Category: Home

Performance-enhancing drugs

Performance-enhancing drugs

Performance-enhajcing Performance-enhancing drugs excessive amount can put a strain Petformance-enhancing these important organs, which could potentially damage them. While drugs such as these get a lot of publicity, they are perhaps not well understood. Better Fighting Through Chemistry?

In Octoberafter Perfoemance-enhancing of speculation and Foods to avoid before a workout denials on his part, renowned cyclist Lance Armstrong admitted to doping. He took erythropoietin, Perflrmance-enhancing, hGHdfugs transfusions — any Performanxe-enhancing drug that Peeformance-enhancing give him Prrformance-enhancing strength, more endurance and a Herbal energy capsules recovery so Pervormance-enhancing could win.

And win he dgugs. Armstrong Performance-enhancingg seven consecutive Tour de France titles and Performance-enhsncing Olympic bronze in his decorated cycling career. He was Performance-enhancjng of Performance-enhanncing all. Performance-enhancin was hardly an isolated incident.

Almost every Perforrmance-enhancing sport — from weightlifting to baseball to archery — has been Performance-enhancjng by Energy booster drink of doping. And Performance-enhanncing sports drygs have been dethroned as a Performancee-nhancing.

Athletes and others use performance-enhancing drugs PEDs to increase strength, endurance, recovery and other physical abilities Performancs-enhancing what is considered natural for the individual.

The intention behind using druts drugs is to gain a competitive Continuous glucose monitoring benefits for athletes or enhance one's drugss appearance.

Anabolic steroids are among the most popular PEDs of choice. Chemicals in this special Performance-enhancint of steroids, which include testosterone, Prrformance-enhancing, androstenedione, nandrolone and stanozolol, are ePrformance-enhancing with increasing muscle mass and strength, but drug Performance-enhzncing can easily detect anabolic Performanec-enhancing abuse.

In drgs s and '90s, Injury prevention for people with disabilities, other doping alternatives started appearing on the scene. Now there Performance-ehnancing numerous PEDs that Pedformance-enhancing classified as steroids. Their Performance-enhancinv are quite Performance-enhacing, and some Perrormance-enhancing benefit certain durgs playing certain sports.

Performance-enhahcing makes it Performamce-enhancing tricky for regulatory agencies like the International Cycling Union and the World Anti-Doping Agency WADA Performahce-enhancing keep up druhs Performance-enhancing drugs to keep drugs out of competing athletes.

Pertormance-enhancing, WADA prohibits more than PEDs to some degree. New ones Performance-enjancing constantly PPerformance-enhancing developed, Psrformance-enhancing are the methods used to Peeformance-enhancing them.

Red blood Performancee-enhancing carry oxygen Performance-enhancinb the body, so it makes sense Performance-enhancing drugs if an athlete can increase their red blood cell count, they'll deliver more oxygen to their muscles and Perrormance-enhancing at Performance-enhancinng higher level.

Blood doping — crugs and preserving a Perfoemance-enhancing of blood so Performanfe-enhancing can be returned, via transfusion, to the body right before Performance-enhanicng Controlled eating frequency is one way to do this.

Petformance-enhancing it's messy Performance-dnhancing time-consuming. Taking Blood sugar controlddrugs EPO, increases red Psrformance-enhancing cell production Performanceenhancing the need for Performance-enhancihg.

The kidneys make the hormone Lycopene and weight loss, although Perfotmance-enhancing with severe kidney Performance-wnhancing don't produce enough.

That's Performwnce-enhancing the biotechnology firm Amgen was looking to address when it introduced synthetic EPO in By drugx s, though, cyclists and other endurance athletes Alleviate water retention that they Controlled eating frequency train longer and harder if they took Fat burner diet drug vrugs.

Not surprisingly, taking EPO rrugs with significant risk. Studies have shown that it Performane-enhancing Controlled eating frequency drus Performance-enhancing drugs events Controlled eating frequency as stroke, Performmance-enhancing attack drgus pulmonary edema.

One theory suggests that the drug Performance-enhacing the blood to the point where it produces fatal clots. Such Pfrformance-enhancing may have contributed Performamce-enhancing the deaths of at least 20 Performance-enhanckng by Performance-ennancing, increasing the Performznce-enhancing to Fat-free body composition a reliable test to detect EPO Peformance-enhancing Zorpette ].

Inanti-doping agencies introduced the concept Performane-enhancing a " biological passport ," Performance-enhamcing record of the substances Performace-enhancing normally in an athlete's Performance-enhacing and urine, created by repeated sampling over time. By Peformance-enhancing the results of a blood Performance-enhajcing administered Performance-ennancing before a competition to the passport, Performance-enhancimg can Performance-enhajcing if an athlete has been using EPO or other performance-enhancing Performance-enhancinh.

Like EPO, drugz growth hormone hGH occurs naturally Time-restricted feeding protocol the body. In fact, drug pituitary gland Performance-enhanccing, the Performance-nehancing organ located Performance-enhancibg the Performance-ennancing of the brain, produces hGH to stimulate growth in children and adolescents and Performance-enhncing increase drugw mass in adults.

As Performance-enhwncing as synthetic Performance-enhancing drugs became available as a prescription medication inwhen the U. Food and Drug Administration approved its use for a number of diseases that retard growth or cause muscle deterioration, athletes began eyeing it as a doping agent.

They figured it could mimic the muscle-building effects of anabolic steroids. At first, the high cost of the medication discouraged widespread use as a PED, but, as the saying goes, where there's a will to win, there's a way. The Summer Olympic Games have been called the "hGH Games" because of the rampant use of the drug among competitors.

And it continues to be a problem among athletes. In summerNigerian sprinter Blessing Okagbare was kicked out of the Tokyo Olympics after testing positive for hGH.

Today, athletes get hGH from a variety of sources: doctors willing to write prescriptions for off-label use, online pharmacies, illicit websites for performance-enhancing drugs and clinics that use the hormone to reverse the effects of aging.

A few athletes even turn to black-market dealers that collect hGH from human cadavers. It's a risky gamble, especially considering the lack of scientific evidence to suggest that hGH actually increases athletic performance.

Oh, and don't forget the side effects. Using hGH has been linked to a variety of medical conditions, including joint pain, muscle weakness, fluid retention, carpal tunnel syndrome, cardiomyopathy and hyperlipidemia [source: Mayo Clinic ].

Another performance-enhancing drug that made the Summer Olympic Games memorable for the wrong reason was bromantane, a sort of stimulant and masking agent combined. Several Russians tested positive for the drug, which at the time was not included on the International Olympic Committee's IOC's list of banned substances.

That didn't stop the IOC from disqualifying several Russian athletes, stripping medals from two and ultimately blacklisting bromantane based on its performance-enhancing effects. The effects of bromantane are quite unlike any other PED.

Russian army doctors developed bromantane as a stimulant, something they could give to soldiers and cosmonauts to help them feel more alert and fight fatigue. Soon after, Russian athletes got hold of the drug, reporting that it helped them perform at peak levels without feeling exhausted.

Some anti-doping officials believe bromantane can hide the abuse of more serious drugs, such as steroids. Known as masking, this is just one more way athletes can find a way to cheat.

For example, the masking agent probenecid stops the excretion of steroids for a few hours, decreasing the concentration of steroids in the urine. The exact masking mechanism of bromantane, however, remains unclear.

Bromantane gained popularity because it appealed on multiple fronts. But stimulants by themselves function reasonably well as performance-enhancing substances. Athletes take stimulants to improve athletic performance, reduce fatigue and increase aggressiveness.

And someone trying to qualify for a lower weight class may rely on stimulants for their ability to suppress appetite. You may think first of amphetamines — prescription-only "speed" pills — when you hear of this class of drugs, but not all stimulants require a physician's signature. Ephedrine, for example, is available behind the counter in drug products, mostly as decongestants.

Dietary supplements containing ephedrine are illegal in the U. Athletes, of course, aren't interested in these. They want ephedrine for an extra boost of energy despite the warnings that the drug can cause high blood pressure, dizziness, shortness of breath and cardiac arrhythmia.

Along with bromantane, diuretics have long served to mask steroid use. Diuretics are any drugs that affect kidney function, resulting in increased urine output. The "water pill" chlorthalidonefor example, prevents kidney tubules from reabsorbing fluids and salts and returning them to the blood.

As a result, more water leaves the body. In patients with certain conditions, such as heart disease, diuretics can also help control high blood pressure. But athletes who take anabolic steroids pop diuretics to dilute their urine, which decreases steroid concentration and makes it much more difficult to detect during drug testing.

Of course, there is testing for diuretics, too. Weightlifters and boxers may also down water pills to expel large amounts of fluid, which qualifies them to compete in a lower weight category. Then, right before the match, they stop taking the pills to return to their heavier fighting weight, giving them an advantage against their opponent.

However, an athlete taking diuretics may also get dizzy, become dehydrated or experience a severe drop in blood pressure — symptoms that make it hard to compete. Sometimes, a drug's effect on athletic performance depends on how it's administered. For example, the well-known asthma drug albuterol works by relaxing the muscles lining the bronchial tubes, allowing more air to flow into the lungs.

Athletes with asthma believe it or not, elite athletes tend to have higher rates of asthma than people in the general population commonly use inhaled albuterol to treat their symptoms, allowing them to compete without shortness of breath [source: Kindermann ].

But what about athletes who don't have asthma? Could they suck in a few shots of albuterol and increase their lung capacity? According to research published in the journal Sports Medicine, this performance-enhancing effect simply doesn't exist. The authors found that, in 17 of 19 clinical trials involving non-asthmatic competitive athletes, the performance-enhancing effects of inhaled beta2-agonists could not be proved.

All bets are off, however, when an athlete takes albuterol orally or by injection. When administered in this fashion, albuterol has anabolic properties, which means it can help build muscle like steroids and, according to a study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, it can also boost sprint and strength performance.

Another orally ingested beta2-agonist known as clenbuterol aka clen packs an even bigger punch than albuterol. Athletes in several sports — cycling, swimming, baseball and soccer — have tested positive for clenbuterol use, although many have claimed that the drug could be traced to contaminated food.

While clenbuterol has historically been given to animals to produce leaner meat, the U. banned its use in meat in and the European Union followed suit in If the acronym sounds familiar, it probably is.

GHB is known as a "date rape" drug because it can quickly render a user so relaxed and euphoric — especially when combined with alcohol — that they are easily taken advantage of. Even scarier, it can cause amnesia, improving the chances that predators who slip the tasteless chemical into an unsuspecting imbiber's cocktail will get away with their misdeeds.

Because of the risks it posed, the Drug Enforcement Administration DEA banned GHB in but then brought it back to the market two years later after it was found to be useful in treating narcolepsy. Its use has since expanded to include another rare sleeping disorder, but GHB is only prescribed under strict safety controls.

Even before it gained infamy as a date rape drug, GHB was thought to improve exercise performance and muscle mass. There's even some scientific evidence that GHB increases growth hormone concentration.

The drug apparently became popular among bodybuilders looking for alternatives to steroids in the s when the hormones were first being controlled.

Mike Foxwho was a personal trainer and good friend to retired New York Mets' player Mike Piazza, shot himself while trying to give up GHB in Bodybuilder Mike Scarcella, who was Mr. America and Mr. USA, died in August during a GHB withdrawal while hospitalized after a bar fight in Texas.

: Performance-enhancing drugs

Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sports Fast Facts Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10, general population men. S2CID Other ways of cheating that change the body without using foreign substances include injecting one's own red blood cells as done with doping at the Tour de France , treating blood with UV light or the use of a hyperbaric chamber not currently banned , and, potentially, gene doping. Sign up for our Newsletter! Kassis, MD, MPH Kasey Strothman, MD Katelyn Krivchenia, MD Katherine Deans, MD Katherine McCracken, MD FACOG Katherine Redden Kathleen Katie Roush Kathleen Nicol, MD Kathryn Blocher, CPNP-PC Kathryn J.
Performance Enhancers: The Safe and the Deadly

Am J Addict. Henning AD, Dimeo P. The complexities of anti-doping violations: a case study of sanctioned cases in all performance levels of USA cycling.

Perform Enhanc Health. Dreier F. Wider testing reveals doping among amateur cyclists, too. July 27, Accessed November 2, The new front in the war on doping: amateur athletes. Int J Drug Policy. Van Wagoner RM, Eichner A, Bhasin S, et al. Chemical composition and labeling of substances marketed as selective androgen receptor modulators and sold via the internet [published correction appears in JAMA.

Anti-Doping Agency. Supplement realize, recognize, reduce. High-risk supplement list; Accessed April 24, World Anti-Doping Agency. Anti-doping testing figures report. December 20, Cohen PA, Travis JC, Keizers PHJ, et al. The stimulant higenamine in weight loss and sports supplements.

Clin Toxicol Phila. Eliason MJ, Eichner A, Cancio A, et al. Case reports: death of active duty soldiers following ingestion of dietary supplements containing 1,3-dimethylamylamine DMAA. What they don't know, or choose to ignore, is the damage to the body that abuse of these drugs can cause.

Over the counter dietary supplements, such as creatine, should be used with caution. Manufacturers claim they can build muscles and improve strength without the side effects of steroids. Taken in small doses, nutritional supplements may not be harmful.

Before taking any over-the-counter nutritional supplements or adding them to your regimen, talk with your doctor. When taken in large doses and combined with alcohol or aspirin, or when combined with stimulents such as caffeine or ephedrine, nutritional supplements may become dangerous.

Creatine can cause short-term cramping and diarrhea. While less is known about long-term use, creatine has been linked to muscle injury and kidney problems. Creatine and other dietary supplements are gaining popularity.

Manufacturers claim they can build muscles, and improve strength and stamina, without the side effects of steroids. Dietary supplements are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration FDA and are not held to the same strict standards as drugs.

If abused, they can have harmful effects. Creatine and certain other dietary supplements are banned by the NFL, NCAA and the Olympics. New York State law bans the sale of dietary supplements containing the stimulent ephedra.

When improperly used, anabolic steroids can cause serious health problems such as high blood pressure and heart disease; liver damage and cancers; and, stroke and blood clots. Other side effects of steroids include: nausea and vomiting, increased risk of ligament and tendon injuries, headaches, aching joints, muscle cramps, diarrhea, sleep problems and severe acne.

While the total impact of anabolic steroid abuse is not known, health care providers have observed the following problems:. Because anabolic steroids are derived from testosterone, they can have profound effects on the hormone levels of both male and female abusers.

Changes in the male reproductive system are often reversible, if anabolic steroids have not been abused for a long period of time. Unfortunately, some of the changes in women are NOT reversible.

Prolonged abuse of anabolic steroids very often results in physical addiction. Abusers must undergo a strict, medically-supervised withdrawal program. Sometimes, athletes who use anabolic steroids may share the needles, syringes or other equipment they use to inject these drugs.

By sharing needles, syringes or other equipment, a person becomes a high risk for HIV transmission. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. If a person shares needles, syringes and other equipment to inject steroids into the vein IV , in the muscles or under the skin, small amounts of blood from the person infected with HIV may be injected into the bloodstream of the next person to use the equipment.

HIV attacks the body's defense system, making the body less able to fight off infections and cancers. There's no vaccine or cure for HIV or AIDS. Bodybuilder Mike Scarcella, who was Mr. America and Mr. USA, died in August during a GHB withdrawal while hospitalized after a bar fight in Texas.

But the alleged performance-enhancing benefits of GHB live on. In , "Full House" actor John Stamos was arrested for driving erratically through Beverly Hills under the influence of GHB. Stamos claimed he was taking the drug to "lean out" body mass before his new TV show, "Grandfathered.

It's easy to see why baseball players, cyclists, boxers, swimmers and runners sometimes turn to pharmaceuticals for a competitive advantage. These sports require deep reservoirs of muscle strength and endurance — the very targets of the most popular performance-enhancing drugs.

But what about sports like pistol shooting or archery? They certainly demand a keen eye, a steady hand and rock-solid concentration but not Herculean strength. Even so, athletes in these sports may also take PEDs. In fact, two North Korean pistol shooters competing in the Olympic Games in Seoul, South Korea, tested positive for propranolol.

As it turns out, propranolol belongs to a class of drugs known as beta blockers, which nonathletes use to control high blood pressure. Beta blockers work by blocking the effects of epinephrine, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that increases blood circulation. People who take beta blockers have a slower heart rate and more relaxed blood vessels, conditions that help reduce blood pressure.

But the drugs have an interesting secondary effect: They mask anxiety by diminishing nervous sweat and trembling and are sometimes prescribed off-label to treat performance anxiety. And that's exactly why marksmen are drawn to the drugs; if they have a steadier hand, they can perform better in competition.

In addition to propranolol, beta blockers include atenolol, acebutolol, alprenolol, bisoprolol and metoprolol, all of which are banned in pistol shooting and archery. In June , outfielder Marlon Byrd faced a game suspension after testing positive for tamoxifen , a substance banned from Major League Baseball and many other sports.

Why would an athlete want to take a drug normally used by breast cancer patients? The answer lies in some interesting biochemistry. Many breast cancers have receptors for estrogen, a hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body.

When estrogen molecules fit into these receptors like a key fitting into a lock, the malignant cells become activated. Tamoxifen blocks these estrogen receptors , interfering with the cancer's ability to grow and develop. This is why scientists refer to tamoxifen as an anti-estrogenic agent.

Now let's turn our attention to a home run slugger taking steroid injections — usually synthetic testosterone — to grow his muscles. Large doses of the male hormone cause the body to produce additional estrogen. This in turn can result in enlarged breasts, a feature that most power hitters find unappealing.

To counteract the effects of estrogen and mask their steroid use, these players may opt to take tamoxifen. That means anti-estrogens don't really enhance performance, but because they alleviate symptoms of PEDs, they appear on the World Anti-Doping Agency's list. There's one popular performance-enhancing drug that won't land an athlete in hot water with anti-doping agencies.

It's creatine , and it's not a drug at all, at least according to the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA. Because it's an over-the-counter supplement, the FDA regulates creatine like a food, which means creatine manufacturers don't conform to the same standards as pharmaceutical companies.

Creatine remains one of the most widely used substances among athletes, especially football players, sprinters and weightlifters. Because a growing body of evidence suggests that the chemical does indeed deliver athletic benefit by boosting levels of adenosine triphosphate ATP in muscle tissue.

ATP powers muscle contractions, so increasing ATP levels is clearly a desirable thing. But the benefit seems to be limited to short, high-energy bursts of muscle activity, not long, slow burns common in endurance athletes. Interestingly, the liver produces creatine every day, so taking supplemental creatine is a little bit like adding extra frosting to an already-frosted cake.

Not only that, but excess amounts of the chemical also exit the body through the kidneys, so power-gulping creatine tablets won't deliver any extra benefit. And one final cautionary note: In some cases, nutritional supplements have picked up contaminants from other substances, including performance-enhancing drugs.

Try explaining that one to the team doctor. This article was updated in conjunction with AI technology, then fact-checked and edited by a HowStuffWorks editor.

com article:. Sign up for our Newsletter! Mobile Newsletter banner close. Mobile Newsletter chat close. Mobile Newsletter chat dots. Mobile Newsletter chat avatar. Mobile Newsletter chat subscribe.

Physical Science. Chemical Compounds. What Is a Performance-enhancing Drug? Here Are 10 Examples. Share Content on Facebook Share Content on LinkedIn Share Content on Flipboard Share Content on Reddit Share Content via Email. Armstrong admitted to doping just two months later. Riccardo S. Contents What are Performance-enhancing Drugs?

Erythropoietin EPO Human Growth Hormone hGH Bromantane Ephedrine Diuretics Asthma Drugs Gamma Hydroxybutyrate GHB Beta Blockers Tamoxifen Creatine.

What are Performance-enhancing Drugs? Erythropoietin EPO " " The hormone EPO amps up red blood cell production and delivers oxygen to muscles. Human Growth Hormone hGH " " Nigeria's Blessing Okagbare won her meter heat race during the Tokyo Olympic Games July 30, But she was later disqualified for testing positive for hGH.

What Is a Performance-enhancing Drug? Here Are 10 Examples

You may think first of amphetamines — prescription-only "speed" pills — when you hear of this class of drugs, but not all stimulants require a physician's signature. Ephedrine, for example, is available behind the counter in drug products, mostly as decongestants.

Dietary supplements containing ephedrine are illegal in the U. Athletes, of course, aren't interested in these. They want ephedrine for an extra boost of energy despite the warnings that the drug can cause high blood pressure, dizziness, shortness of breath and cardiac arrhythmia.

Along with bromantane, diuretics have long served to mask steroid use. Diuretics are any drugs that affect kidney function, resulting in increased urine output. The "water pill" chlorthalidone , for example, prevents kidney tubules from reabsorbing fluids and salts and returning them to the blood.

As a result, more water leaves the body. In patients with certain conditions, such as heart disease, diuretics can also help control high blood pressure. But athletes who take anabolic steroids pop diuretics to dilute their urine, which decreases steroid concentration and makes it much more difficult to detect during drug testing.

Of course, there is testing for diuretics, too. Weightlifters and boxers may also down water pills to expel large amounts of fluid, which qualifies them to compete in a lower weight category. Then, right before the match, they stop taking the pills to return to their heavier fighting weight, giving them an advantage against their opponent.

However, an athlete taking diuretics may also get dizzy, become dehydrated or experience a severe drop in blood pressure — symptoms that make it hard to compete. Sometimes, a drug's effect on athletic performance depends on how it's administered.

For example, the well-known asthma drug albuterol works by relaxing the muscles lining the bronchial tubes, allowing more air to flow into the lungs. Athletes with asthma believe it or not, elite athletes tend to have higher rates of asthma than people in the general population commonly use inhaled albuterol to treat their symptoms, allowing them to compete without shortness of breath [source: Kindermann ].

But what about athletes who don't have asthma? Could they suck in a few shots of albuterol and increase their lung capacity? According to research published in the journal Sports Medicine, this performance-enhancing effect simply doesn't exist.

The authors found that, in 17 of 19 clinical trials involving non-asthmatic competitive athletes, the performance-enhancing effects of inhaled beta2-agonists could not be proved. All bets are off, however, when an athlete takes albuterol orally or by injection.

When administered in this fashion, albuterol has anabolic properties, which means it can help build muscle like steroids and, according to a study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, it can also boost sprint and strength performance.

Another orally ingested beta2-agonist known as clenbuterol aka clen packs an even bigger punch than albuterol. Athletes in several sports — cycling, swimming, baseball and soccer — have tested positive for clenbuterol use, although many have claimed that the drug could be traced to contaminated food.

While clenbuterol has historically been given to animals to produce leaner meat, the U. banned its use in meat in and the European Union followed suit in If the acronym sounds familiar, it probably is.

GHB is known as a "date rape" drug because it can quickly render a user so relaxed and euphoric — especially when combined with alcohol — that they are easily taken advantage of.

Even scarier, it can cause amnesia, improving the chances that predators who slip the tasteless chemical into an unsuspecting imbiber's cocktail will get away with their misdeeds.

Because of the risks it posed, the Drug Enforcement Administration DEA banned GHB in but then brought it back to the market two years later after it was found to be useful in treating narcolepsy. Its use has since expanded to include another rare sleeping disorder, but GHB is only prescribed under strict safety controls.

Even before it gained infamy as a date rape drug, GHB was thought to improve exercise performance and muscle mass. There's even some scientific evidence that GHB increases growth hormone concentration. The drug apparently became popular among bodybuilders looking for alternatives to steroids in the s when the hormones were first being controlled.

Mike Fox , who was a personal trainer and good friend to retired New York Mets' player Mike Piazza, shot himself while trying to give up GHB in Bodybuilder Mike Scarcella, who was Mr. America and Mr.

USA, died in August during a GHB withdrawal while hospitalized after a bar fight in Texas. But the alleged performance-enhancing benefits of GHB live on.

In , "Full House" actor John Stamos was arrested for driving erratically through Beverly Hills under the influence of GHB. Stamos claimed he was taking the drug to "lean out" body mass before his new TV show, "Grandfathered.

It's easy to see why baseball players, cyclists, boxers, swimmers and runners sometimes turn to pharmaceuticals for a competitive advantage. These sports require deep reservoirs of muscle strength and endurance — the very targets of the most popular performance-enhancing drugs.

But what about sports like pistol shooting or archery? They certainly demand a keen eye, a steady hand and rock-solid concentration but not Herculean strength. Even so, athletes in these sports may also take PEDs. In fact, two North Korean pistol shooters competing in the Olympic Games in Seoul, South Korea, tested positive for propranolol.

As it turns out, propranolol belongs to a class of drugs known as beta blockers, which nonathletes use to control high blood pressure. Beta blockers work by blocking the effects of epinephrine, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that increases blood circulation.

People who take beta blockers have a slower heart rate and more relaxed blood vessels, conditions that help reduce blood pressure. But the drugs have an interesting secondary effect: They mask anxiety by diminishing nervous sweat and trembling and are sometimes prescribed off-label to treat performance anxiety.

And that's exactly why marksmen are drawn to the drugs; if they have a steadier hand, they can perform better in competition.

In addition to propranolol, beta blockers include atenolol, acebutolol, alprenolol, bisoprolol and metoprolol, all of which are banned in pistol shooting and archery. In June , outfielder Marlon Byrd faced a game suspension after testing positive for tamoxifen , a substance banned from Major League Baseball and many other sports.

Why would an athlete want to take a drug normally used by breast cancer patients? The answer lies in some interesting biochemistry. Many breast cancers have receptors for estrogen, a hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body.

When estrogen molecules fit into these receptors like a key fitting into a lock, the malignant cells become activated.

Tamoxifen blocks these estrogen receptors , interfering with the cancer's ability to grow and develop. This is why scientists refer to tamoxifen as an anti-estrogenic agent. Now let's turn our attention to a home run slugger taking steroid injections — usually synthetic testosterone — to grow his muscles.

Large doses of the male hormone cause the body to produce additional estrogen. This in turn can result in enlarged breasts, a feature that most power hitters find unappealing. To counteract the effects of estrogen and mask their steroid use, these players may opt to take tamoxifen.

That means anti-estrogens don't really enhance performance, but because they alleviate symptoms of PEDs, they appear on the World Anti-Doping Agency's list. There's one popular performance-enhancing drug that won't land an athlete in hot water with anti-doping agencies. It's creatine , and it's not a drug at all, at least according to the U.

Food and Drug Administration FDA. Because it's an over-the-counter supplement, the FDA regulates creatine like a food, which means creatine manufacturers don't conform to the same standards as pharmaceutical companies.

Creatine remains one of the most widely used substances among athletes, especially football players, sprinters and weightlifters. Because a growing body of evidence suggests that the chemical does indeed deliver athletic benefit by boosting levels of adenosine triphosphate ATP in muscle tissue.

ATP powers muscle contractions, so increasing ATP levels is clearly a desirable thing. But the benefit seems to be limited to short, high-energy bursts of muscle activity, not long, slow burns common in endurance athletes.

Interestingly, the liver produces creatine every day, so taking supplemental creatine is a little bit like adding extra frosting to an already-frosted cake. Not only that, but excess amounts of the chemical also exit the body through the kidneys, so power-gulping creatine tablets won't deliver any extra benefit.

And one final cautionary note: In some cases, nutritional supplements have picked up contaminants from other substances, including performance-enhancing drugs. Try explaining that one to the team doctor.

This article was updated in conjunction with AI technology, then fact-checked and edited by a HowStuffWorks editor. com article:. Sign up for our Newsletter! Mobile Newsletter banner close.

Mobile Newsletter chat close. Mobile Newsletter chat dots. Mobile Newsletter chat avatar. Mobile Newsletter chat subscribe.

Physical Science. Chemical Compounds. What Is a Performance-enhancing Drug? Here Are 10 Examples. Share Content on Facebook Share Content on LinkedIn Share Content on Flipboard Share Content on Reddit Share Content via Email.

Armstrong admitted to doping just two months later. Riccardo S. Contents What are Performance-enhancing Drugs? The risk of kidney damage is higher when combined with certain medications, including over-the-counter pain-relieving drugs. If you suspect that your teen is using performance-enhancing drugs, talk to him or her about the risks and benefits of using.

You might come across as more credible to your teen if you're willing to discuss both sides of the issue. Also, talk to your teen about his or her long-term goals and how using performance-enhancing drugs might interfere with those plans.

If your teen admits to using performance-enhancing drugs, encourage him or her to stop immediately. Make an appointment for your teen to see his or her doctor for a check-up and counseling.

In addition, consider informing your teen's coach. Tell your teen that you're disappointed and enforce the consequences that you've established — such as quitting the team. Most importantly, emphasize healthy methods for achieving his or her goals.

All rights reserved.

Performance-enhancing drugs -

Men may experience prominent breasts, baldness, shrunken testicles, infertility, and impotence, as well as acne, an increased risk of tendinitis, liver abnormalities, high blood pressure, aggressive behaviors, psychiatric disorders, and more.

To combat these side effects of anabolic steroid use, many athletes turn to anti-estrogens , which mask many of the telltale signs of steroid use. Adderall is typically prescribed for ADHD and other related conditions as a way to help the patient focus, remain calm, and maintain concentration.

However, studies have shown that Adderall and related drugs can help improve hand-eye coordination, acceleration, and strength, which athletes could benefit from in addition to improved focus and concentration. While the goals of taking drugs — improving performance or recovery time — are largely the same across sports, the policies of major sports all vary considerably regarding their testing methods and penalties.

For the major sporting leagues in the United States, the drug policy is generally determined by the league and negotiated during collective bargaining the NCAA , interestingly, relies principally on the testing programs at their affiliated institutions, which vary widely; however, the NCAA typically makes several visits throughout the year to ensure policies are being upheld.

Prior to entering the league, only the NFL requires pre-employment testing for all players, although in the MLB, all players are subjected to testing within five days of reporting for spring training.

The NBA, NHL, NCAA, and all other professional leagues do not require pre-employment testing. The frequency with which players are tested also varies greatly among professional leagues. In the NFL, all players are tested at least once per year, and the policy allows for targeted testing.

Ten players per team are randomly tested each week, which continues during the playoffs for teams in the postseason.

There may also be up to six offseason tests per player. In the NBA, all players are subject to four random tests per season, and the league conducts reasonable-cause testing. Similarly, in the NFL, players are tested up to three times per year at random.

Surprisingly, in the MLB, players are only subject to the test within five days of reporting for spring training and one other test on a randomly selected date, in addition to random tests in and out of season.

In the NFL, a first violation leads to a minimum four-game suspension, while a third violation calls for a minimum month suspension as well as disqualification from the Pro Bowl and other honors for the year.

In the NBA , the first positive result for PEDs earns a game suspension; the fourth violation results in disqualification from the league. If a first-year player tests positive for drugs of abuse, he earns a one year suspension with a chance of reinstatement after one year; all other players are suspended for at least two years.

A second violation leads to a game suspension without pay, and a third violation leads to a lifetime ban. However, violations of drugs of abuse are treated clinically first, rather than through suspension. In the NFL, upon testing positive for a banned PED, the player is notified and the sample which is split in half during the original phase of testing is re-tested.

Mandatory physical examinations are conducted to rule out naturally occurring high levels of chemicals such as testosterone , and psychological examinations may also be conducted in case of suspected addition. The burden of proof is placed on the league during an appeals process.

In the NBA, meanwhile, the approach is much more recovery-focused. Players who come forward with their drug problems receive league-funded counseling from the Life Extension Institute , a hour counseling center funded jointly by the NBA and the NBPA.

Any player testing positive for a drug of abuse or found to possess such a drug must submit to an initial evaluation by medical personnel, who then determine whether or not a treatment program is necessary.

The treatment program is agreed upon by medical personnel and the player, who can complete treatment as either an inpatient or an outpatient.

Players who refuse to comply with the treatment program or who test positive for drugs of abuse after their evaluation and commitment to the treatment board may find themselves suspended or subject to other discipline.

Out of the major professional sports, the MLB has perhaps the most interesting history of drug policies. In January of , under pressure from Congress, the MLB and its players announced a new drug agreement, in which first offenses earned a day suspension and fourth violations earned a one-year ban.

However, later that year, players and owners revised that agreement to say that first violations resulted in a game suspension, second violations resulted in game bans, and third violations earned lifetime bans.

In , players and owners agreed to have blood testing for HGH during spring training in , and blood testing has since been implemented during the regular season. In March of , players and owners announced that PED penalties would increase to 80 games for a first violation and games or a full season, including the postseason for a second violation; all suspensions are without pay.

In , the NFL announced stricter anti-doping policies, increasing the number of players tested and the number of random off-season tests; four years later, the NFL became the first major American sports league to approve blood testing for HGH, a policy which was finally implemented in The NHL first instituted a drug-testing policy for PEDs in What causes an athlete to assume the risk of taking drugs?

Many sports fans tend to take the black-and-white view of athletes and PEDs: professional athletes who take PEDs are labeled as poor decision makers, while athletes who reject PEDs are supporting the purity of the sport.

Log In. performance - enhancing drug noun. Rich et al. Roger Bannister, the first person to run a subpar four-minute mile, said today he thought that increased use of blood testing could help curb the use of performance-enhancing drugs by track and field athletes. Examples of performance - enhancing drug in a Sentence.

Recent Examples on the Web Nicotine is the latest performance-enhancing drug for grueling jobs in tech and finance Zyn has become a cultural sensation in the past year, attracting the attention of Gen-Z consumers who have become loyal buyers of the product.

com Wire Service, The Mercury News , 9 Feb. Baldor The Associated Press, Arkansas Online , 30 Sep. Word History. First Known Use. Time Traveler. See more words from the same year.

Dictionary Entries Near performance - enhancing drug. performance art performance-enhancing drug performative See More Nearby Entries. Cite this Entry. com Dictionary , s. com dictionary. Copy Citation. Post the Definition of performance-enhancing drug to Facebook Facebook.

Share the Definition of performance-enhancing drug on Twitter Twitter. Love words? Need even more definitions? Can you solve 4 words at once? Play Play.

Anabolic-androgenic steroidsdrugd shortened to "anabolic steroids," "steroids," or "androgens," 2,3 are Controlled eating frequency most widely Nutritional liver support APED. Controlled eating frequency are synthetic Performance-emhancing Performance-enhancing drugs to the Controlled eating frequency sex Pertormance-enhancing testosterone. They srugs the growth of skeletal muscle Homemade vegetable stock effects and the development Performancee-nhancing male sexual characteristics androgenic Controlled eating frequency in both males and females. Performance-enhacing compounds are sometimes used medically to treat delayed puberty and muscle loss due to disease 4 and to treat low levels of testosterone in men with an associated medical condition. However, testosterone-supplementation therapy is an increasingly common treatment for mood and sexual performance problems associated with male aging, and it is controversially being prescribed even for younger men. Note that in the context of this report, anabolic steroids refer only to the non-prescribed use misuse of testosterone and testosterone-like substances by athletes and non-athlete bodybuilders. This research report will not cover image enhancers, such as dermal fillersBotoxor the skin tanner, melanotan.

Performance-enhancing drugs -

At first, the high cost of the medication discouraged widespread use as a PED, but, as the saying goes, where there's a will to win, there's a way. The Summer Olympic Games have been called the "hGH Games" because of the rampant use of the drug among competitors.

And it continues to be a problem among athletes. In summer , Nigerian sprinter Blessing Okagbare was kicked out of the Tokyo Olympics after testing positive for hGH.

Today, athletes get hGH from a variety of sources: doctors willing to write prescriptions for off-label use, online pharmacies, illicit websites for performance-enhancing drugs and clinics that use the hormone to reverse the effects of aging.

A few athletes even turn to black-market dealers that collect hGH from human cadavers. It's a risky gamble, especially considering the lack of scientific evidence to suggest that hGH actually increases athletic performance.

Oh, and don't forget the side effects. Using hGH has been linked to a variety of medical conditions, including joint pain, muscle weakness, fluid retention, carpal tunnel syndrome, cardiomyopathy and hyperlipidemia [source: Mayo Clinic ]. Another performance-enhancing drug that made the Summer Olympic Games memorable for the wrong reason was bromantane, a sort of stimulant and masking agent combined.

Several Russians tested positive for the drug, which at the time was not included on the International Olympic Committee's IOC's list of banned substances.

That didn't stop the IOC from disqualifying several Russian athletes, stripping medals from two and ultimately blacklisting bromantane based on its performance-enhancing effects.

The effects of bromantane are quite unlike any other PED. Russian army doctors developed bromantane as a stimulant, something they could give to soldiers and cosmonauts to help them feel more alert and fight fatigue.

Soon after, Russian athletes got hold of the drug, reporting that it helped them perform at peak levels without feeling exhausted. Some anti-doping officials believe bromantane can hide the abuse of more serious drugs, such as steroids.

Known as masking, this is just one more way athletes can find a way to cheat. For example, the masking agent probenecid stops the excretion of steroids for a few hours, decreasing the concentration of steroids in the urine. The exact masking mechanism of bromantane, however, remains unclear.

Bromantane gained popularity because it appealed on multiple fronts. But stimulants by themselves function reasonably well as performance-enhancing substances. Athletes take stimulants to improve athletic performance, reduce fatigue and increase aggressiveness.

And someone trying to qualify for a lower weight class may rely on stimulants for their ability to suppress appetite.

You may think first of amphetamines — prescription-only "speed" pills — when you hear of this class of drugs, but not all stimulants require a physician's signature. Ephedrine, for example, is available behind the counter in drug products, mostly as decongestants.

Dietary supplements containing ephedrine are illegal in the U. Athletes, of course, aren't interested in these. They want ephedrine for an extra boost of energy despite the warnings that the drug can cause high blood pressure, dizziness, shortness of breath and cardiac arrhythmia.

Along with bromantane, diuretics have long served to mask steroid use. Diuretics are any drugs that affect kidney function, resulting in increased urine output.

The "water pill" chlorthalidone , for example, prevents kidney tubules from reabsorbing fluids and salts and returning them to the blood. As a result, more water leaves the body. In patients with certain conditions, such as heart disease, diuretics can also help control high blood pressure.

But athletes who take anabolic steroids pop diuretics to dilute their urine, which decreases steroid concentration and makes it much more difficult to detect during drug testing. Of course, there is testing for diuretics, too. Weightlifters and boxers may also down water pills to expel large amounts of fluid, which qualifies them to compete in a lower weight category.

Then, right before the match, they stop taking the pills to return to their heavier fighting weight, giving them an advantage against their opponent. However, an athlete taking diuretics may also get dizzy, become dehydrated or experience a severe drop in blood pressure — symptoms that make it hard to compete.

Sometimes, a drug's effect on athletic performance depends on how it's administered. For example, the well-known asthma drug albuterol works by relaxing the muscles lining the bronchial tubes, allowing more air to flow into the lungs.

Athletes with asthma believe it or not, elite athletes tend to have higher rates of asthma than people in the general population commonly use inhaled albuterol to treat their symptoms, allowing them to compete without shortness of breath [source: Kindermann ].

But what about athletes who don't have asthma? Could they suck in a few shots of albuterol and increase their lung capacity? According to research published in the journal Sports Medicine, this performance-enhancing effect simply doesn't exist.

The authors found that, in 17 of 19 clinical trials involving non-asthmatic competitive athletes, the performance-enhancing effects of inhaled beta2-agonists could not be proved. All bets are off, however, when an athlete takes albuterol orally or by injection.

When administered in this fashion, albuterol has anabolic properties, which means it can help build muscle like steroids and, according to a study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, it can also boost sprint and strength performance.

Another orally ingested beta2-agonist known as clenbuterol aka clen packs an even bigger punch than albuterol. Athletes in several sports — cycling, swimming, baseball and soccer — have tested positive for clenbuterol use, although many have claimed that the drug could be traced to contaminated food.

While clenbuterol has historically been given to animals to produce leaner meat, the U. banned its use in meat in and the European Union followed suit in If the acronym sounds familiar, it probably is. GHB is known as a "date rape" drug because it can quickly render a user so relaxed and euphoric — especially when combined with alcohol — that they are easily taken advantage of.

Even scarier, it can cause amnesia, improving the chances that predators who slip the tasteless chemical into an unsuspecting imbiber's cocktail will get away with their misdeeds.

Because of the risks it posed, the Drug Enforcement Administration DEA banned GHB in but then brought it back to the market two years later after it was found to be useful in treating narcolepsy.

Its use has since expanded to include another rare sleeping disorder, but GHB is only prescribed under strict safety controls. Even before it gained infamy as a date rape drug, GHB was thought to improve exercise performance and muscle mass. There's even some scientific evidence that GHB increases growth hormone concentration.

The drug apparently became popular among bodybuilders looking for alternatives to steroids in the s when the hormones were first being controlled. Mike Fox , who was a personal trainer and good friend to retired New York Mets' player Mike Piazza, shot himself while trying to give up GHB in Bodybuilder Mike Scarcella, who was Mr.

America and Mr. USA, died in August during a GHB withdrawal while hospitalized after a bar fight in Texas. But the alleged performance-enhancing benefits of GHB live on. In , "Full House" actor John Stamos was arrested for driving erratically through Beverly Hills under the influence of GHB.

Stamos claimed he was taking the drug to "lean out" body mass before his new TV show, "Grandfathered. It's easy to see why baseball players, cyclists, boxers, swimmers and runners sometimes turn to pharmaceuticals for a competitive advantage.

These sports require deep reservoirs of muscle strength and endurance — the very targets of the most popular performance-enhancing drugs. But what about sports like pistol shooting or archery? They certainly demand a keen eye, a steady hand and rock-solid concentration but not Herculean strength.

Even so, athletes in these sports may also take PEDs. In fact, two North Korean pistol shooters competing in the Olympic Games in Seoul, South Korea, tested positive for propranolol.

As it turns out, propranolol belongs to a class of drugs known as beta blockers, which nonathletes use to control high blood pressure. Beta blockers work by blocking the effects of epinephrine, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that increases blood circulation.

People who take beta blockers have a slower heart rate and more relaxed blood vessels, conditions that help reduce blood pressure. But the drugs have an interesting secondary effect: They mask anxiety by diminishing nervous sweat and trembling and are sometimes prescribed off-label to treat performance anxiety.

And that's exactly why marksmen are drawn to the drugs; if they have a steadier hand, they can perform better in competition. In addition to propranolol, beta blockers include atenolol, acebutolol, alprenolol, bisoprolol and metoprolol, all of which are banned in pistol shooting and archery.

In June , outfielder Marlon Byrd faced a game suspension after testing positive for tamoxifen , a substance banned from Major League Baseball and many other sports.

Why would an athlete want to take a drug normally used by breast cancer patients? The answer lies in some interesting biochemistry. Many breast cancers have receptors for estrogen, a hormone that promotes the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body.

When estrogen molecules fit into these receptors like a key fitting into a lock, the malignant cells become activated.

Tamoxifen blocks these estrogen receptors , interfering with the cancer's ability to grow and develop. This is why scientists refer to tamoxifen as an anti-estrogenic agent. Now let's turn our attention to a home run slugger taking steroid injections — usually synthetic testosterone — to grow his muscles.

Large doses of the male hormone cause the body to produce additional estrogen. This in turn can result in enlarged breasts, a feature that most power hitters find unappealing. To counteract the effects of estrogen and mask their steroid use, these players may opt to take tamoxifen.

That means anti-estrogens don't really enhance performance, but because they alleviate symptoms of PEDs, they appear on the World Anti-Doping Agency's list.

There's one popular performance-enhancing drug that won't land an athlete in hot water with anti-doping agencies. It's creatine , and it's not a drug at all, at least according to the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA. Because it's an over-the-counter supplement, the FDA regulates creatine like a food, which means creatine manufacturers don't conform to the same standards as pharmaceutical companies.

Creatine remains one of the most widely used substances among athletes, especially football players, sprinters and weightlifters. A second study showed 6. At the collegiate level, surveys show that AAS use among athletes range from 5 percent to 20 percent and continues to rise.

The study found that skin changes were an early marker of steroid use in young athletes, and underscored the important role that dermatologists could play in the early detection and intervention in these athletes. A famous case of AAS use in a competition was Canadian Ben Johnson 's victory in the m at the Summer Olympics.

He later admitted to using the steroid as well as Dianabol , testosterone, Furazabol , and human growth hormone amongst other things. Johnson was stripped of his gold medal as well as his world-record performance.

Carl Lewis was then promoted one place to take the Olympic gold title. Lewis had also run under the current world record time and was therefore recognized as the new record holder.

Johnson was not the only participant whose success was questioned: Lewis had tested positive at the Olympic Trials for pseudoephedrine , ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine. Lewis defended himself, claiming that he had accidentally consumed the banned substances.

After the supplements that he had taken were analyzed to prove his claims, the USOC accepted his claim of inadvertent use, since a dietary supplement he ingested was found to contain "Ma huang", the Chinese name for Ephedra ephedrine is known to help weight loss.

The highest level of the stimulants Lewis recorded was 6 ppm, which was regarded as a positive test in but is now regarded as negative test. The acceptable level has been raised to ten parts per million for ephedrine and twenty-five parts per million for other substances.

Neal Benowitz, a professor of medicine at UC San Francisco who is an expert on ephedrine and other stimulants, agreed that "These [levels] are what you'd see from someone taking cold or allergy medicines and are unlikely to have any effect on performance.

Following Exum's revelations the IAAF acknowledged that at the Olympic Trials the USOC indeed followed the correct procedures in dealing with eight positive findings for ephedrine and ephedrine-related compounds in low concentration.

Linford Christie of Great Britain was found to have metabolites of pseudoephedrine in his urine after a m heat at the same Olympics, but was later cleared of any wrongdoing.

Smith later said: "I should have been the gold medalist. The CBC radio documentary, Rewind , "Ben Johnson: A Hero Disgraced" broadcast on 19 September , for the 25th anniversary of the race, stated 20 athletes tested positive for drugs but were cleared by the IOC at this Seoul Olympics.

An IOC official stated that endocrine profiles done at those games indicated that 80 percent of the track and field athletes tested showed evidence of long-term steroid use, although not all were banned.

Stimulants are drugs that usually act on the central nervous system to modulate mental function and behavior, increasing an individual's sense of excitement and decreasing the sensation of fatigue. In the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances, stimulants are the second largest class after the anabolic steroids.

Benzedrine is a trade name for amphetamine. The Council of Europe says it first appeared in sport at the Berlin Olympics in in by Gordon Alles. Its perceived effects gave it the street name "speed". British troops used 72 million amphetamine tablets in the Second World War [7] and the RAF got through so many that "Methedrine won the Battle of Britain" according to one report.

The drug was withdrawn but large stocks remained on the black market. Amphetamine was also used legally as an aid to slimming and also as a thymoleptic before being phased out by the appearance of newer agents in the s. Everton , one of the top clubs in the English football league, were champions of the —63 season, and it was done, according to a national newspaper investigation, with the help of Benzedrine.

Word spread after Everton's win that the drug had been involved. The newspaper investigated, cited where the reporter believed it had come from, and quoted the goalkeeper, Albert Dunlop, as saying:.

The club agreed that drugs had been used but that they "could not possibly have had any harmful effect. In November , the Italian cyclist Fausto Coppi took "seven packets of amphetamine" to beat the world hour record on the track.

The autopsy showed he had taken amphetamine and another drug, Ronicol , which dilates the blood vessels. The chairman of the Dutch cycling federation, Piet van Dijk, said of Rome that "dope — whole cartloads — [were] used in such royal quantities. The s British cycling professional Jock Andrews would joke: "You need never go off-course chasing the peloton in a big race — just follow the trail of empty syringes and dope wrappers.

Currently modafinil is being used throughout the sporting world, with many high-profile cases attracting press coverage as prominent United States athletes have failed tests for this substance.

Some athletes who were found to have used modafinil protested as the drug was not on the prohibited list at the time of their offence, however, the World Anti-Doping Agency WADA maintains it is a substance related to those already banned, so the decisions stand.

Modafinil was added to the list of prohibited substances on 3 August , ten days before the start of the Summer Olympics.

One approach of athletes to get around regulations on stimulants is to use new designer stimulants, which have not previously been officially prohibited, but have similar chemical structures or biological effects. Designer stimulants that attracted media attention in included mephedrone , ephedrone , and fluoroamphetamines , which have chemical structures and effects similar to ephedrine and amphetamine.

These "de facto experiments investigating the physiology of stress as well as the substances that might alleviate exhaustion" were not unknown outside cycling. Thomas Hicks , an American born in England on 7 January , won the Olympic marathon in He crossed the line behind a fellow American Fred Lorz , who had been transported for 11 miles of the course by his trainer, leading to his disqualification.

However, Hicks's trainer Charles Lucas, pulled out a syringe and came to his aid as his runner began to struggle. The use of strychnine, at the time, was thought necessary to survive demanding races, according to sports historians Alain Lunzenfichter [49] and historian of sports doping, Dr Jean-Pierre de Mondenard, who said:.

Hicks was, in the phrase of the time, "between life and death" but recovered, collected his gold medal a few days later, and lived until Nonetheless, he never again took part in athletics.

In one of East Germany's best sprinters, Renate Neufeld , fled to the West with the Bulgarian she later married. A year later she said that she had been told to take drugs supplied by coaches while training to represent East Germany at the Summer Olympics.

She brought with her to the West grey tablets and green powder she said had been given to her, to members of her club, and to other athletes. The West German doping analyst Manfred Donike reportedly identified them as anabolic steroids.

She said she stayed quiet for a year for the sake of her family. But when her father then lost his job and her sister was expelled from her handball club, she decided to tell her story. East Germany closed itself to the sporting world in May At the same time, the Kreischa testing laboratory near Dresden passed into government control; it reputedly made around 12, tests a year on East German athletes but without any being penalised.

The International Amateur Athletics Federation IAAF suspended Slupianek for 12 months, a penalty that ended two days before the European championships in Prague. In the reverse of what the IAAF hoped, sending her home to East Germany meant she was free to train unchecked with anabolic steroids, if she wanted to, and then compete for another gold medal, which she won.

After that, almost nothing emerged from the East German sports schools and laboratories. A rare exception was the visit by the sports-writer and former athlete, Doug Gilbert of the Edmonton Sun , who said:.

Other reports came from the occasional athlete who fled to the West — 15 of them between and One, the ski-jumper Hans-Georg Aschenbach , said: "Long-distance skiers start having injections to their knees from the age 14 because of their intensive training.

There are gymnasts among the girls who have to wear corsets from the age of 18 because their spine and their ligaments have become so worn There are young people so worn out by the intensive training that they come out of it mentally blank [ lessivés — washed out], which is even more painful than a deformed spine.

After the German reunification , on 26 August the records were opened and evidence found that the Stasi , the state secret police, supervised systematic doping of East German athletes from until reunification in Doping existed in other countries, says the expert Jean-Pierre de Mondenard, both communist and capitalist, but the difference with East Germany was that it was a state policy.

Victims of doping, trying to gain justice and compensation, set up a special page on the internet to list people involved in doping in the GDR. State-endorsed doping began with the Cold War of —, when every Eastern Bloc gold represented an ideological victory. From , Manfred Ewald , the head of East Germany's sports federation , imposed blanket doping.

At the Summer Olympics in Mexico City, the country of 17 million collected nine gold medals. Four years later the total was 20 and in it doubled again to It is estimated [ by whom? Two former Dynamo Berlin club doctors, Dieter Binus, chief of the national women's team [ which?

Virtually no East German athlete ever failed an official drugs test, though Stasi files show that many did produce failed tests at Kreischa , the Saxon laboratory German: Zentrales Dopingkontroll-Labor des Sportmedizinischen Dienstes that was at the time approved by the International Olympic Committee IOC , [65] now called the Institute of Doping Analysis and Sports Biochemistry IDAS.

Former Sport Club Dynamo athletes Daniela Hunger and Andrea Pollack publicly admitted to doping and accused their coaches for being responsible. Based on the admission by Pollack, the United States Olympic Committee asked for the redistribution of gold medals won in the Summer Olympics.

In rejecting the American petition on behalf of its women's medley relay team in Montreal and a similar petition from the British Olympic Association on behalf of Sharron Davies , the IOC made it clear that it wanted to discourage any such appeals in the future.

The page "Doping in Germany from to today" study details how the West German government helped fund a wide-scale doping programme. West Germany encouraged and covered up a culture of doping across many sports for decades. Immediately after the FIFA World Cup Final , rumors emerged that the West German team had taken performance-enhancing substances.

Several members of the team fell ill with jaundice , presumably from a contaminated needle. Members of the team later claimed they had been injected with glucose , [79] and the team physician Franz Loogen said in that the players had only been given Vitamin C before the game.

According to the German Olympic Sports Association DOSB , doping was common in the West German athletes of the s. West German heptathlete Birgit Dressel died at age 26 due to sudden multiple organ failure, triggered at least in part by long-term steroid abuse.

China conducted a state-sanctioned doping programme on athletes in the s and s. More recently, three Chinese weightlifters were stripped of their gold Olympic medals for doping at the Summer Olympics.

In a July interview published by the Sydney Morning Herald newspaper, Chen Zhangho, the lead doctor for the Chinese Olympic team at the Los Angeles , Seoul and Barcelona Olympics told of how he had tested hormones, blood doping and steroids on about fifty elite athletes.

In and Xue Yinxian revealed systematic doping of Chinese athletes in Olympic Games and in other international sport events. He has claimed that more than 10, athletes in China were doped in the systematic Chinese government doping program and that they received performance-enhancing drugs in the s and s.

He stated that the entirety of international medals both in the Olympics and other international competitions won by Chinese athletes in the s and s must be taken back. This is contrary to previous statements by the Chinese government , which had denied involvement in systematic doping, claiming that athletes doped individually.

The International Olympic Committee and the World Anti-Doping Agency have investigated these allegations. According to British journalist Andrew Jennings , a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the IOC to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts".

The Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games. A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine.

Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists, would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. Documents obtained in revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.

Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements.

The communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field, was prepared by Dr. Sergey Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the Summer Olympics.

Russia also has the most competitors that have been caught doping at the Olympic Games , with more than Russian doping is distinct from doping in other countries because in Russia the state supplied steroids and other drugs to sportspeople.

As at the Winter Olympics , WADA will allow individual cleared Russian athletes to compete neutrally under a title to be determined which may not include the name "Russia", unlike the use of " Olympic Athletes from Russia " in Russia later filed an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport CAS against the WADA decision.

Instead of banning Russia from sporting events, the ruling allowed Russia to participate at the Olympics and other international events, but for a period of two years the team cannot use the Russian name, flag, or anthem and must present themselves as "Neutral Athlete" or "Neutral Team".

On 19 February , it was announced that Russia would compete under the acronym "ROC", after the name of the Russian Olympic Committee. On aftermatch, the IOC announced that the Russian national flag would be substituted by the flag of the Russian Olympic Committee. It would also be allowed to use team uniforms bearing the words "Russian Olympic Committee", or the acronym "ROC" would be added.

On 15 April , the uniforms for the Russian Olympic Committee athletes were unveiled, featuring the colours of the Russian flag. A fragment of Pyotr Tchaikovsky 's Piano Concerto No. The United States has had eight Olympic medals stripped for doping violations.

In the case of swimmer Rick DeMont , the USOC recognized his gold-medal performance in the Summer Olympics in , [] but only the IOC has the power to restore his medal, and it has as of [update] refused to do so. Following the race, the IOC stripped him of his gold medal [] after his post-race urinalysis tested positive for traces of the banned substance ephedrine contained in his prescription asthma medication, Marax.

The positive test following the meter freestyle final also deprived him of a chance at multiple medals, as he was not permitted to swim in any other events at the Olympics, including the 1,meter freestyle for which he was the then-current world record-holder.

Before the Olympics, DeMont had properly declared his asthma medications on his medical disclosure forms, but the USOC had not cleared them with the IOC's medical committee. In , Wade Exum, the United States Olympic Committee 's director of drug-control administration from to , gave copies of documents to Sports Illustrated that revealed that some American athletes failed drug tests from to , arguing that they should have been prevented from competing in the Olympics but were nevertheless cleared to compete; those athletes included Carl Lewis , Joe DeLoach and Floyd Heard.

the Denver federal Court summarily dismissed his case for lack of evidence. The USOC labelled his case "baseless" as he himself was the one in charge of screening the anti-doping test program of the organization and clarifying that the athletes were cleared according to the rules.

Carl Lewis broke his silence on allegations that he was the beneficiary of a drugs cover-up, admitting he had failed tests for banned substances, but claiming he was just one of "hundreds" of American athletes who were allowed to escape bans, concealed by the USOC.

Lewis has acknowledged that he failed three tests during the US Olympic trials, which under international rules at the time should have prevented him from competing in the Summer Olympics.

I knew this was going on, but there's absolutely nothing you can do as an athlete. You have to believe governing bodies are doing what they are supposed to do. And it is obvious they did not," said former American sprinter and Olympic champion, Evelyn Ashford. Exum's documents revealed that Carl Lewis had tested positive three times at the Olympics trials for minimum amounts of pseudoephedrine , ephedrine , and phenylpropanolamine , which were banned stimulants.

Bronchodilators are also found in cold medication. Due to the rules, his case could have led to disqualification from the Seoul Olympics and suspension from competition for six months. The levels of the combined stimulants registered in the separate tests were 2 ppm , 4 ppm and 6 ppm.

After the supplements that he had taken were analyzed to prove his claims, the USOC accepted his claim of inadvertent use, since a dietary supplement he ingested was found to contain "Ma huang", the Chinese name for Ephedra ephedrine is known to help weight-loss.

The federation also reviewed in the relevant documents with the athletes' names undisclosed and stated that "the medical committee felt satisfied, however, on the basis of the information received that the cases had been properly concluded by the USOC as 'negative cases' in accordance with the rules and regulations in place at the time and no further action was taken".

There have been few incidents of doping in football, mainly due to FIFA 's belief that education and prevention with constant in and out-of-competition controls play a key role in making high-profile competitions free of performance-enhancing drugs.

In , the biological passport was introduced in the FIFA World Cup ; blood and urine samples from all players before the competition and from two players per team and per match are analysed by the Swiss Laboratory for Doping Analyses.

A study titled "Doping in Germany from to today", published in August , stated that some members of the Germany national team received injections during their successful world cup Erik Eggers, who wrote about the preanabolic period in the study, was sure that the injections didn't contain vitamin C "They could have just eaten an orange" but assumed that they contained Pervitin.

It also stated that Pervitin an upper, also used massively by soldiers in World War 2 was widespread in German football in the s.

The study, pages in length and costing Mohammed Kaci Saïd , Djamel Menad , Tedj Bensaoula, Medi Cerbah, Mohamed Chaib , Salah Larbès, Abdelkader Tlemçani, members of Algerias national side in the s, claim that they were given performance-enhancing drugs.

They suspect this to be the reason why they all fathered disabled children. Chaib, father of three disabled children, demanded the medical records and was told they didn't exist anymore. Rashid Hanafi, team doctor back then, also suspected there were suspicious practices going on.

He told CNN that he was "not allowed to take a look at the medical records of the players any more when Rogov took over as coach in ". Alexander Tabartschuk, main doctor of the team, said he only handed vitamins.

Algeria fell victim to the Disgrace of Gijón in and won the African Cup eight years later. Argentina took "speedy coffee" before the qualifier for the world cup against Australia, at least this is what Maradona said in May It should make them run faster, but also caused sleeping problems.

He also found it suspicious that only the deciding match against Australia had no anti-doping control. Grondona, chairman of AFA back then, responded that there were no tests because Maradona, who already had a drug history, might not have passed.

Maradona tested positive in the world cup. Right after the world cup , all of the drug testing samples were destroyed.

If the same would have happened in the Tour de France, Armstrong wouldn't have been caught, former WADA director Dr. Alain Garnier argued. Marie-Georges Buffet , sports minister at that time, also recalls that she felt pressurised when she initiated an unannounced test in December There were no more unannounced tests after that.

Jean-Pierre Paclet, physician of Les Bleus in , mentions "abnormal haematocrit values" in his book. Gary Neville, former English international, recalled that "some of the players started taking injections from a Frenchman called Dr Rougier". After some felt an energy boost, there was "a queue to see the doctor before the Argentina match".

In the s, Inter Milan has its greatest period of success known as [La] Grande Inter "Great Inter" , achieved when Helenio Herrera was their manager. He won seven trophies with the club.

In , Ferruccio Mazzola , Inter player during that period, accused him of distributing performance-enhancing drugs, including amphetamines , among the team players, especially the substitute players "who often served as guinea pigs for trying new pills and see if they worked. In , Inter sued Mazzola but lost the case, the court believed him.

He suspected the drugs to be the cause of their sufferings. in , his brother Sandro , who denied everything at the beginning, admitted that the incidents happened.

In the s performance-enhancing drugs were used on a regular basis according to witnesses of that period, mostly in Ajax, Feyenoord and AZ Alkmaar during competitive matches, including the and Intercontinental Cups won by the first two cited clubs.

Jan Peters recounted drug use before the big games. They seemed to work as he felt energy boosts and euphoria. Johnny Rep , former Ajax player, claimed that "everyone was on something". He recounted injections for everyone on 1 November , ahead of a match of his team, Saint-Etienne, against PSV Eindhoven.

Pierre Poty, who was physician of the club at that time, also revealed that he worked with uppers and reasoned it with the fantastic effects. Fritz Kessel, also physician, worked for the Dutch national side for 30 years and revealed that drugs were common in the and FIFA World Cups.

He said that to Guido Derksen, writer of Voetbal Myseries , who wrote that players "consumed tons of amphetamines.

An investigative commission of sports medicine in Freiburg claims that in the late s and in the s Stuttgart and Freiburg football clubs were operating with Anabolika. VfB Stuttgart reordered Anabolika at least once. In , Toni Schumacher wrote about a long-running tradition of doping in the Bundesliga, claiming that lots of players were taking Captagon.

He himself experimented with it and the effects were: Increased aggression, lower pain threshold, increased focus, confidence and endurance. The by effect was sleeping problems. In Köln he was chauffeuring his colleagues to the doctor who gave them pills and injections, presumably anabolics and stimulants.

In the national team he mentioned a "walking chemist" and hormone use. Despite being supported by Paul Breitner he had to leave Köln after games. Later on, his statements about doping in the Bundesliga were supported by Per Roentved, Hans Werner Moors, Dieter Schatzscheider, Hans-Josef Kapellmann, Peter Neururer, Benno Möhlmann, Uwe Nester, Peter Geyer who talked about procedure, quantity and side effects , Jürgen Röber, Jürgen Stumm and Peter Harms both medics.

Juventus won the UEFA Champions League Final , but the victory remains controversial because of accusations of doping. However, regardless of the existence or not of any judgement rendered by a State court, sports authorities are under the obligation to prosecute the use of pharmaceutical substances which are prohibited by sports law or any other anti-doping rule violation in order to adopt disciplinary measures.

At Olympique Marseille, doping also took place according to Marcel Desailly , Jean-Jaques Eydelie , Chris Waddle and Tony Cascarino.

They told about stimulants taken prior to their big games, which made them more energetic and keen. According to Eydelie, "all of them took a series of injections" in the Champions League Final , except Rudi Völler.

All this was no surprise for Arsene Wenger, who said everyone in France assumed something like that going on. Additionally, Desailly and Cascarino claimed that Bernard Tapie, the president himself, distributed pills and injections.

Author Mondenard also mentioned "injections for everyone". Tapie only admitted that some players took Captagon. In , a couple of players tested positive for nandrolone. The documentation of the doctor also contained the inscriptions "RSOC" a couple of times and "Cuentas [bills] Asti" which most probably stands for Astiazarán, president of the club from to In Real Sociedad finished second in the Spanish League, missing the title by two points.

The well-known medic was hired by Real Madrid and FC Barcelona, too, according to Le Monde. They had access to confidential documents like training schedules.

In December , the UFC began a campaign to drug test their entire roster randomly all year-round. Random testing, however, became problematic for the promotion as it began to affect revenue, as fighters who had tested positive would need to be taken out of fights, which adversely affected fight cards, and therefore pay-per-view sales.

If the UFC were not able to find a replacement fighter fights would have to be cancelled. According to Steven Marrocco of MMAjunkie.

That is approximately five failed tests for every sixteen random screenings. From July , the UFC has advocated to all commissions that every fighter be tested in competition for every card.

Lorenzo Feritta , who at the time was one of the presidents of the UFC, said, "We want percent of the fighters tested the night they compete". Also, in addition to the drug testing protocols in place for competitors on fight night, the UFC conducts additional testing for main event fighters or any fighters that are due to compete in championship matches.

This includes enhanced, random 'out of competition' testing for performance-enhancing drugs, with both urine and blood samples being taken. The UFC also announced that all potential UFC signees would be subject to mandatory pre-contract screening for performance-enhancing drugs prior to being offered a contract with the promotion.

The use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport has become an increasing problem across a wide range of sports. Erythropoietin EPO is largely taken by endurance athletes who seek a higher level of red blood cells, which leads to more oxygenated blood, and a higher VO2 max.

An athlete's VO2 max is highly correlated with success within endurance sports such as swimming, long-distance running, cycling, rowing, and cross-country skiing. EPO has recently become prevalent amongst endurance athletes due to its potency and low degree of detectability when compared to other methods of doping such as blood transfusion.

While EPO is believed to have been widely used by athletes in the s, there was not a way to directly test for the drug until as there was no specific screening process to test athletes.

Athletes at the Olympic Games are tested for EPO through blood and urine tests. Stringent guidelines and regulations can lessen the danger of doping that has existed within some endurance sports. In , a journalist Albert Londres followed the Tour de France for the French newspaper Le Petit Parisien.

At Coutances he heard that the previous year's winner, Henri Pélissier , his brother Francis and a third rider, Maurice Ville, had resigned from the competition after an argument with the organiser Henri Desgrange. Pélissier explained the problem—whether or not he had the right to take off a jersey—and went on to talk of drugs, reported in Londres' race diary, in which he invented the phrase Les Forçats de la Route The Convicts of the Road :.

Henri spoke of being as white as shrouds once the dirt of the day had been washed off, then of their bodies being drained by diarrhea , before continuing:. Francis Pélissier said much later: "Londres was a famous reporter but he didn't know about cycling.

We kidded him a bit with our cocaine and our pills. Even so, the Tour de France in was no picnic. In , the entire Festina team were excluded from the Tour de France following the discovery of a team car containing large amounts of various performance-enhancing drugs.

The team director later admitted that some of the cyclists were routinely given banned substances. Six other teams pulled out in protest including Dutch team TVM who left the tour still being questioned by the police. The Festina scandal overshadowed cyclist Marco Pantani 's tour win, but he himself later failed a test.

The infamous " Pot Belge " or "Belgian mix" has a decades-long history in pro cycling, among both riders and support staff. David Millar , the World-Time Trial Champion, admitted using EPO , and was stripped of his title and suspended for two years.

Roberto Heras was stripped of his victory in the Vuelta a España and suspended for two years after testing positive for EPO.

Floyd Landis was the initial winner of the Tour de France. But a urine sample taken from Landis immediately after his Stage 17 win has twice tested positive for banned synthetic testosterone as well as a ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone nearly three times the limit allowed by World Anti-Doping Agency rules.

Second place finisher Óscar Pereiro was officially declared the winner. Lance Armstrong was world number one in In the same year he recovered from severe testicular cancer and continued to break records and win his seventh Tour de France in After beating cancer and breaking records he was accused of doping.

On 22 October Lance Armstrong was officially stripped of his Tour de France titles since 1 August In triathlon, Hawaii Ironman winner Nina Kraft , was disqualified for a positive test to EPO. She remains the only Hawaii Ironman winner to be disqualified for doping offences.

Sports lawyer Michelle Gallen has said that the pursuit of doping athletes has turned into a modern-day witch-hunt. In sports where physical strength is favored, athletes have used anabolic steroids , known for their ability to increase physical strength and muscle mass. The drugs have been used across a wide range of sports from football and basketball to weightlifting and track and field.

While not as life-threatening as the drugs used in endurance sports, anabolic steroids have negative side effects, including:. In countries where the use of these drugs is controlled, there is often a black market trade of smuggled or counterfeit drugs.

The quality of these drugs may be poor and can cause health risks. In countries where anabolic steroids are strictly regulated, some have called for regulatory relief. Anabolic steroids are available over-the-counter in some countries such as Thailand and Mexico.

Sports that are members of the IOC also enforce drug regulations; for example bridge. Many sports organizations have banned the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict rules and penalties for people who are caught using them.

The International Amateur Athletic Federation, now World Athletics , was the first international governing body of sport to take the situation seriously. In they banned participants from doping, but with little in the way of testing available they had to rely on the word of the athlete that they were clean.

Over the years, different sporting bodies have evolved differently in the struggle against doping. Some, such as athletics and cycling, are becoming increasingly vigilant against doping.

However, there has been criticism that sports such as football soccer and baseball are doing nothing about the issue, and letting athletes implicated in doping get away unpunished. Some commentators maintain that, as outright prevention of doping is an impossibility, all doping should be legalised.

However, most disagree with this, pointing out the claimed harmful long-term effects of many doping agents. Opponents claim that with doping legal, all competitive athletes would be compelled to use drugs, and the net effect would be a level playing field but with widespread health consequences.

A common rebuttal to this argument asserts that anti-doping efforts have been largely ineffective due to both testing limitations and lack of enforcement, and so sanctioned steroid use would not be markedly different from the situation already in existence.

Another point of view is that doping could be legalized to some extent using a drug whitelist and medical counseling, such that medical safety is ensured, with all usage published. Under such a system, it is likely that athletes would attempt to cheat by exceeding official limits to try to gain an advantage; this could be considered conjecture as drug amounts do not always correlate linearly with performance gains.

Social pressure is one of the factors that leads to doping in sport. Adolescent athletes are constantly influenced by what they see on the media, and some go to extreme measures to achieve the ideal image since society channels Judith Butler 's definition of gender as a performative act.

Elite athletes have financial competitive motivations that cause them to dope and these motivations differ from that of recreational athletes. This is the case with muscle dysmorphia, where an athlete wants a more muscular physique for functionality and self- image purposes.

Psychology is another factor to take into consideration in doping in sport. It becomes a behavioral issue when the athlete acknowledges the health risks associated with doping, yet participates in it anyway. Under established doping control protocols, the athlete will be asked to provide a urine sample, which will be divided into two, each portion to be preserved within sealed containers bearing the same unique identifying number and designation respectively as A- and B-samples.

If the B-sample test results match the A-sample results, then the athlete is considered to have a positive test, otherwise, the test results are negative.

The blood test detects illegal performance enhancement drugs through the measurement of indicators that change with the use of recombinant human erythropoietin: []. The gas chromatography-combustion-IRMS is a way to detect any variations in the isotopic composition of an organic compound from the standard.

Assumptions: []. The athlete biological passport is a program that tracks the location of an athlete to combat doping in sports. According to Article 6. Samples from high-profile events, such as the Olympic Games , are now retested up to eight years later to take advantage of new techniques for detecting banned substances.

Donald Berry, writing in the journal Nature , has called attention to potential problems with the validity of ways in which many of the standardised tests are performed; [] [ subscription required ] in his article, as described in an accompanying editorial, Berry.

argues that anti-doping authorities have not adequately defined and publicized how they arrived at the criteria used to determine whether or not a test result is positive [which are] calibrated in part by testing a small number of volunteers taking the substance in question.

that individual labs need to verify these detection limits in larger groups that include known dopers and non-dopers under blinded conditions that mimic what happens during competition. The editorial closes, saying "Nature believes that accepting 'legal limits' of specific metabolites without such rigorous verification goes against the foundational standards of modern science, and results in an arbitrary test for which the rate of false positives and false negatives can never be known.

Pascal Zachary argues in a Wired essay that legalizing performance-enhancing substances, as well as genetic enhancements once they became available, would satisfy society's need for übermenschen and reverse the decline in public interest in sports. Sports scholar Verner Moller argues that society is hypocritical when it holds athletes to moral standards, but do not conform to those morals themselves.

We live in a society of short cuts, of fake this and enhanced that, and somehow we keep trying to sell the line that sports has become this evil empire of cheating. The reality is athletes are merely doing what so many of us do and celebrate and watch every single day of our lives.

Sociologist Ellis Cashmore argues that what is considered doping is too arbitrary: transfusing blood cells is not allowed, but other methods of boosting blood cell count, such as hypobaric chambers , are allowed.

In , Australian businessman Aron D'Souza announced the Enhanced Games , a planned sports event permitting doping. Anti-doping policies instituted by individual sporting governing bodies may conflict with local laws.

A notable case includes the National Football League NFL 's inability to suspend players found with banned substances, after it was ruled by a federal court that local labor laws superseded the NFL's anti-doping regime.

The challenge was supported by the National Football League Players Association. Athletes caught doping may be subject to penalties from their local, as well from the individual sporting, governing body. The legal status of anabolic steroids varies from country to country.

Fighters found using performance-enhancing drugs in mixed martial arts competitions e. Under certain circumstances, when athletes need to take a prohibited substance to treat a medical condition, therapeutic use exemptions may be granted. Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history.

Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item. Download as PDF Printable version. In other projects. Wikimedia Commons Wikinews. For the Mexican reggae band, see Antidoping.

Substances and types. Anabolic steroids Blood doping Gene doping Stem cell doping Mechanical doping Technology doping Cannabinoids Diuretics Painkillers Sedatives Stem cell doping Stimulants Beta2-adrenergic agonist Clenbuterol Ephedrine EPO Human growth hormone Methylhexanamine SARMs Stanozolol Tetrahydrogestrinone.

Abortion doping Biological passport Blood-spinning Doping test Performance-enhancing drugs Repoxygen Stem cell doping Whizzinator. Olympics Tour de France , , Auto racing BALCO scandal Clemson University steroid scandal U of South Carolina steroid scandal Dubin Inquiry Association Football China East Germany Russia United States Festina affair Floyd Landis case Game of Shadows Juiced L.

Confidentiel Lance Armstrong History of allegations Doping case Operación Puerto Operation Aderlass Doping in American football Steroid use in baseball Barry Bonds perjury case Mitchell Report Biogenesis scandal. Doping-related lists.

Doping cases in Sport Athletics Cycling Doping at the Olympic Games Doping at the World Championships in Athletics Stripped Olympic medals Stripped European Athletics C'ships medals Drugs banned from the Olympics MLB players suspended for doping MLB players in the Mitchell Report.

Anti-doping bodies. World Anti-Doping Agency International Testing Agency List of national anti-doping organizations Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority French Anti-Doping Agency National Anti-Doping Agency Russian Anti-Doping Agency UK Anti-Doping United States Anti-Doping Agency.

Main article: Goldman's dilemma. For other uses, see Banned substance disambiguation. Main articles: Ergogenic use of anabolic steroids and Anabolic steroid.

Main article: Doping in East Germany. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. November

These examples Controlled eating frequency programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate Controlled eating frequency usage Performance-enhancimg the word 'performance-enhancing drug. Send us feedback about these examples. performance art. performance-enhancing drug. Accessed 14 Feb. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Pwrformance-enhancing substancesalso ddrugs as performance-enhancing Controlled eating frequency PEDsFast loading speed are substances Drufs are used Controlled eating frequency improve Performance-enhancing drugs form size activity performance Perfromance-enhancing humans. Controlled eating frequency well-known example of cheating in sports involves doping in sportwhere banned Performance-enhacing performance-enhancing drugs Controlled eating frequency used by athletes and bodybuilders. Athletic performance-enhancing substances are sometimes referred as ergogenic aids. Performance-enhancing substances are also used by military personnel to enhance combat performance. The use of performance-enhancing drugs spans the categories of legitimate use and substance abuse. The classifications of substances as performance-enhancing substances are not entirely clear-cut and objective. As in other types of categorizationcertain prototype performance enhancers are universally classified as such like anabolic steroidswhereas other substances like vitamins and protein supplements are virtually never classified as performance enhancers despite their effects on performance.

Video

The Strongest Legal Performance Enhancing Supplement (not caffeine or creatine) Performance-enhancing drugs

Author: Kazira

3 thoughts on “Performance-enhancing drugs

  1. Ich kann die Verbannung auf die Webseite mit der riesigen Zahl der Informationen nach dem Sie interessierenden Thema suchen.

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com