AST and ALT were released from the liver after its injury, which reflected the level of liver injury. Thus, RRK can decrease the levels of ALT and AST in serum. We inferred that RRK may repair necrotic hepatocytes to a certain extent and might be able to decrease the permeability of the cell membrane.

Overall, RRK can inhibit the further development of NAFLD, which has certain significance in its clinical prevention. These results are consistent with some previous studies.

Faheem et al. reported that cranberry extract can decrease ALT and AST levels in serum and can retard the progression of NAFLD [ 14 ]. The extract from pomegranate peel can decrease the levels of ALT and AST and can be used in the treatment of NAFLD [ 29 ].

AKP is overproduced when the liver cells are damaged. This indicated that RRK can effectively reduce AKP levels in serum and control the abnormal metabolism and impaired excretion of AKP from the body.

These results were consistent with those of other studies [ 30 , 31 ]. Hence, the results showed that RRK can prevent the inflammatory response in the liver to alleviate NAFLD.

Effect of red raspberry ketone RRK on the level of liver damage indicator in serum. A — C : Effects of red raspberry ketone RRK on aspartate aminotransferase AST A , alanine aminotransferase ALT B and alkaline phosphatase AKP C in serum of rats.

Some studies have reported that abnormal lipid metabolism can trigger an increase in the blood glucose levels of the body and insulin resistance can be present, which can contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes such as Shah et al.

Based on this, we speculated that RRK can decrease glucose levels. The results indicated that RRK can inhibit the secretion of blood glucose in vivo Fig. Insulin INS is a major hormone that lowers blood glucose levels and promotes glycogen synthesis.

An abnormal increase in blood glucose levels leads to an increase in the compensatory secretion of INS. The levels of INS increased significantly in the MC group, and this phenomenon was relieved remarkably in the RRK group in a dose-dependent manner Fig.

This finding is consistent with those of other studies. A plant extract, procyanidin B2, can improve insulin resistance and glucose—lipid metabolism during NAFLD and reduce blood glucose levels [ 34 ].

You et al. also reported that oat β-glucan can relieve abnormal lipid metabolism, which was associated with a decrease in blood glucose levels [ 35 ]. In this study, we found that RRK can decrease the glucose and insulin levels in rats, which indicated that RRK can also increase glucose metabolism in vivo.

Therefore, we hypothesized that RRK also has a positive effect on diabetes. Effect of red raspberry ketone RRK on the level of glucose GLU A , insulin INS B , free-fatty acid FFA C , and tumor necrotic factor TNF -α D in serum. FFA concentration in the blood serum is associated with the glycolipid metabolism and endocrine function in vivo and indicates the degree of liver injury.

High FFA can cause an inflammatory response, which in turn leads to metabolic disturbances in the body. After RRK treatment, TNF-α levels in serum indicated a significant decrease Fig. These results suggested that RRK can decrease the production of TNF-α in the adipose tissue.

Ngamlerst et al. reported that Maoberry extracts decreased TNF-α levels in the NAFLD model rats and decreased lipid production [ 36 ]. A previous study reported that excessive FFA leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species ROS and reactive nitrogen species RNS [ 37 ].

Some studies reported that the increased indicators of the inflammatory response can induce oxidative stress in vivo [ 38 , 39 ]. We speculated that RRK has a positive effect on lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in the liver tissues.

Figure 6 A shows some representative indicators of lipid metabolism. This also showed a certain dose—effect relationship. It indicated that RRK can effectively inhibit the increase of TG and maintain lipid metabolism in the liver of NAFLD rats.

This result was consistent with the results of some previous studies [ 40 , 41 ]. Effect of red raspberry ketone RRK on biochemical indicators in liver. A — E : Effects of red raspberry ketone RRK on total triglyceride TG A , malondialdehyde MDA B , superoxide dismutase SOD C , total glutathione T-GSH , D and glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px E in the serum of rats.

To determine whether RRK can alleviate oxidative stress to relieve NAFLD, we evaluated the levels of MDA, SOD, T-GSH, and GSH-Px to determine the antioxidant capacity of the liver Fig. MDA is a product of lipid peroxidation in the body, which can reflect the degree of lipid peroxidation.

This is an indicator of cell damage and biofilm destruction. Glutathione T-GSH is an important antioxidant and free radical scavenger in living organisms. It can bind to harmful substances, such as free radicals and heavy metals and help in their excretion.

Glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px can decompose lipid hydroperoxides in organisms and inhibit the damage of fatty acids on biofilms. RRK can significantly increase the GSH and GSH-Px levels in NAFLD rats.

This suggested that RRK can repair cell damage and biofilm disruption triggered by abnormal lipid metabolism caused by NAFLD. All these findings showed that RRK can improve the antioxidant capacity of NAFLD rats in the liver.

Denise et al. reported that the extract of Citrus maxima leaves showed antioxidant activity in the NAFLD model rats, which was consistent with the results of our study [ 42 ].

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