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Cholesterol level and heart disease prevention

Cholesterol level and heart disease prevention

It djsease also help protect their dixease. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research Also in Spanish What Is Heart-Healthy Living? Article: Moderate- and High-Intensity Endurance Training Alleviate Diabetes-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats. Cholesterol level and heart disease prevention

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Search for:. Home Nutrition News What Should I Eat? Secondary prevention. These efforts are started after someone has a heart attack or stroke , undergoes angioplasty or bypass surgery, or develops some other form of heart disease.

These steps can prevent a second heart attack or stroke, halt the progression of heart disease, and prevent early death.

It may be obvious, but the number one killer of individuals who survive a first heart attack is a second heart attack.

Primary prevention. Primary prevention aims to keep an individual at risk of heart disease from having a first heart attack or stroke, needing angioplasty or surgery, or developing some other form of heart disease. Primary prevention is usually aimed at people who already have developed cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

As with secondary prevention, primary prevention focuses on controlling these risk factors by making healthy lifestyle changes and, if needed, taking medications.

Primordial prevention. Primordial prevention involves working to prevent inflammation, atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction from taking hold, and thus prevent risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, excess weight, and ultimately cardiovascular events.

Steps for the primordial prevention of heart disease Five key lifestyle steps can dramatically reduce your chances of developing cardiovascular risk factors and ultimately heart disease: 1. Not smoking One of the best things you can do for your health is to not use tobacco in any form.

Maintaining a healthy weight Excess weight and an extra-large waist size both contribute to heart disease, as well as a host of other health problems.

Those who gained more than 22 pounds had an even greater risk of developing these diseases. You can also use an online BMI calculator or BMI table. Overweight is defined as a BMI of 25 to In people who are not overweight, waist size may be an even more telling warning sign of increased health risks than BMI.

Exercising Exercise and physical activity are excellent ways to prevent heart disease and many other diseases and conditions, [] but many of us get less activity as we get older. Getting regular physical activity is one of the best things you can do for your health. It lowers the risk of heart disease, diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and certain cancers, and it can also help control stress, improve sleep, boost mood, keep weight in check, and reduce the risk of falling and improve cognitive function in older adults.

A minute brisk walk five days of the week will provide important benefits for most people. Getting any amount of exercise is better than none. Exercise and physical activity benefit the body, while a sedentary lifestyle does the opposite—increasing the chances of becoming overweight and developing a number of chronic diseases.

Research shows that people who spend more time each day watching television, sitting, or riding in cars have a greater chance of dying early than people who are more active. Following a healthy diet For years, research into connections between diet and heart disease focused on individual nutrients like cholesterol and foods high in dietary cholesterol, like eggs , types of fats, and specific vitamins and minerals.

The best diet for preventing heart disease is one that is full of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts, fish, poultry, and vegetable oils; includes alcohol in moderation, if at all; and goes easy on red and processed meats, refined carbohydrates, foods and beverages with added sugar, sodium, and foods with trans fat.

This study highlighted that low-fat diets are not beneficial to heart health, and that incorporating healthy fats — such as those included in the Mediterranean diet — can improve heart health and weight loss.

However, there are similarities that define a Mediterranean eating pattern, including: high intake of olive oil, nuts, vegetables, fruits, and cereals; moderate intake of fish and poultry; low intake of dairy products, red meat, processed meats, and sweets; and wine in moderation, consumed with meals.

Despite different scoring methods, each of these patterns emphasizes higher intake of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and nuts, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages.

The findings also showed that these different healthy eating patterns were similarly effective at lowering risk across racial and ethnic groups and other subgroups studied, and that they were statistically significantly associated with lower risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke.

Eating less salty foods and more potassium-rich foods may significantly lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. But the reverse of eating a lot of sodium-rich foods especially from processed breads, packaged snacks, canned goods, and fast-food meals while skimping on potassium can increase cardiovascular disease risk.

Improving sleep health Research has shown that sleep is an essential component of cardiovascular health. Sleeping for too short or too long a stretch is associated with heart disease and can negatively affect other heart-related risk factors like dietary intake, exercise, weight, blood pressure, and inflammation.

Talk with your doctor if you have frequent restless nights or do not feel adequately rested during the day. Improving sleep habits can make a difference. Examples include setting a sleep schedule and sticking to it, having a calming bedtime ritual like doing stretches or meditating, getting regular exercise, stopping use of electronic devices an hour before bedtime, and avoiding heavy meals, caffeine, and alcohol several hours before bed.

Other factors to consider Along with these five practices, the American Heart Association recommends controlling cholesterol, managing blood sugar, and managing blood pressure as additional factors for improving and maintaining cardiovascular health. References Lloyd-Jones DM, Hong Y, Labarthe D, et al.

Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Rosner BA, Colditz GA. Smoking and smoking cessation in relation to mortality in women. Babb S, Malarcher A, Schauer G, Asman K, Jamal A. Quitting Smoking Among Adults — United States, Morbidity and mortality weekly report.

Willett WC, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. The AHA and the American College of Cardiology recommend statins as first-line therapy for hyperlipidemia in women. The initial pharmacologic management of women with hypercholesterolemia should include a statin if triglyceride levels are less than mg per dL.

In women of childbearing potential and in those with mild hypercholesterolemia or intolerance to statin therapy, treatment with a bile acid sequestrant is an alternative. If triglyceride levels are between and mg per dL 2. Niacin or a fibrate may then be added with caution to achieve a lower non—HDL cholesterol level.

If triglyceride levels exceed mg per dL, they must be lowered quickly to prevent acute pancreatitis. This can be achieved using a fibrate or niacin, with subsequent attention given to lowering the LDL cholesterol level.

Bile acid sequestrants resins and niacin exert significant LDL cholesterol—lowering effects, although the benefits are less than those observed with statins. Colesevelam Welchol , a newly available resin, reportedly has fewer gastrointestinal side effects than previous bile acid sequestrants. Because it does not have the triglyceride-raising effect of traditional resins and is not systemically absorbed, it may be a good option in women especially among those of childbearing age.

Fibrates e. One recent study 33 in men with coronary heart disease and normal LDL cholesterol levels showed that gemfibrozil raised HDL cholesterol levels, lowered triglyceride levels, and reduced mortality by 22 percent. The value of fibrates in women whose primary lipid abnormality is a low HDL cholesterol level remains to be established.

Treatment with combined statins and fibrates may increase the risk of myositis and rhabdomyolysis. The use of niacin is limited by its poor tolerability and the fact that it may worsen glucose intolerance. Newer formulations, such as an extended-release form Niaspan , may be better tolerated.

Estrogen replacement using unopposed conjugated equine estrogens has been shown to decrease LDL cholesterol and lipoprotein a levels and to increase HDL cholesterol, HDL 2 , and apolipoprotein A-I levels. No overall reduction in the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction or coronary heart disease mortality was found after 4.

Hormone replacement therapy was also associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolic events and gallbladder disease. An angiographic study 37 of women with coronary heart disease showed that conjugated equine estrogens alone or in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate did not reduce the progression of coronary heart disease after three years.

On the basis of these and other findings, the initiation or continuation of hormone replacement therapy for the sole purpose of secondary prevention of coronary heart disease is not recommended.

The ongoing Women's Health Initiative should provide more definitive recommendations on the role of hormone replacement therapy in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease. Optimal management of lipids is an important component of a comprehensive cardiovascular disease prevention program.

Suggested checklists to use in evaluating preventive interventions in women with and without coronary heart disease, based on consensus recommendations for coronary heart disease risk factor management, are presented in Figures 3 14 and 4. American Heart Association. Dallas: American Heart Association, Mosca L, Jones WK, King KB, Ouyang P, Redberg RF, Hill MN.

Awareness, perception, and knowledge of heart disease risk and prevention among women in the United States. American Heart Association Women's Heart Disease and Stroke Campaign Task Force. Arch Fam Med. Bickell NA, Pieper KS, Lee KL, Mark DB, Glower DD, Pryor DB, et al. Referral patterns for coronary artery disease treatment: gender bias or good clinical judgment?.

Ann Intern Med. Shaw LJ, Miller DD, Romeis JC, Kargl D, Younis LT, Chaitman BR. Gender differences in the non-invasive evaluation and management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Steingart RM, Packer M, Hamm P, Coglianese ME, Gersh B, Geltman EM, et al.

Sex differences in the management of coronary artery disease. Survival and Ventricular Enlargement Investigators. N Engl J Med. Vaccarino V, Parsons L, Every NR, Barron HV, Krumholz HM.

Sex-based differences in early mortality after myocardial infarction. National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 2 Participants.

Mosca L, Manson JE, Sutherland SE, Langer RD, Manolio T, Barrett-Connor E. Cardiovascular disease in women: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Writing Group.

Summary of the second report of the National Cholesterol Education Program NCEP Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults Adult Treatment Panel II.

Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program NCEP Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults Adult Treatment Panel III..

Manolio TA, Pearson TA, Wenger NK, Barrett-Connor E, Payne GH, Harlan WR. Cholesterol and heart disease in older persons and women. Review of an NHLBI workshop. Ann Epidemiol. Saltzberg S, Stroh JA, Frishman WH. Isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: pathophysiology and treatment.

Med Clin North Am. Manson JE, Spelsberg A. Risk modification in the diabetic patient. In: Manson JE, ed. Prevention of myocardial infarction.

New York: Oxford University Press,— Willett WC, Green A, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE, Colditz GA, Rosner B, et al. Relative and absolute excess risks of coronary heart disease among women who smoke cigarettes. Mosca L, Grundy SM, Judelson D, King K, Limacher M, Oparil S, et al.

Guide to preventive cardiology for women. Hoerger TJ, Bala MV, Bray JW, Wilcosky TC, LaRosa J. Treatment patterns and distribution of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in treatment-eligible United States adults.

Am J Cardiol. Pearson TA, Laurora I, Chu H, Kafonek S. The Lipid Treatment Assessment Project L-TAP : a multicenter survey to evaluate the percentages of dyslipidemic patients receiving lipid-lowering therapy and achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals. Arch Intern Med.

Guidelines for using serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels as screening tests for preventing coronary heart disease in adults.

American College of Physicians. Heart disease facts. Hennekens CH. Overview of primary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. How to prevent heart disease at any age. American Heart Association. Heart-healthy lifestyle changes. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Smokeless tobacco: Health effects. How smoking affects heart health. Food and Drug Administration. Benefits of quitting. American Lung Association. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Department of Health and Human Services. How does sleep affect your heart health?

Sleep apnea. Screening, immunization, and prevention child. Mayo Clinic; Screening, immunization, and prevention adult. Sleep and chronic disease. Hypertension adult. Lopez-Jimenez F expert opinion. June 19, Stress and heart health. Accessed June 20, Blood cholesterol: Diagnosis.

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By living a healthy lebel, you can help keep leevl cholesterol in a healthy range and Cholesterol level and heart disease prevention your Choleeterol of heart disease and stroke. Your body makes all of the cholesterol it needs, so Appetite control tracker Cholesterol level and heart disease prevention not need to obtain cholesterol through foods. Eating lots of foods high in saturated fat and trans fat may contribute to high cholesterol and related conditions, such as heart disease. The combination raises your risk of heart disease and stroke. Physical activity can help you maintain a healthy weight and lower your cholesterol and blood pressure levels. Smoking damages your blood vessels, speeds up the hardening of the arteries, and greatly increases your risk for heart disease. Mayo Clinic offers Cholesterlo in Arizona, Florida and Minnesota Diseease at Mayo Clinic Health Swimming injury prevention locations. You can prevdntion prevent heart disease by llevel a heart-healthy lifestyle. Here are strategies to help you protect your heart. Heart disease is a leading cause of death. You can't change some risk factors for it, such as family history, sex at birth or age. But you can take plenty of other steps to lower your risk of heart disease.

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