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Boost metabolism and suppress appetite

Boost metabolism and suppress appetite

The implications of this effect are not well suppfess and require more research. Share on Twitter. Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss Fact Sheet for Health Professionals.

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Zip Code. Alrutz shares these five tips to boost your metabolism: 1. Related Stories. How trans fat affects brain function. How to manage pain at home. How much water is enough water? National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Lactobacillus acidophilus. Batsis JA, Apolzan JW, Bagley PJ, et al.

A systematic review of dietary supplements and alternative therapies for weight loss. Obesity Silver Spring. Green Tea. Abe O, Ono T, Sato H, et al. Role of - -epigallocatechin gallate in the pharmacokinetic interaction between nadolol and green tea in healthy volunteers.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol. Abdelkawy KS, Abdelaziz RM, Abdelmageed AM, Donia AM, El-Khodary NM. Effects of green tea extract on atorvastatin pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers.

Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. Misaka S, Ono Y, Uchida A, et al. Impact of green tea catechin ingestion on the pharmacokinetics of lisinopril in healthy volunteers. Clin Transl Sci. Tan CSS, Lee SWH.

Warfarin and food, herbal or dietary supplement interactions: A systematic review. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Albassam AA, Markowitz JS. An appraisal of drug-drug interactions with green tea Camellia sinensis.

Planta Med. Kucukgoncu S, Zhou E, Lucas KB, Tek C. Alpha-lipoic acid ALA as a supplementation for weight loss: results from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. Alpha-lipoic acid. Tang L, Li XL, Deng ZX, et al. J Nutr Biochem.

Bessell E, Maunder A, Lauche R, Adams J, Sainsbury A, Fuller NR. Efficacy of dietary supplements containing isolated organic compounds for weight loss: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials. Int J Obes Lond. Ibrahim KS, El-Sayed EM. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and medium-chain triglycerides for obesity management.

J Biosci. Jaudszus A, Mainz JG, Pittag S, et al. Effects of a dietary intervention with conjugated linoleic acid on immunological and metabolic parameters in children and adolescents with allergic asthma--a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Lipids Health Dis. Published Feb 3. Mądry E, Malesza IJ, Subramaniapillai M, et al.

Body fat changes and liver safety in obese and overweight women supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid: A week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Published Jun Rigamonti AE, Leoncini R, De Col A, et al.

The appetite-suppressant and GLPstimulating effects of whey proteins in obese subjects are associated with increased circulating levels of specific amino acids. Published Mar Agnieszka W, Paweł P, Małgorzata K.

How to optimize the effectiveness and safety of Parkinson's disease therapy? Curr Neuropharmacol. Krishnamurthy HK, Reddy S, Jayaraman V, et al. Effect of micronutrients on thyroid parameters. J Thyroid Res. Published Sep Andersen G, Marcinek P, Sulzinger N, Schieberle P, Krautwurst D.

Food sources and biomolecular targets of tyramine. Nutr Rev. Astell KJ, Mathai ML, Su XQ. A review on botanical species and chemical compounds with appetite suppressing properties for body weight control.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. Koncz D, Tóth B, Bahar MA, Roza O, Csupor D. The safety and efficacy of citrus aurantium bitter orange extracts and p-synephrine: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Stohs SJ. Safety, efficacy, and mechanistic studies regarding citrus aurantium bitter orange extract and p-synephrine. Phytother Res. Bitter orange. Costache II, Miron A, Hăncianu M, Aursulesei V, Costache AD, Aprotosoaie AC.

Pharmacokinetic interactions between cardiovascular medicines and plant products. Cardiovasc Ther. Published Sep 2. Jeyaprakash N, Maeder S, Janka H, Stute P.

A systematic review of the impact of 7-keto-DHEA on body weight. Arch Gynecol Obstet. Klinge CM, Clark BJ, Prough RA. Dehydroepiandrosterone research: Past, current, and future. Vitam Horm. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements.

Dietary supplements for weight loss. Haidar SA, de Vries NK, Karavetian M, El-Rassi R. Stress, anxiety, and weight gain among university and college students: A systematic review.

J Acad Nutr Diet. By Trang Tran, PharmD Trang Tran, PharmD, is a pharmacist who is passionate about integrative health. Use limited data to select advertising. Create profiles for personalised advertising. Use profiles to select personalised advertising. Create profiles to personalise content.

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Develop and improve services. Use limited data to select content. List of Partners vendors. Dietary Supplements. By Trang Tran, PharmD. Medically reviewed by Suzanne Fisher, RD. Table of Contents View All. Table of Contents.

Weight Management. Available Supplements. Lean Protein. Calcium and Vitamin D. Probiotics and Synbiotics. Green Tea Extract. Bitter Orange. Frequently Asked Questions. Warning for Weight Loss Supplements Researchers completed a study of adverse events due to supplements. Green tea can help you stave off hunger that results in mindlessly snacking.

According to a research report in Appetite , the caffeine and catechins in green tea are the reason. They suppress your appetite and make you feel full. Packing over 5 grams of protein and 4 grams of dietary fiber in a half-cup serving, oatmeal is a nutritionally rich food you can easily incorporate in your life.

The high fiber content helps slow digestion which prevents uncomfortable spikes in blood sugar. And while oats are also high in carbohydrates, the carbs in oatmeal provide energy and make you feel fuller for longer.

According to research in the American College of Nutrition , oatmeal kept participants from feeling hungry for longer than regular breakfast cereals. They can be eaten alone, mixed in a stew, or tossed in a salad.

A study in the journal Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism considered the effect on appetite of eating lentils and other beans before meals. Lentils were found to be a better appetite suppressant and resulted in less food intake than chickpeas in the study.

If you're looking for a highly nutritious food that will fill you up for hours, you can't beat green leafy vegetables — they're the ultimate natural appetite suppressant. Fibrous greens eaten raw or gently sautéed with a little olive oil are a delicious way to keep hunger at bay.

A study in Plant Foods for Human Nutrition found that foods that are high in thylakoids, like spinach, kale, broccoli, and mustard greens, are particularly beneficial in reducing hunger.

Each 3-ounce serving of fresh salmon contains nearly 17 grams of protein. Not a fan of salmon, tuna and herring have similarly high levels of protein and omega-3s. Here's a super-easy way to make anything you're eating a natural appetite suppressant: Next time you have cereal, oatmeal, fruit, or even coffee, sprinkle some cinnamon on it.

A research article on the medicinal properties of cinnamon found that cinnamon helps lower your blood sugar levels which helps to control your appetite. Another protein powerhouse, just one 7-ounce container of plain Greek yogurt contains a whopping 20 grams of protein.

In addition to making you feel full, other Greek yogurt benefits include a healthy gut, strong bones, and a boosted immune system.

Greek yogurt is better than skim or whole milk at suppressing appetite, according to an article in Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. When it comes to hot sauce as an appetite suppressant, the hotter you can go the better. So get some Tabasco or any hot chili sauce and sprinkle some heat on your burrito, scrambled eggs, or even soup!

According to research reviewed in the journal Appetite , consumption of hot sauce containing hot chili peppers will help you stay fuller for longer. Not only that, the spiciness keeps you from eating too much.

With a nutritional mix of soluble fiber and essential fatty acids, flax seeds are the perfect addition to your yogurt, smoothie, or salad. Just make sure you grind them first because the human body can't digest whole flax seeds.

As a natural appetite suppressant, they'll help you stay full and fueled. Although the research on flax seeds and satiety is limited, a review in the journal Phytotherapy Research found that the available studies suggest a potential role of flax seeds in decreasing appetite and hunger.

If you want to keep the hunger monster away, eat a small salad before you sit down for a meal. Since it takes about 20 minutes for your stomach to signal to your brain that you're full, starting with a small salad before your meal is a perfect way to get a head-start on that hunger signal.

In a study in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics , participants who ate a salad before a meal were less hungry and ate less of the meal than participants who did not have a salad as a first course. A salad can also be a great way to up your veggie intake.

Protein is known as an appetite suppressant, but it seems that whey protein is especially good. A review article on the effects of whey protein on appetite found that consuming this protein supplement in shakes or smoothies is effective a suppressing hunger.

A study in the journal Nutrients on the impact of a high-protein meal replacement on appetite found that consuming a high-protein meal replacement instead of a standard North American breakfast prior to exercise resulted in a greater suppression of hunger both during and after exercising.

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We aopetite Boost metabolism and suppress appetite we think are useful for our Boost metabolism and suppress appetite. If you buy through links on this page, we may amd a small commission. Medical News Today only shows metabolisj brands and products that we appetjte behind. Oxidation damage prevention suppressants are foods, supplements, or other methods that stop a person from feeling hungry. Eating more protein, consuming ginger, and eating mindfully are some tips that may help. Manufacturers of appetite suppressant pills make big claims about the ability of pills to suppress appetite and promote weight loss. However, the effectiveness of these pills is not known, and according to the National Institutes of Health NIHthey often come with dangerous side effects.

Losing weight isn't just about what Boost metabolism and suppress appetite don't put in your body. Nad fact, the foods that Bpost eat zuppress help your body burn meyabolism. If sup;ress doctor says that losing Bpost may benefit your health, then you may want to Boost metabolism and suppress appetite ways to speed BBoost your Boosst.

One way to boost your metabolism is by making changes metaboliwm your diet and consuming foods that are proven to supppress affect metwbolism. Though Bokst these foods alone won't make or break your Boost metabolism and suppress appetite loss journey, they Bopst be Glucagon hormone function to help you Bost pounds.

The metabolism-boosting properties adn chili peppers are due to a metabolim called capsaicin, appetiet Zhaoping Li, MD, PhDa professor of medicine at the UCLA Supprss Geffen School of Medicine snd director suprpess the Andd for Human Nutrition.

This compound is Polyphenols and anti-inflammatory properties what's responsible supprss giving chili an their spicy flavor. A review metqbolism that capsaicin activates Stress management techniques for decision making TRPV1 receptor, which is mmetabolism in metabolism and body aappetite, by being involved in energy homeostasis and energy netabolism.

As Syppress added bonus, chili sjppress may Boosf suppress appetite, supppress is useful in weight loss. Bolst small study Boost metabolism and suppress appetite that consuming a dose of capsaicin with every meal resulted metaboliwm greater satiety, or feelings of fullness.

How to appdtite Boost metabolism and suppress appetite to your diet: Boostt suggests adding chili to your vegetable and meat dishes to reap Boosst benefits. If you don't like spicy food, you a;petite opt for capsaicin supplements.

Appstite and caffeine are associated with weight loss znd may assist in nad loss maintenance by increasing metabolic rate and jetabolism appetite. Li says caffeine appetjte Boost metabolism and suppress appetite appetiye noradrenaline, two neurotransmitters that may Booat metabolism.

For example, coffee bean health benefits study supress that drinking xnd cups of coffee a day metaabolism associated with a metabolidm loss of fat metabplism.

How to add it to your diet: Boost metabolism and suppress appetite says drinking black coffee is the best way to supprexs metabolic benefits. If you don't like coffee, Li says that a great xppetite is tea, suppresss it still has Mood boosting exercises caffeine content, appetitd less caffeine than coffee.

A wuppress found that people who maintain weight loss reported consuming significantly appeyite caffeinated beverages. Additionally, a small study found that green tea specifically was metaolism to boost resting metabolic rate in Mrtabolism and obese women. Plus, different kinds of tea such as green tea contain compounds called catechins which are believed to boost metabolismas well.

How to add it to your diet: Consume your tea without anything added to it for the best results. Ginger has various properties involving weight management.

Anding says ginger contains compounds called shogaols which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and weight loss properties. Li adds that ginger intake has been reported to improve metabolic profiles through increased insulin receptors, elevated pancreatic beta cells' functions, and modifying the adipokines concentrations.

Additionally, ginger can help you lose weight by stimulating digestion, decreasing inflammation, and suppressing appetite. A small study showed that drinking hot water with two grams of ginger powder dissolved in it was associated with lower hunger and greater feelings of fullness.

How to add it to your diet: Make ginger tea or add ginger to meat or vegetable dishes, says Li. Additionally, Anding says you can take ginger supplements. Anding says dietary protein promotes satiety, or a sense of fullness.

Additionally, she says it takes more energy to metabolize protein, so there is an increase in metabolic rate when you consume high-protein foods. This is known as the thermic effect of food TEFor diet-induced thermogenesis DIT. How to add it to your diet: Incorporate high-protein foods like meats into your meals throughout the day.

Legumes — which are a family of plants that includes chickpeas, soybeans, and lentils —are great for boosting metabolism since they are very high in protein.

In addition to the metabolism boost caused by the protein, Anding says legumes can also help to promote fullness, since they are high in fiber. A small study found that obese men who ate a high-protein diet or a legume diet were more likely to lose weight than people on a control diet.

How to add it to your diet: Li recommends consuming legumes as your protein and starch source in your meal. Don't consume legumes with more starch if you're looking to lose weight. She suggests a meal of legumes cooked with spices along with lean meat. While these foods and drinks may help boost your metabolism, it's important that you make further changes if you want to lose weight effectively.

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LinkedIn Link icon An image of a chain link. It symobilizes a website link url. Copy Link. This article was medically reviewed by Mir AliMD, a bariatric surgeon and medical director of MemorialCare Surgical Weight Loss Center at Orange Coast Medical Center in Fountain Valley, CA.

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Redeem now. Foods that boost your metabolism include chili peppers, coffee, tea, ginger, high-protein foods, and legumes. Coffee and tea contain caffeine, which boosts metabolism by increasing neurotransmitters like dopamine and noradrenaline.

Since eating protein increases your metabolic rate, consuming high-protein foods like legumes or meats can help you burn more calories and feel more full.

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: Boost metabolism and suppress appetite

What is an appetite suppressant? Glucomannan appears to be well tolerated for short-term use, with minor adverse effects, including belching, bloating, loose stools, flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal discomfort [ , , , ]. However, taking 5-HTP supplements may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome , a potentially serious condition. Almonds Metabolism-Boosting Powers: Almonds contain lots of healthy fats, fiber and protein, which is a combination that curbs hunger. However, drinking yerba mate very hot and reusing the same leaves may lead to a higher risk of esophageal and other types of cancer. According to a study in the journal Foods , the spiciness in wasabi makes it a natural appetite suppressant and anti-inflammatory. Small clinical trials, mostly of poor methodological quality Research findings : Minimal effect on body weight.
12 Over-The-Counter Appetite Suppressants Reviewed The safety Boozt pyruvate has not oBost rigorously studied. Other research suggests Boost metabolism and suppress appetite capsaicin increases satiety by inducing gastrointestinal Obesity and genetics e. Saffron Capsules for Eye Health. A systematic review of dietary supplements and alternative therapies for weight loss. Efficacy of dietary supplements containing isolated organic compounds for weight loss: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials.
10 Natural Appetite Suppressants That Help You Lose Weight

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Ring Smart Home Security Systems. Caffeine increases energy expenditure and fat oxidation [ 44 ]. However, the extent to which these effects affect weight loss is less clear, partly because clinical trials examining the effects of caffeine on weight loss have all been short and have used combination products.

After 6 months, those in the treatment group lost significantly more weight mean weight loss 5. A product containing caffeine plus glucosyl hesperidin G-hesperidin, a flavonone glycoside found mainly in citrus fruits reduced abdominal fat and BMI in a clinical trial in Japan [ 47 ].

In this study, 75 healthy men and women who were overweight BMI 24—30 received one of five treatments daily for 12 weeks while maintaining their regular lifestyle and eating habits.

The five treatments were placebo and four formulations of 0, 25, 50, or 75 mg caffeine plus mg G-hesperidin. The 75 mg caffeine plus G-hesperidin significantly reduced BMI by a mean of 0. The 50 or 75 mg caffeine plus G-hesperidin also significantly reduced abdominal fat compared to placebo, whereas the G-hesperidin alone or with only 25 mg caffeine did not significantly affect BMI or abdominal fat.

These findings indicate that the higher doses of caffeine might be responsible for the observed effects. At the end of the study, participants taking the herbal product lost a mean of 5.

Data from a year prospective observational study provide some insight into the long-term association between caffeine intake and body weight [ 49 ]. On average, participants gained some weight during the study, but men who increased their caffeine intake during the 12 years of follow-up gained a mean of 0.

For women, the corresponding mean difference in weight gain was 0. However, further research is needed to confirm this finding. For comparison, an 8-ounce cup of brewed coffee contains about 85— mg caffeine. Caffeine can cause sleep disturbances and feelings of nervousness, jitteriness, and shakiness.

Combining caffeine with other stimulants, such as bitter orange and ephedrine, can potentiate these adverse effects. Calcium is an essential mineral that is stored in the bones and teeth, where it supports their structure and function.

Calcium is required for vascular contraction and vasodilation, muscle function, nerve transmission, intracellular signaling, and hormonal secretion [ 56 ].

Several studies have correlated higher calcium intakes with lower body weight or less weight gain over time [ ]. Two explanations have been proposed. First, high calcium intakes might reduce calcium concentrations in fat cells by decreasing the production of parathyroid hormone and the active form of vitamin D.

Decreased intracellular calcium concentrations, in turn, might increase fat breakdown and discourage fat accumulation in these cells [ 59 ]. Second, calcium from food or supplements might bind to small amounts of dietary fat in the digestive tract and prevent absorption of this fat [ 59 , 62 , 63 ].

Dairy products, in particular, might contain additional components that have even greater effects on body weight than their calcium content alone would suggest [ 60 , ]. For example, protein and other components of dairy products might modulate appetite-regulating hormones [ 61 ]. However, the results from clinical trials examining the effects of calcium on body weight have been largely negative.

Compared to placebo, calcium supplementation for 2 years had no clinically significant effects on weight. The authors of four reviews of published studies on the effects of calcium from supplements or dairy products on weight management reached similar conclusions [ ].

These reviews include a evidence report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality whose authors concluded that, overall, clinical trial results do not support an effect of calcium supplementation on weight [ 70 ]. In addition, a meta-analysis of 41 randomized controlled trials found no benefit of calcium supplementation or increased dairy food consumption for body weight or body fat [ 73 ].

A meta-analysis of 33 randomized trials and longitudinal studies lasting 12 weeks to 6 years found that calcium from foods or supplements had no overall effect on body weight [ 74 ].

However, in subgroup analyses, calcium did reduce body weight in some groups, including children, adolescents, adult men, premenopausal women, women older than 60, and people with normal BMI [ 74 ].

Overall, the results from clinical trials do not support a clear link between higher calcium intakes and lower body weight, prevention of weight gain, or weight loss. High intakes of calcium can cause constipation and might interfere with the absorption of iron and zinc, although this effect is not well established.

High intakes of calcium from supplements, but not foods, have been associated with an increased risk of kidney stones [ 56 , ]. Capsaicinoids give chili peppers their characteristic pungent flavor. Capsaicin is the most abundant and well-studied capsaicinoid [ 78 ].

Capsaicin and other capsaicinoids have been proposed to have anti-obesity effects via their ability to increase energy expenditure and lipid oxidation, attenuate postprandial insulin response, increase satiety, and reduce appetite and energy intake [ ]. Other research suggests that capsaicin increases satiety by inducing gastrointestinal distress e.

Most research on capsaicin and other capsaicinoids focuses on their effects on energy intake and appetite, rather than body weight. A meta-analysis of eight randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials evaluated the effects of capsaicinoids on ad libitum energy intake in a total of participants who had a normal body weight or were moderately overweight [ 78 ].

Doses of capsaicinoids ranged from 0. Overall, consuming capsaicinoids significantly reduced energy intake by a mean of 74 kcal per meal; body weight was not assessed, so the impact of this calorie reduction on weight loss cannot be quantified.

The authors noted that the results suggest that at least 2 mg capsaicinoids are needed to reduce calorie intake but that the studies were very heterogeneous.

However, the calorie reductions did not significantly affect body weight at either 6 weeks or 12 weeks. It might also increase serum insulin and reduce high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol levels. Otherwise, capsaicin and other capsaicinoids appear to be safe.

Research is underway to reduce the pungency and chili taste associated with capsaicin while retaining its potential biological effects [ 81 ]. Carnitine is the generic term for several compounds, including L-carnitine itself, several acylcarnitines e.

It is composed of the amino acids lysine and methionine [ 84 ]. Carnitine is naturally present in animal products such as meat, fish, poultry, and milk and dairy products; small amounts are present in some plant foods.

Humans synthesize carnitine from its constituent amino acids, so dietary carnitine intake is not necessary. Almost all cells of the body contain carnitine, which transports fatty acids into the mitochondria and acts as a cofactor for fatty acid beta-oxidation [ 85 ].

Because of these effects, carnitine has been proposed as a weight-loss agent. A systematic review and meta-analysis combined the results from nine carnitine supplementation clinical trials in adults including the two described above that assessed weight loss [ 85 ].

The trials included a total of participants. In eight trials, the daily carnitine doses ranged from 1. Overall, study participants who received carnitine supplements lost an average of 1.

Additional research on carnitine for weight loss is warranted. Rarer side effects include muscle weakness in patients with uremia and seizures in those with seizure disorders.

Some research indicates that intestinal bacteria metabolize carnitine to form trimethylamine N-oxide TMAO , a substance that might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease [ 91 ].

This effect appears to be more pronounced in people who consume meat than in vegans or vegetarians. The implications of this effect are not well understood and require more research.

Chitosan is a manufactured polysaccharide that is commercially prepared from the exoskeletons of crustaceans. It is purported to promote weight loss by binding to some dietary fat in the digestive tract, preventing its absorption [ 16 , 41 ].

Chitosan might also decrease cholesterol absorption [ 16 ]. Chitosan capsules taken before meals total of 2. However, the amount of fat that the chitosan trapped would result in a loss of only 1 lb body fat over about 7 months.

Chitosan had no significant effect on fecal fat excretion in the women compared to the control group. At the end of the study, those in the treatment group lost a mean of 1 kg body weight compared to a mean weight gain of 1.

In this study, chitosan treatment reduced body weight mean weight loss about 2. The authors of a Cochrane Review that included 13 trials examining the effect of chitosan on body weight found that chitosan, when taken for 4 weeks to 6 months, reduced body weight by a mean of 1.

They concluded that chitosan appears to be more effective than placebo for short-term weight loss, but most studies have been of poor quality. The authors also noted that results from high-quality trials indicate that chitosan has minimal effects on body weight, and these effects are probably clinically insignificant.

The adverse effects of chitosan are minor and primarily involve the gastrointestinal tract. They include flatulence, bloating, mild nausea, constipation, indigestion, and heartburn [ 93 , 95 , 96 ]. Because chitosan is derived from shellfish, people who are allergic to shellfish could theoretically be allergic to chitosan [ 97 ].

The trivalent form of chromium chromium III is an essential trace mineral that potentiates the action of insulin. Dietary supplements commonly contain chromium in the form of chromium picolinate, which consists of chromium and picolinic acid, although they might also contain other forms, including chromium nicotinate and chromium yeast [ 99 ].

Poor chromium status might contribute to impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes [ 98 ]. Researchers have hypothesized that chromium supplements increase lean muscle mass and promote fat loss, but study results have been equivocal [ 41 , ].

Some research indicates that these supplements might also reduce food intake, hunger levels, and fat cravings [ ], although data on these effects are sparse. Several studies have evaluated the effects of chromium supplements, usually in the form of chromium picolinate, on weight loss.

Six of the trials included resistance or weight training, and three did not. Chromium picolinate supplementation reduced body weight by 1. Also in , a systematic review and meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials including most of the trials evaluated in the Cochrane Review examined the effects of chromium supplementation in a total of individuals with overweight or obesity [ 99 ].

The authors concluded that daily doses of to 1, mcg chromium for 8 to 26 weeks reduce body weight by 0. Like the authors of the Cochrane Review, these authors noted that the effect is small and of "uncertain" clinical relevance.

Similar findings were reported from an earlier meta-analysis of 12 trials [ ]. Trivalent chromium appears to be well tolerated.

Adverse effects from clinical trials include watery stools, headache, weakness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, vertigo, and urticaria hives [ 99 , ]. Chromium does not have an established UL because few serious adverse effects have been linked to high intakes [ 98 ].

Hexavalent chromium chromium VI is toxic and not found in food or dietary supplements. Forskolin is a compound isolated from the roots of Coleus forskohlii , a plant that grows in subtropical areas, such as India and Thailand. Forskolin is purported to promote weight loss by enhancing lipolysis and reducing appetite [ , ], possibly by stimulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate cAMP production.

This increased cAMP production, in turn, is thought to activate lipase and promote the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue [ 16 ]. Although animal studies indicate that forskolin reduces food intake [ , ], research in humans is very limited and inconclusive.

Compared to placebo, Coleus forskohlii extract had no effect on body weight, appetite, caloric intake, or macronutrient intake. In a study in mice, Coleus forskohlii extract caused dose-dependent hepatotoxicity, but pure forskolin did not have this effect, suggesting that other component s of Coleus forskohlii extract might be responsible for the hepatotoxicity [ ].

Forskolin has not been evaluated in longer term trials. Additional research is needed to better understand the safety and side effects of both short- and long-term use. Conjugated linoleic acid CLA is a mixture of linoleic acid isomers containing conjugated double bonds that is present mainly in dairy products and beef.

The various isomeric forms of CLA include c9,tCLA and t10,cCLA, and it is available in dietary supplements as a triacylglycerol or as a free fatty acid [ ].

Researchers have suggested that CLA enhances weight loss by increasing lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, reducing lipogenesis, and promoting apoptosis in adipose tissue [ 17 , ].

Although CLA appears to reduce body fat mass in animals [ 17 ], results from human studies suggest that its effects are small and of questionable clinical relevance [ ].

One double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of CLA supplementation as a mixture of c9,tCLA and t10,cCLA in male and female volunteers who were overweight BMI 25—30 consuming an ad libitum diet [ ].

Participants received CLA as a free fatty acid 3. At the end of the study, body fat mass dropped by significant amounts with both forms of CLA compared with placebo; reductions, on average, were 6.

Supplementation with CLA as a free fatty acid but not as a triacylglycerol also increased lean body mass compared with placebo. In another double-blind crossover trial, daily supplementation with CLA oil 6. These findings are similar to those from a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial in 63 adults with overweight or obesity BMI 24—35 that found statistically significant, but small, reductions in mean weight 0.

In contrast, those in the placebo group did not lose a significant amount of body weight 0. However, 3. The authors of a systematic review and meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials concluded that taking 2.

However, the authors noted that the "magnitude of these effects is small, and the clinical relevance is uncertain. CLA appears to be well tolerated.

Most reported adverse effects are minor, consisting mainly of gastrointestinal disturbances, such as abdominal discomfort and pain, constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, nausea, vomiting, and dyspepsia [ 3 , , , , , ]. CLA might also increase some markers of oxidative stress and decrease breastmilk fat levels, but additional research is needed to confirm these effects [ ].

CLA has been linked to hepatitis in three case reports [ ]. However, whether CLA caused this toxicity cannot be definitively established because the products were not analyzed to rule out the presence of a contaminant.

CLA might adversely affect lipid profiles, although results from studies are inconsistent. Some research indicates that CLA has no major effect on lipid profiles, but other research shows that certain CLA isomers might decrease HDL cholesterol and increase lipoprotein a levels [ , , , ].

The CLA isomer t10,cCLA has also been reported to increase insulin resistance and glycemia in men with obesity and metabolic syndrome [ , ].

Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid in brown seaweed and other algae. Results from laboratory and animal studies suggest that fucoxanthin might promote weight loss by increasing resting energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation as well as by suppressing adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation [ , ].

Only one clinical trial has been conducted on the possible weight-loss effects of fucoxanthin. This week trial used Xanthigen, a dietary supplement containing brown seaweed extract and pomegranate-seed oil [ ]. Compared to the placebo group, those receiving Xanthigen lost significantly more body weight by the end of the trial mean loss of 6.

The safety of fucoxanthin has not been thoroughly evaluated in humans. Although participants using Xanthigen in the clinical trial described above reported no adverse effects [ ], further investigation of the safety and potential side effects of fucoxanthin at various levels of intake is required.

Garcinia cambogia is a fruit-bearing tree that grows throughout Asia, Africa, and the Polynesian islands [ ]. The pulp and rind of its fruit contain high amounts of hydroxycitric acid HCA , a compound that has been proposed to inhibit lipogenesis, increase hepatic glycogen synthesis, suppress food intake, and reduce weight gain [ 6 , 15 , , , ].

Studies in rats have found that Garcinia cambogia suppresses food intake and inhibits weight gain [ 3 ]. In humans, however, the evidence on whether Garcinia cambogia or HCA is effective for weight loss is conflicting, and any effects it has appear to be small [ 6 , 17 , ].

In one randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 89 women who were mildly overweight mean BMI Women receiving Garcinia cambogia lost significantly more weight 3. However, Garcinia cambogia did not alter appetite, and the study produced no evidence that the supplement affected feelings of satiety.

Participants in both groups lost weight, but the between-group weight-loss differences were not statistically significant. HCA also had no effect on body fat loss. A review and meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled trials with a total of participants examined the effects of Garcinia cambogia on weight loss [ ].

Therefore, the effect of Garcinia cambogia on body weight remains uncertain. The reported adverse effects of Garcinia cambogia and HCA are generally mild and include headache, nausea, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and gastrointestinal symptoms [ , , ].

However, dietary supplements containing Garcinia cambogia have been implicated in three cases of mania, which might have been caused by the serotonergic activity of HCA [ ]. Symptoms included grandiosity an unrealistic sense of superiority , irritability, pressured speech, and decreased need for sleep.

Reports have also described 10 cases of liver toxicity, resulting in one death and two liver transplants, in people taking products containing Garcinia cambogia [ 43 , ]. In most of these cases, the products contained other botanical ingredients and minerals as well, so the toxicity cannot be definitively attributed to Garcinia cambogia.

Because all clinical trials of Garcinia cambogia and HCA have been short, its long-term safety is unknown. Glucomannan is a soluble dietary fiber derived from konjac root Amorphophallus konjac that can absorb up to 50 times its weight in water [ 16 ]. Like guar gum, glucomannan has been proposed to increase feelings of satiety and fullness and prolong gastric emptying by absorbing water in the gastrointestinal tract [ 16 , , ].

It might also reduce fat and protein absorption in the gut [ 16 ]. Glucomannan appears to have beneficial effects on blood lipids and glucose levels [ ], but its effects on weight loss are inconsistent. At the end of the study, glucomannan produced significantly greater weight loss mean loss of 2.

In another study conducted in the United States, supplementation with glucomannan 3. Eight weeks of glucomannan supplementation 1. The authors of a systematic review of six randomized controlled trials with a total of participants concluded that 1.

Similarly, a meta-analysis of eight trials that included participants found that glucomannan did not significantly affect weight loss compared to placebo [ ].

The authors of an older meta-analysis of 14 studies designed primarily to investigate glucomannan's effect on lipid and blood glucose levels concluded that 1.

Little is known about the long-term safety of glucomannan. Glucomannan appears to be well tolerated for short-term use, with minor adverse effects, including belching, bloating, loose stools, flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal discomfort [ , , , ].

The use of tablet forms of glucomannan was reported to be associated with seven cases of esophageal obstruction in — in Australia [ 99 ]. Users should therefore be cautious when taking glucomannan tablets. Powdered and capsule forms have not been associated with this effect [ ]. The seeds or beans of the coffee plant Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora, Coffea robusta are green until they are roasted.

Compared to roasted beans, green coffee beans have higher levels of chlorogenic acid. Green coffee extract, probably because of its chlorogenic acid content, inhibits fat accumulation in mice and humans by regulating adipogenesis.

Green coffee extract also modulates glucose metabolism [ ], perhaps by reducing glucose absorption in the gut [ ]. Green coffee beans contain caffeine see section on caffeine above [ ], although decaffeinated forms are available [ 16 ].

In mice, green coffee bean extract in combination with a high-fat diet significantly reduced body weight gain and fat mass [ , ]. Only a few clinical trials have examined the effects of green coffee bean extract on weight loss in humans, and all were of poor methodological quality.

The researchers concluded that green coffee bean extract has a moderate but significant effect on body weight mean weight loss of 2. But did you know it's also possible to help suppress appetite hormones through food choices?

We've compiled an ultimate guide to everything you need to know about appetite suppressants — from how they work to natural food sources to alternative methods. Read on for a comprehensive guide to navigating your appetite as a way to support your weight loss journey.

Let's take a look at how the hunger hormone ghrelin works. This is the hormone that tells your brain that you're hungry.

It can lead to increased appetite, resulting in your body consuming and storing fat. Not only can ghrelin lead to increased appetite, but it can also affect your sleep cycle and your reward-seeking behaviour, meaning higher levels of this hormone might have you reaching for high-value foods and ingredients more often.

It can even determine your preference for a high-fat diet [1]. But that's not all. If you've been on a diet, chances are your ghrelin levels increase , making you feel hungrier [2], and that can make sticking to your healthy eating plan even harder. That's why it's important to find a way to get your ghrelin levels, and appetite, back into your control.

Both natural appetite suppressants, in the form of food choices, and medicated appetite suppressants, such as injections, can be helpful in supporting your weight loss journey.

Appetite suppressants are typically thought of as a type of medication that aids weight loss. They work to suppress appetite, curb hunger, and leave you feeling fuller for longer, making it much easier to consume fewer calories. But it's also possible to reduce appetite through diet and lifestyle choices.

Finding the reason behind your increased hunger is the best place to start when looking for effective appetite-suppressant methods. Medication-based appetite suppressants can act in a variety of ways depending on their active ingredient and generally target neurotransmitters in the brain.

For example, they might act by affecting the levels of certain chemicals, such as stimulating the release of serotonin and norepinephrine, which are known to reduce hunger [3].

Some appetite suppressants help to slow digestion, which can affect insulin levels and decrease feelings of hunger. These medications often take the form of appetite suppressant pills, weight loss injections, or supplements. But did you know that it's also possible to include food-based appetite suppressants in your diet?

There are plenty of natural sources of appetite suppressants that can be gained through food intake. High-fibre diets and protein-rich foods can help you feel fuller for longer, and there are plenty of herbal options too. If you're looking to reduce your body weight with appetite suppressants, it might be helpful to know that, while medication can be an effective way to go, food choices can also help reduce those food cravings and food intake.

Let's look at some natural ways to bust sugar cravings, boost metabolism , and lose weight. Proteins can satisfy hunger better than carbs, so including more protein in your diet is a great way to regulate your appetite [5].

Try adding lean meats, eggs, and Greek yoghurt into your diet for an added hit of protein. Consuming a glass of water 30 minutes before a meal can act as an appetite suppressant and effectively reduce calorie intake [6].

Fibre has been linked to lower body weight [7]. This is because it doesn't break down as easily as other food sources, so it remains in the body for longer.

2. Legumes (Also known as beans)

Made with an extract derived from the peel of the Garcinia gummi-gutta fruit, garcinia cambogia pills are used to suppress appetite and promote weight loss. How it works: Garcinia cambogia extract contains hydroxycitric acid HCA , which may reduce appetite by increasing serotonin levels in your brain and reducing the metabolism of carbohydrates Effectiveness: A review of 12 studies found that participants who supplemented with garcinia cambogia containing 1,—2, mg of HCA per day for 2—12 weeks lost an average of 1.

Another study in 28 people demonstrated that garcinia cambogia was more effective at reducing appetite, increasing fullness and decreasing hunger than a placebo However, other studies have shown that garcinia cambogia has little to no effect on appetite or weight loss Side effects: Though generally considered safe, consuming garcinia cambogia may lead to side effects in some people, such as headaches, diarrhea, nausea, irritability and even liver failure in extreme cases Summary Some research shows that garcinia cambogia suppresses appetite and promotes weight loss.

Glucomannan is a type of soluble fiber derived from the edible roots of the konjac plant. How it works: Glucomannan is understood to encourage weight loss by reducing appetite, increasing feelings of fullness, slowing digestion and blocking the absorption of fat and protein A review of six studies found that 1.

However, researchers concluded that the results were not statistically significant and that larger and longer-term studies are needed Side effects: Glucomannan may cause side effects such as constipation, diarrhea, nausea and abdominal discomfort Summary Glucomannan is a type of soluble fiber that may promote short-term weight loss.

However, results from studies are inconclusive. Hoodia gordonii is a type of succulent plant traditionally used by indigenous people in southern Africa as an appetite suppressant. Extracts from Hoodia gordonii are used in dietary supplements that claim to reduce appetite and boost weight loss.

How it works: Though the mechanism by which Hoodia gordonii suppresses hunger is unknown, some scientists link it to a compound called P57, or glycoside, which may impact your central nervous system and decrease appetite Effectiveness: There is little evidence to support the use of Hoodia gordonii to promote weight loss, and few human studies have examined the plant.

A day study in 49 overweight women found that 2. Side effects: Hoodia gordonii may lead to headaches, nausea, increased heart rate, high blood pressure and impaired liver function Summary Currently, no evidence supports the use of Hoodia gordonii for weight loss or reduced appetite.

Green coffee bean extract is a substance derived from the raw seeds of the coffee plant and is popularly used as a weight loss supplement. How it works: Green coffee beans contain high levels of chlorogenic acid, which may inhibit fat accumulation.

The extract also contains caffeine , which decreases appetite Effectiveness: A recent study in people with metabolic syndrome showed that those taking mg of green coffee bean extract per day experienced a significant decrease in waist circumference and appetite compared to a placebo group An analysis of three studies found that overweight participants who took either or mg per day of green coffee extract for up to 12 weeks experienced an average weight loss of 6 pounds 2.

Side effects: Though green coffee bean extract is generally well tolerated, it may cause headaches and increased heart rate in some people. Summary Several research studies have demonstrated that green coffee bean extract may reduce appetite and promote weight loss.

The guarana plant has been used for hundreds of years for various purposes, including appetite suppression How it works: Guarana contains more caffeine than any other plant in the world.

Caffeine stimulates your nervous system and has been shown to decrease appetite and boost metabolism Effectiveness: Insufficient evidence exists to support the use of guarana to suppress appetite and promote weight loss. However, test-tube and animal studies show that guarana extract may boost metabolism and limit fat cell production by suppressing certain genes Side effects: Because guarana is high in caffeine, it may cause insomnia, headaches, nervousness and increased heart rate and anxiety, especially when taken in high doses Summary Guarana — which is especially high in caffeine — may boost metabolism, but more research is needed to determine whether it suppresses appetite or promotes weight loss.

Acacia fiber, also known as gum arabic, is a type of indigestible fiber promoted as a means of suppressing appetite and promoting fullness. How it works: Acacia fiber slows digestion, suppresses appetite, increases fullness and inhibits glucose absorption in your gut, which can all help manage weight Effectiveness: One six-week study in women found that those taking 30 grams of acacia fiber per day lost significantly more body fat than those on a placebo Similarly, a study in 92 people with diabetes showed that 30 grams of acacia fiber daily for three months significantly reduced belly fat Side effects: Potential side effects of consuming acacia fiber include gas, bloating and diarrhea.

Summary Acacia fiber may encourage weight loss by increasing feelings of fullness and suppressing appetite. Saffron extract is a substance derived from the stigma — or the female part of flowers where pollen is collected — of the saffron flower.

How it works: Saffron extract is believed to contain several substances that may increase feelings of fullness by boosting mood. Effectiveness: One study in 60 overweight women demonstrated that those taking mg of saffron extract per day experienced a significant reduction in snacking and lost more weight than women on a placebo pill Toxicology studies in rats and mice show that green tea extract does not cause cancer but does cause nonneoplastic lesions in many areas of the body, including the nose, liver, and bone marrow [ ].

Other evidence in mice shows that high doses of catechins cause liver toxicity. There is also increasing evidence in humans that green tea extract might cause liver damage, though the underlying mechanism is not well understood [ ]. An analysis of 1, postmenopausal women participating in the Minnesota Green Tea Trial found that women who consumed green tea extract containing 1, mg total catechins including mg EGCG and Consumption of some green tea extracts—primarily ethanolic extracts of green tea—has also been linked to liver damage in at least 50 case reports since [ 43 , ].

In , the U. Pharmacopeia USP systematically reviewed the safety of green tea products [ ]. The USP noted that problems are more likely when green tea extract is taken on an empty stomach and, therefore, advises taking green tea extracts with food to minimize the possible risk of liver damage.

Other researchers and medical experts advise using dietary supplements containing green tea extract only with caution [ ]. Guar gum is a soluble dietary fiber derived from seeds of the Indian cluster bean Cyamopsis tetragonolobus [ 16 , ].

Guar gum is present in certain dietary supplements and is an ingredient in some food products, especially gluten-free baked goods, because it helps bind and thicken these products. Like glucomannan, guar gum is purported to promote weight loss by acting as a bulking agent in the gut; delaying gastric emptying; increasing feelings of satiety; and, theoretically, decreasing appetite and food intake [ 16 , ].

However, guar gum does not appear to enhance weight loss. In a meta-analysis of 20 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that statistically pooled data from 11 trials, Pittler and colleagues evaluated the effects of guar gum for body weight reduction in a total of adults [ ].

Trial participants included people with hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, or type 1 or type 2 diabetes; menopausal women; and healthy volunteers. Compared with placebo, guar gum had no significant effect on weight loss. The authors concluded that guar gum is not effective for body weight reduction.

Reported adverse effects for guar gum are primarily gastrointestinal and include abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhea, increased number of bowel movements, nausea, and cramps [ , , ]. Case reports indicate that guar gum can cause severe esophageal and small-bowel obstruction if taken without sufficient fluid [ , ].

However, these reports were about a guar gum product that is no longer available [ ]. In their meta-analysis, Pittler and colleagues concluded that given the adverse effects associated with the use of guar gum, the risks of taking it outweigh its benefits [ ].

Hoodia gordonii is a succulent plant that grows in the Kalahari Desert of southern Africa. The San people have traditionally used hoodia as an appetite suppressant during long hunts.

This anecdotal evidence, combined with results of a few animal studies indicating that hoodia reduces food intake [ ], led to the widespread marketing of hoodia as a weight-loss supplement in the United States in the early s.

Scientists have not determined the exact mechanism whereby hoodia might suppress appetite. A glycoside commonly called P57, which may have central nervous system activity [ ], is widely believed to be the main active ingredient, although not all researchers agree [ 16 , ].

Despite its popularity as a weight-loss supplement, very little scientific research on hoodia has been conducted in humans [ ]. Compared to placebo, hoodia extract had no significant effect on energy intake or body weight. Hoodia has been reported to cause significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure [ ].

It also raises bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels which may indicate impaired liver function , although the clinical significance of these findings is unclear because hoodia has not been reported to affect levels of other liver enzymes. Other side effects include headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting.

In the past, some hoodia products were found to contain little or no hoodia [ ]. The human microbiota, which outnumber human cells by up to fold, have myriad roles in human health [ , ].

Although microbes are found throughout the human body, the vast majority inhabit the colon. The gut microbiota play an important role in nutrient and energy extraction from food. Research in mice suggests that the gut microbiota affect not only use of energy from the diet but also energy expenditure and storage within the host [ ].

Whether these effects translate to humans is unknown. However, manipulating the gut microbiota has been proposed as a method to prevent or treat obesity in humans, and probiotics might provide a way to accomplish this.

Probiotics are in foods, such as some yogurts, as well as dietary supplements. The many different genera of probiotics include Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Bifidobacterium, which all have widely varying effects in the body [ , ]. Much of the research on probiotics and its influence on the gut microbiota and obesity has been in mice, and the results have been promising.

For example, probiotic supplementation reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation in obese mice fed a high-fat diet [ ]. In humans, however, results of clinical trials that assessed the impact of probiotics on obesity-related endpoints have been inconsistent.

In another randomized clinical trial, daily supplementation with 3. However, among the 77 female participants, the Lactobacillus supplementation did significantly reduce body weight after 12 weeks loss of 1. Another recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials in individuals with overweight or obesity found that supplementation with various doses and strains of probiotics for 3 to 12 weeks resulted in larger reductions in body weight by 0.

However, these effects were small and of questionable clinical significance. The most recent systematic review and meta-analysis, which included 19 randomized trials in 1, participants, found that supplementation with probiotics or synbiotics products containing both probiotic organisms and prebiotic sugars, which microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract use as metabolic fuel reduced waist circumference slightly by 0.

The findings from another meta-analysis of 14 trials in adults, 5 trials in children, and 12 trials in 1, infants suggested that probiotics promote an average loss of 0. Taken together, these results indicate that the effects of probiotics on body weight and obesity might depend on several factors, including the probiotic strain, dose, and duration as well as certain characteristics of the user, including age, sex, and baseline body weight.

Additional research is needed to understand the potential effects of probiotics on body fat, body weight, and obesity in humans. Many probiotic strains derive from species with a long history of safe use in foods or from microorganisms that colonize healthy gastrointestinal tracts.

For these reasons, the common probiotic species—such as Lactobacillus species acidophilus, casei, fermentum, gasseri, johnsonii, paracasei, plantarum, rhamnosus, and salivarius and Bifidobacterium species adolescentis, animalis, bifidum, breve, and longum —are unlikely to cause harm [ ].

Side effects of probiotics are usually minor and consist of self-limited gastrointestinal symptoms, such as gas. In a few cases, mainly involving individuals who were severely ill or immunocompromised, the use of probiotics has been linked to bacteremia, fungemia fungi in the blood , or infections that result in severe illness [ , ].

For individuals with compromised immune function or other serious underlying diseases, the World Gastroenterology Organisation advises restricting probiotic use to the strains and indications that have proven efficacy [ ].

Pyruvate is a three-carbon compound that is generated in the body through glycolysis [ ]. Pyruvate is also available as a dietary supplement, frequently in the form of calcium pyruvate.

Researchers have suggested that pyruvate enhances exercise performance and reduces body weight and body fat, possibly by increasing lipolysis and energy expenditure [ 6 , , ]. Only a few studies have examined the effects of pyruvate supplementation in humans. Although some of these studies suggest that pyruvate decreases body weight and body fat, others do not.

At the end of the trial, the pyruvate group had significant decreases in body weight mean loss of 1. In the placebo group, these measurements did not change significantly compared to baseline.

However, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 23 women who were overweight mean BMI The authors of a systematic review and meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials in a total of participants concluded that 5—30 g pyruvate for 3—6 weeks reduces body weight by a mean of 0.

However, the authors noted that the methodological quality of all trials is weak, preventing them from drawing firm conclusions. The safety of pyruvate has not been rigorously studied. Pyruvate might also increase LDL levels and decrease HDL levels [ , ].

Additional research is needed to better understand the safety and possible side effects of this compound. Raspberry ketone is the primary aroma compound found in red raspberries Rubus idaeus , and it is added to some foods as a flavoring agent [ 16 , ].

In vitro and animal studies suggest that raspberry ketone might help prevent weight gain by increasing fatty acid oxidation, suppressing lipid accumulation, and inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity [ 16 ].

Although it has been touted on the Internet and national television as an effective way to burn fat, little evidence exists to support this claim. In mice fed a high-fat diet, raspberry ketone supplementation reduced food intake and body weight compared to the same diet without raspberry ketone [ ].

Only one randomized controlled trial has examined the effects of a dietary supplement containing raspberry ketone on weight loss. This product contained 2, mg of a proprietary blend of raspberry ketone, caffeine, bitter orange, ginger, garlic, cayenne, L-theanine, and pepper extract along with B-vitamins and chromium.

During the 8-week study, participants followed a calorie-restricted diet approximately calories less per day than estimated needs and engaged in moderate exercise 60 minutes 3 days per week.

Compared to the placebo group, those receiving METABO lost significantly more body weight mean loss of 1. However, 25 of the 70 participants dropped out of the study, and results were reported for only the 45 participants who completed the study i. Furthermore, the product contained many ingredients in addition to raspberry ketone, making it impossible to determine the effects of raspberry ketone alone.

Typical diets provide only a few mg of raspberry ketone a day. Doses contained in dietary supplements typically range from to 1, mg, and the safety of such doses has never been evaluated in humans [ ].

Participants in the METABO study described above had no serious adverse effects [ ]. However, additional research on raspberry ketone is needed to better understand its safety and side effects.

Vitamin D, which is fat soluble, is present in a few foods, such as fatty fish, cheese, egg yolks, and vitamin D-fortified milk. It is also available in many dietary supplements, and humans synthesize it naturally when their skin is exposed to sunlight.

Vitamin D promotes calcium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and is needed for proper bone growth and remodeling [ 56 ]. Observational studies indicate that greater body weights are associated with lower vitamin D status, and individuals with obesity frequently have marginal or deficient circulating levels of vitamin D [ ].

Nevertheless, the association between vitamin D and obesity raises the question of whether increasing vitamin D concentrations might reduce body weight [ , ].

Despite the association between low vitamin D levels and obesity, scientific evidence does not support a cause-and-effect relationship. The authors commented that the cause of this finding might have been stored vitamin D in body fat and skeletal muscle that was released during weight loss.

However, according to a meta-analysis of 12 vitamin D supplementation trials including 5 in which body composition measurements were primary outcomes , vitamin D supplements without calorie restriction did not affect body weight or fat mass compared to placebo [ ].

Overall, the available research suggests that consuming higher amounts of vitamin D or taking vitamin D supplements does not promote weight loss.

Vitamin D toxicity can cause anorexia, weight loss, polyuria, and heart arrhythmias. It can also raise calcium blood levels, which can cause vascular and tissue calcification.

White kidney bean or bean pod Phaseolus vulgaris is a legume that is native to Mexico, Central America, and South America and is cultivated worldwide [ ]. Phaseolus vulgaris extract is an ingredient in some weight-loss dietary supplements marketed as carbohydrate- or starch-absorption blockers.

Laboratory research indicates that Phaseolus vulgaris extract inhibits alpha-amylase activity, so experts have hypothesized that the plant interferes with the breakdown and absorption of carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract [ 16 , ]. Phaseolus vulgaris might also act as an appetite suppressant [ , ].

The effect of Phaseolus vulgaris on weight loss and body fat has been examined in a few clinical trials, which had inconsistent results. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Italy, 60 women who were mildly overweight mean BMI 26 and age 20—45 followed a 2,—2,calorie meal plan and took a tablet containing approximately mg dried aqueous extract of Phaseolus vulgaris Phase 2 Starch Neutralizer IV or a placebo once daily before eating a carbohydrate-rich meal [ ].

After 30 days, those receiving Phaseolus vulgaris extract lost significantly more weight mean weight loss 2. Those in the Phaseolus vulgaris group also experienced a significantly greater reduction in fat mass, adipose tissue thickness, and waist—hip—thigh circumference.

However, the authors noted that the quality of the trials included in their review was poor, making it impossible to draw firm conclusions.

After the publication of that review, a week clinical trial in men and women with overweight or obesity BMI 25—35 showed that Phaseolus vulgaris modestly yet significantly reduced body weight and body fat [ ].

Compared to those taking placebo, those receiving Phaseolus vulgaris lost significantly more body weight mean loss of 2. Reported adverse effects for Phaseolus vulgaris are minor and include headaches, soft stools, flatulence, and constipation [ ].

No serious adverse effects of Phaseolus vulgaris have been reported in clinical trials, but no trials have lasted longer than 13 weeks.

Yohimbe Pausinystalia yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe is a West African evergreen tree. Yohimbine has hyperadrenergic physiological effects because it acts as an alpha-2 receptor antagonist [ 6 , ]. Yohimbe extract is an ingredient in some dietary supplements that are promoted for libido enhancement, body building, and weight loss [ ], but it is used primarily as a traditional remedy for sexual dysfunction in men.

The authors of a review of yohimbe concluded that no conclusive evidence indicates that yohimbe affects body weight or body mass [ ].

The author of a review of yohimbe reached similar conclusions, noting that results from small human trials of yohimbine for weight loss are contradictory and the evidence base is insufficient to support a weight loss claim for this compound [ ].

Yohimbe can be dangerous. Taking 20 to 40 mg of yohimbine has been reported to increase blood pressure slightly, whereas doses of mg or higher can cause headaches, hypertension, anxiety, agitation, tachycardia, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, and death [ 43 , , , , ].

More recently, dietary supplements containing yohimbe accounted for 1, self-reports to U. poison control centers between and [ ]. Although yohimbe is generally well tolerated at low doses [ ], no safe dose has been established for it.

Yohimbe should only be used under medical supervision because of its potential to produce serious adverse effects [ ]. Ephedra also known as ma huang , a plant native to China, is the common name for three main species: Ephedra sinica, Ephedra equisentina, and Ephedra intermedia [ ].

The active compounds, which are in the plant's stem and account for about 1. In the s, ephedra—frequently combined with caffeine—was a popular ingredient in dietary supplements sold for weight loss and to enhance athletic performance.

FDA no longer permits the use of ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplements because of safety concerns that are detailed below, but information is provided here in response to continued interest in this ingredient. Ephedrine acts as a stimulant in the central nervous system [ , ], and it might increase thermogenesis and act as an appetite suppressant [ ].

The authors of a meta-analysis that included 20 clinical trials concluded that ephedrine and ephedra are modestly effective for short-term weight loss 6 months or less , but no studies have assessed their long-term effects [ ].

While ephedra was available as a dietary supplement ingredient in the United States, its use with or without caffeine was associated with numerous reported adverse effects, including nausea, vomiting, psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and mood change , hypertension, palpitations, stroke, seizures, heart attack, and death [ , ].

Although these reported adverse effects could not be linked with certainty to the use of ephedra-containing dietary supplements, FDA deemed the safety concerns serious enough to prohibit the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids in [ ].

As a result of this ruling, manufacturers are no longer permitted to sell dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids in the United States. Like all dietary supplements, weight-loss supplements can have side effects and might interact with prescription and over-the-counter medications.

In some cases, the active constituents of botanical or other ingredients promoted for weight loss are unknown or uncharacterized [ 29 ]. Furthermore, many weight-loss supplements contain multiple ingredients that have not been adequately tested in combination with one another.

Pittler and Ernst noted that for ingredients lacking convincing evidence of effectiveness, "even minor adverse events shift the delicate risk-benefits balance against their use" [ 6 ].

People need to talk with their health care providers about the use of weight-loss dietary supplements to understand what is known—and not known—about these products.

FDA and the FTC warn consumers to beware of fraudulent claims about weight-loss dietary supplements [ , ]. At best, products with claims like these do not live up to them, and, even worse, they could be dangerous. Between January and December , dietary supplements were subject to a Class I recall by FDA, indicating a reasonable probability that use of or exposure to these products would cause serious adverse health consequences.

In most cases, the recall was due to the presence of undeclared drug ingredients. In , FDA issued 36 public notifications warning consumers not to purchase specific weight-loss products because they contained a hidden drug ingredient—often sibutramine, a weight-loss medication that was withdrawn from the U.

market in because of safety concerns [ ]. A product represented as a dietary supplement that contains one or more drug ingredients, whether or not these ingredients are declared on the label, is considered an unapproved drug and is therefore subject to enforcement action by FDA.

FDA maintains a webpage listing public notifications about tainted weight-loss products. Some ingredients in weight-loss dietary supplements can interact with certain medications. For example, glucomannan and guar gum might decrease the absorption of many drugs that are taken orally [ , ].

Glucomannan has been reported to lower blood glucose levels [ ] and, therefore, could interact with diabetes medications [ ]. Chitosan might potentiate the anticoagulant effects of warfarin [ ]. Green tea could interact with chemotherapy drugs [ , ]. Garcinia cambogia was associated with serotonin toxicity in a patient taking the supplement together with two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications [ ].

Other ingredients, such as caffeine and bitter orange, could have an additive effect if taken with other stimulants. Bitter orange has also been shown to inhibit CYP3A4 activity, leading to increased blood levels of certain drugs, such as cyclosporine and saquinavir [ 43 ].

These are just a few examples of interactions between ingredients of weight-loss dietary supplements and medications. Individuals taking dietary supplements and medications on a regular basis should discuss their use with their health care provider.

As this fact sheet shows, the evidence supporting the use of dietary supplements to reduce body weight and stimulate weight loss is inconclusive and unconvincing, and the cost of these products can be considerable [ 6 , 14 , 29 , 41 ].

The best way to lose weight and keep it off is to follow a sensible approach that incorporates a healthy eating plan, reduced caloric intake, and moderate physical activity under the guidance of a heath care provider. For some individuals with a high BMI who have additional health risks, physicians may prescribe adjunctive treatments, including FDA-approved prescription medications or bariatric surgery, in addition to lifestyle modifications [ 7 ].

Lifestyle changes that promote weight loss might also improve mood and energy levels and lower the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers [ 5 ]. The Weight Management webpage from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases at the National Institutes of Health provides several helpful publications on weight control, obesity, physical activity, and related nutritional issues.

The federal government's — Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that "Because foods provide an array of nutrients and other components that have benefits for health, nutritional needs should be met primarily through foods. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements are useful when it is not possible otherwise to meet needs for one or more nutrients e.

For more information about building a healthy dietary pattern, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate.

This fact sheet by the National Institutes of Health NIH Office of Dietary Supplements ODS provides information that should not take the place of medical advice.

We encourage you to talk to your health care providers doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc. about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health.

Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice.

Updated: May 18, History of changes to this fact sheet. Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources. Table of Contents Introduction Regulation of Weight-Loss Dietary Supplements Common Ingredients in Weight-Loss Dietary Supplements Ephedra Ma Huang , an Ingredient Banned from Dietary Supplements Safety Considerations Choosing a Sensible Approach to Weight Loss References Disclaimer.

Few clinical trials, all with small sample sizes Research findings : Possible modest reduction in body weight and waist circumference. Increase satiety and gastrointestinal transit time and slow glucose absorption.

Several clinical trials with weight loss as a secondary outcome Research findings : No effect on body weight. Increases energy expenditure and lipolysis; acts as a mild appetite suppressant. The seeds, after being dried and ground, are the most commonly used part of the plant.

Fenugreek contains both soluble and insoluble fiber , which can increase feelings of fullness and lead to a lower food intake.

In one study , nine Korean females with overweight consumed fennel , fenugreek, or a placebo tea before attending a buffet. In addition, this was a small study, and it was unclear whether the effect was due to fiber or other ingredients in fenugreek.

More research is needed to confirm the benefits of fenugreek in suppressing appetite. Dietary fiber , such as glucomannan , may help manage appetite and weight. Glucomannan is present in Konjac , a starchy root vegetable used to make noodles and other foods.

A review concluded that consuming viscous fiber — such as glucomannan — may modestly but significantly reduce body weight and other measures of fat, especially in people with high body weight, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

The Office of Dietary Supplements notes that taking up to Some people have also experienced loose stools, flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal discomfort as adverse effects. Glucomannan is a type of fiber that may help suppress your appetite.

It forms a viscous gel, which delays fat and carb absorption. Gymnema sylvestre has long been used in India as an antidiabetes medication, but it may also have anti-obesity properties. Some research from suggests that Gymnema sylvestre has properties that may help manage blood lipids and other factors that tend to be high in people with obesity.

In the study, rats that consumed a high-fat diet followed by Gymnema sylvestre extract for 28 days experienced decreases in cholesterol levels and BMI.

However, more investigations are needed to establish whether Gymnema sylvestre is safe and effective in helping humans manage weight and appetite.

Griffonia simplicifolia is a plant that contains 5-hydroxytryptophan 5-HTP , a compound that is converted into serotonin in the brain. An increase in serotonin levels may help suppress appetite , according to some research. Some older, limited research suggests that 5-HTP may help people overcome obesity by inducing feelings of fullness.

However, taking 5-HTP supplements may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome , a potentially serious condition. Always consult a doctor before using these or other supplements. Griffonia simplicifolia is a plant rich in 5-HTP. This compound is converted into serotonin in the brain, which has been shown to decrease appetite.

Caralluma fimbriata is an herb that may suppress appetite and manage obesity. In one study , 83 adults with overweight took supplements with either Caralluma fimbriata extract or a placebo for 16 weeks.

At the end of the study, those taking Caralluma fimbriata extract had a reduction in calorie intake and waist circumference.

They also did not gain weight, while those in the placebo group did. A review noted that taking Caralluma fimbriata extract may reduce waist circumference but does not appear to affect body weight or BMI.

Possible adverse effects include constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and rashes. Caralluma fimbriata is an herb that may help decrease appetite levels. Combined with exercise and a calorie-controlled diet, it may help promote weight loss. Green tea extract may be effective for weight loss , among other health benefits.

Caffeine is a stimulant that increases fat burning and suppresses appetite, while green tea catechins — particularly epigallocatechin gallate EGCG — may boost metabolism and reduce fat. Another study, from , found evidence that drinking beverages containing soluble fiber, ECGC, and caffeine can leave people less likely to eat so much at the next meal.

Green tea extract contains caffeine and catechins, which can boost metabolism, burn fat, and aid weight loss. Combining green tea extract with other ingredients may decrease appetite levels and reduce food intake.

Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss Few safety concerns reported for 0. Metabolis Right for Life. Dark Boost metabolism and suppress appetite has been shown to suppresses appetite compared to milk chocolate. In another randomized clinical trial, daily supplementation with 3. When you realize you're hungry, your first impulse may be to find food.
Boost metabolism and suppress appetite

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