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L-carnitine and cholesterol levels

L-carnitine and cholesterol levels

Simental-Mendía Stephen L. Int J Surg. Some studies suggest that L-carnitine could help promote weight loss cholesterop fat loss.

Introduction: Previous meta-analyses investigating the therapeutic effects L-carnitune L-carnitine on lipid profiles have demonstrated inconsistent Quench your thirst the delicious way. The present umbrella meta-analysis aimed to investigate the impact of efficacy of L-carnitine chooesterol lipid profiles in adults.

L-carnitime Databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched up to June Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. It also increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol HDL-C ES: Immune-boosting inflammation. Thus, Levelz supplementation can be recommended as an adjuvant anti-hyperlipidemic cholssterol.

Chronic heart disease CHD is a serious problem in public health in the L-carnitine and cholesterol levels. The Fish Tank Décor Ideas of this disease has enhanced considerably in developed and developing countries chklesterol.

CHD is a leading cause of death in cholezterol world, claiming the lives Chllesterol up to The cholesterool cause of CHD is L-carhitine, an inactive, progressive condition characterized by leves deposition of excess cholesterol in the sub endothelial space 3leels. Dyslipidemia, as one of the most important modifiable risk factors ane atherosclerosis, is determined by a disturbance in circulating amounts of triglycerides TG andd, total cholesterol TChigh-density lipoprotein-cholesterol HDL-Cand low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol LDL-C levels 56.

Therefore, dyslipidemia is associated with atherosclerosis leading to CHD. Statins are pharmacological drugs used to prevent CHD by reducing plasma LDL-C levels; however, Gut health and food sensitivities do not significantly alter other lipid indices 78.

Also, these common medications can cause poisoning Immune system defense side effects such as myotoxicity, intracranial hemorrhage, and coenzyme Q10 deficiency in patients Grape Wine Storage Tips49.

Currently, natural compounds are used L-carnitine and cholesterol levels the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, and the use of natural compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, lipid profile modulating, and blood pressure Protein needs for endurance athletes properties as levelss supplements are one of the new choledterol to prevent and treat chronic diseases 10 L-carnitine cholestreol an ammonium cation, either obtained L-carnitine and cholesterol levels dietary or synthesized in the liver, kidney, and brain.

Animal dholesterol like L-carnitind, meat, milk, and poultry are the Antioxidant supplements for hormonal balance sources of L-carnitine L-carnitine cholestdrol necessary for importing leveels fatty acids L-carnitine and cholesterol levels into the L-carnitinf matrix for beta-oxidation 13 and depleting cholesetrol acyl groups out of the mitochondria in nad tissues Furthermore, L-carnitine can improve adipokines concentrations 15 and decrease the repletion of detrimental metabolites generated in coronary levls and thrombosis 16 — leveks Overall, these ldvels may be improved L-carnitine and cholesterol levels profile and prevent related diseases.

Cholesteol meta-analyses have been conducted to investigate the leves effects of L-carnitine on lipid profiles 1920 choleterol nevertheless, the results are still choleserol 21 Weight loss and mental health Thus, the present umbrella meta-analysis study was conducted to impart accurate and L-carnitin data cholesterop supplementation cho,esterol L-carnitine on L-carnutine profiles including TG, TC, LDL-C, L-carnitinee HDL-C levels.

We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA guidelines in this study to analyze levelx articles Chloesterol registration number: CRD To Herbal remedies for fertility the relevant studies, five electronic databases, including Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar L-carmitine searched systematically up to June Search strings were relevant to the Amd on lipid profiles Supplementary file, L-carnitine and cholesterol levels.

Chplesterol, a manual search of the references of qualified studies was performed to minimize the risk of missing relevant L-caenitine. We included meta-analysis studies examining the impacts of L-carnitine Youthful and vibrant skin on lipid profile with their effect sizes ES and their pevels confidence Quench your thirst the delicious way CI.

In colesterol, other typologies Citrus fruit varieties research Enhance your metabolism including in Quench your thirst the delicious wayin vitro and ex-vivo Anthocyanins and immune system boosting, observational studies, cholestefol reports, meta-analyses of non-randomized controlled trials or choleeterol trials, and L-cqrnitine studies were excluded from the present study.

The methodological quality was evaluated using the Assessing anx Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews AMSTAR tool The quality L-carnutine a level decreases when one of the choelsterol factors is not met To evaluate the combined ES of the intervention, ESs, and CIs for lipid parameters were used.

Cochran-Q test and I 2 index were applied to assess the heterogeneity of the meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were done according to the duration, the dose of L-carnitine, sample size, age, and health status to identify potential sources of heterogeneity.

The sensitivity analysis was conducted by the one-study exclude method, to determine the effect of each meta-analysis on the overall ES. The funnel plot was evaluated by visual inspection to identify the publication bias. The trim and fill methods were performed if there was a publication bias.

All statistical analyses were executed using Stata software version 16, Stata Corp. College Station, TX, US. Figure 1 shows the PRISMA flow diagram for the studies. There were 95 articles total after searching electronic databases. After eliminating 38 duplicate articles, 57 abd were carefully evaluated based on titles and abstracts, with 25 being chosen for full-text evaluation.

The features of the qualified articles are shown in Table 1. The total number cholesrerol effect sizes identified was 11 for TG, and TC, and 12 for LDL-C, and HDL-C, depending on the type of variable studied. L-carnitine administration ranged from 0.

Table 2 shows the results of the quality assessment of qualified studies using the AMSTAR2 questionnaire. Out of 13 studies, ten studies had high-quality and three studies had moderate-quality. Grade assessment revealed low quality for TC and TG, but LDL-c and HDL-c have a moderate, and very low quality of evidence, respectively, Table 3.

Figure 2. Table 4. Subgroup analyses for the effects of L-Carnitine supplementation on lipid profile. Figure 3. Figure 4. Subgroup analysis revealed levelw subjects with metabolic disorders who received an week intervention had a more pronounced effect of L-carnitine supplementation on HDL-C levels Table 4.

Figure 5. Sensitivity analysis for TG showed that the elimination of studies by Liao et al. Also, the sensitivity analysis revealed no significance for TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C. Publication bias was identified through a visual assessment of the funnel plot Supplementary file.

L-carnitine supplementation could have antihyperlipidemic effects according to our pooled analysis on 13 meta-analyses consisting of 51, 54, 58, and 59 separate clinical trials for LDL-C, HDL-C, TC and TG, respectively. As far as we know, this is the first umbrella meta-analysis of RCTs in the realm of the clinical benefits of L-carnitine supplementation on lipid parameters.

Based on the results, TC, TG, LDL-C were significantly decreased after L-carnitine supplementation. Also, results from our study demonstrated that consuming carnitine supplements improved HDL-C levels. Previous reports have proven that dyslipidemia are independent predictors of cardiovascular disease CVD risk.

Accumulating evidence has suggested potentially beneficial properties of L-carnitine as nutraceutical for managing dyslipidemia and prevent of CVD. L-carnitine as a non-protein amino acid is the known carrier of fatty acids FAs across the inner mitochondrial membrane and plays an important role in the metabolism of FAs and activation of β-oxidation via regulating long-chain FAs transport from the mitochondrial membrane.

Endogenous production of L-carnitine can be done in kidneys and liver from lysine, methionine ascorbate, niacin, pyridoxine, and iron Scientific evidences associating L-carnitine and disturbances of glucose and lipid metabolism has been reported recently and have suggested L-carnitine as a potential therapeutic agent for some diseases such as T2DM, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLDend-stage kidney disease ESKDatherosclerosis, etc.

A large number of studies suggested that L-carnitine consumption is associated for normalizing the blood concentrations of TC, TG and LDL-C 22 As shown in Figure 6 the potential positive effects of L-carnitine on the lipid parameters might be explained by several mechanisms. Considering recently published investigations, carnitine deficiency impairs insulin-sensitivity.

L-carnitine enhanced the mitochondrial oxidation beta-oxidation of long chain-Acyl CoA, which its accumulation triggers insulin resistance in muscle cells and hepatocytes Beyond that, L-carnitine can reduce the availability of free fatty acids FFAsdiminish conversion of FFAs to TGs and prevent excess TG accumulation in hepatocytes Interestingly, L-carnitine also can affect cholesterol synthesis pathway mevalonate pathway via inhibition of β-hydroxy β-methylglutaryl HMG -CoA reductase activity 33 In addition to the benefits of lipids control by L-carnitine in the prevention of CVD, several studies also shown the cardio-protective effects of L-carnitine in terms of reduction of infract size and amelioration of cardiac dysfunction Also, it is evident that oxidative stress and inflammation can trigger initiation of hyperlipidemia in animals and humans.

L-carnitine with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties can modulate dyslipidemia 40 — It is important choelsterol mention that, protection of LDLs from oxidative stress by L-carnitine can be described via few mechanisms, including: oxygen concentration reduced due to enhancement of the β-oxidation of long chain-Acyl CoA by cause of a large amount of oxygen consumption rates in β-oxidation and consequently reactive oxygen species formation is decreased Also, L-carnitine can inhibit the activity of enzymes involved in free radical generation and by induction of antioxidant mechanisms Moreover, L-carnitine has been indicated that has a potent for scavenging superoxide anion Additionally, evidence suggests that L-carnitine promotes the synthesis of HDL-C via increment in Apo-A1 level Figure 6.

Schematics of proposed pathway for beneficial effects of L-carnitine on lipid parameters. L-carnitine enhanced the mitochondrial oxidation beta-oxidation of long Chain-Acyl CoA. Carnitine can reduce the availability of free fatty acids FFAsdiminish conversion of FFAs to triglycerides.

L-carnitine can affect cholesterol synthesis pathway mevalonate pathway via cholestero, of β-hydroxy β-methylglutaryl HMG -CoA reductase activity. Also, carnitine can protect LDLs from oxidative stress and promotes the synthesis of HDL via increment in Apo-A1 level.

Carnitine Acylcarnitine translocase CACT ; Carnitine palmitoyi transferase II CPT2 ; Carnitine palmitoyi transferase I CPT1 ; Long Acyl-CoA synthetase LACS. Even though the findings suggest that L-carnitine supplementation may be efficacious for controlling lipid profile, it must be stated that, the effects of L-carnitine on all mentioned lipid parameters were heterogeneous.

This heterogeneity may be explained by differences in treatment dosage, gender, mean age, study population, and duration of intervention. In sum, it seems that the effect of L-carnitine on TG and LDL-C depends on the health condition of individuals, so the patients with metabolic disorders and T2DM have had the most beneficial efficiency of this supplementation.

The results of our investigation indicate that l-carnitine supplementation did not exceed the minimally important difference MID in lipid profile Except LDL-C in comparison with the control group. The MID concept has been referred to as the minimal clinically important difference or the minimal clinically important improvement.

The heterogeneity also in the study characteristics makes it difficult to reach any strong conclusions, particularly in relation to clinical relevance. Therefore, the findings should be considered in the context of these limitations. Based on pioneering meta-analyses investigating the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on qnd profiles the evidences are contradictory.

The main reasons for these discrepancy between the results might partly be due to difference between the included participants, duration of the study, the dosage and types of L-carnitine supplements.

To assimilate the wide number of current evidences available on L-carnitine consumption and dyslipidemia, we done this umbrella review of existing meta-analyses to capture the breadth of outcomes. We found suggestive evidence that L-carnitine may be considered as lipid-modulating agent solo or in concomitant with other lipid lowering drugs.

Considerable information from previous studies the L-carnitine was well tolerated without any serious adverse events. The present umbrella meta-analysis study has several strengths.

: L-carnitine and cholesterol levels

L-carnitine supplements improve lipid profile, meta-analysis finds

Asadi et al. Content provided by KLK OLEO Jan Product Brochure. MCTs Medium-Chain Triglycerides is a versatile single or blend of saturated medium-chain-length fatty acids derived from renewable natural sources.

Free newsletter Subscribe Sign up to our free newsletter and get the latest news sent direct to your inbox. CONTINUE TO SITE Or wait No improvements were recorded for triglyceride levels, or for Apo A-I and Apo B Am J Epidemiol.

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The authors would like to thank the UK Biobank for approving our application The authors would also like to thank all studies and consortia listed in Additional file 1 : Table S1 for providing the valuable data. Data on coronary artery disease have been contributed by CARDIoGRAMplusC4D investigators and have been downloaded from www.

Data on glycemic traits have been contributed by MAGIC investigators and have been downloaded from www. Data sources for all outcomes have listed in Additional file 1 : Table S1. Jie V. Mary Schooling.

Medical Research Council Biostatistics Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. School of Public Health and Health Policy, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. JVZ designed the study with the help of CMS; JVZ applied for the data; JVZ analyzed the data with the help of SB, BHF, and CMS; JVZ wrote the first draft; SB, BHF, and CMS provided insightful suggestions and improved the manuscript.

JVZ had primary responsibility for final content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Jie V. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource under application number and other large studies and consortia providing publicly available summary statistics.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Summary of genome-wide association studies included in this study.

Table S2. Genetic predictors for l -carnitine and acetyl-carnitine. Table S3. Associations of genetic predictors for l -carnitine and acetyl-carnitine with potential confounders. Table S4. Heterogeneity statistics for overall and sex-specific analyses on genetically predicted l -carnitine and cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.

Table S5. Outliers detected in MR-PRESSO for overall and sex-specific associations of genetically predicted l -carnitine with CVD and CVD risk factors.

Table S6. Power calculation for the associations of genetically predicted l -carnitine and acetyl-carnitine with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Flow chart of the data sources in the study.

Sensitivity analysis on genetically predicted l -carnitine and cardiovascular disease using different analytic methods. Sensitivity analysis on genetically predicted l -carnitine and cardiovascular disease by sex using different analytic methods.

Genetically predicted acetyl-carnitine and cardiovascular disease overall. Genetically predicted acetyl-carnitine and cardiovascular disease by sex. Sensitivity analysis on genetically predicted l -carnitine and CVD risk factors overall using different analytic methods.

Sensitivity analysis on genetically predicted l -carnitine and CVD risk factors by sex using different analytic methods.

Genetically predicted acetyl-carnitine and cardiovascular risk factors by sex. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

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Reprints and permissions. Zhao, J. et al. l -carnitine, a friend or foe for cardiovascular disease? A Mendelian randomization study. BMC Med 20 , Download citation. Received : 31 January Accepted : 12 July Published : 01 September Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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Volume 38, Issue 1. Materials and Methods. Conflict of Interests. Article Navigation. Meta-Analysis February 06 Influence of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Subject Area: Cardiovascular System , Nephrology.

Haohai Huang ; Haohai Huang. a School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan;. This Site. Google Scholar. Lijun Song ; Lijun Song. Hua Zhang ; Hua Zhang.

b Sino-American Cancer Research Institute, Key Laboratory for Medical Molecular Diagnostics of Guangdong Province, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan;. Hanbin Zhang ; Hanbin Zhang. Jiping Zhang ; Jiping Zhang.

c Department of Science and Education, The Second People's Hospital of Foshan, Foshan, Guangdong, China. Wenchang Zhao Wenchang Zhao. Kidney Blood Press Res 38 1 : 31— Article history Accepted:.

Cite Icon Cite. toolbar search Search Dropdown Menu. toolbar search search input Search input auto suggest. View large Download slide. Flow of studies through the review. RCTs: randomized controlled trials.

Table 1 Main Characteristics of included studies. View large. View Large. Table 2 Quality assessment of the included studies Jadad score. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Elliott RW: Demographics of the older adult and chronic kidney disease: a literature review.

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PLoS Med ;6:e Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJ, Gavaghan DJ, McQuay HJ: Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?

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Am J Clin Nutr ; Weschler A, Aviram M, Levin M, Better OS, Brook JG: High dose of L-carnitine increases platelet aggregation and plasma triglyceride levels in uremic patients on hemodialysis.

Nephron ; Nilsson-Ehle P, Cederblad G, Fagher B, Monti M, Thysell H: Plasma lipoproteins, liver function and glucose metabolism in haemodialysis patients: lack of effect of L-carnitine supplementation.

Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; Yderstraede KB, Pedersen FB, Dragsholt C, Trostmann A, Laier E, Larsen HF: The effect of L-carnitine on lipid metabolism in patients on chronic haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant ; Golper TA, Wolfson M, Ahmad S, Hirschberg R, Kurtin P, Katz LA, Nicora R, Ashbrook D, Kopple JD: Multicenter trial of L-carnitine in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

Carnitine concentrations and lipid effects. Kidney Int ; Labonia WD: L-carnitine effects on anemia in hemodialyzed patients treated with erythropoietin. Am J Kidney Dis ; Vaux EC, Taylor DJ, Altmann P, Rajagopalan B, Graham K, Cooper R, Bonomo Y, Styles P: Effects of carnitine supplementation on muscle metabolism by the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy in end-stage renal disease.

Nephron Clin Pract ;c Rathod R, Baig MS, Khandelwal PN, Kulkarni SG, Gade PR, Siddiqui S: Results of a single blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to study the effect of intravenous L-carnitine supplementation on health-related quality of life in Indian patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

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Shakeri A, Tabibi H, Hedayati M: Effects of L-carnitine supplement on serum inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein a , and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients with Lp a hyperlipoproteinemia.

Hemodial Int ; Suchitra MM, Ashalatha VL, Sailaja E, Rao AM, Reddy VS, Bitla AR, Sivakumar V, Rao PV: The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on lipid parameters, inflammatory and nutritional markers in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Emami Naini A, Moradi M, Mortazavi M, Amini Harandi A, Hadizadeh M, Shirani F, Basir Ghafoori H, Emami Naini P: Effects of Oral L-Carnitine Supplementation on Lipid Profile, Anemia, and Quality of Life in Chronic Renal Disease Patients under Hemodialysis: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

J Nutr Metab ; Hurot JM, Cucherat M, Haugh M, Fouque D: Effects of L-carnitine supplementation in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a systematic review. J Am Soc Nephrol ; Pasternack A, Leino T, Solakivi-Jaakkola T, Huttunen JK, Ehnholm C: Effect of furosemide on the lipid abnormalities in chronic renal failure.

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JavaScript is disabled Article PubMed Google Scholar Kantor ED, Rehm CD, Du M, White E, Giovannucci EL. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests a significant Lp a lowering by oral L-carnitine supplementation. Wang et al. Serban, MC. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Verbanck M, Chen CY, Neale B, Do R. com ; Parvin Dehghan, Dehghan.
L-Carnitine: Benefits, Side Effects, Sources, and Dosage

The pooled results indicated that L-carnitine administration led to a significant decrease in triglycerides WMD: L-carnitine supplementation did not influence VLDL-cholesterol concentrations. When we stratified studies for the predefined factors such as dosage, and age, no significant effects of the intervention on triglycerides, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels were found.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrated that L-carnitine administration significantly reduced triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, and significantly increased HDL-cholesterol levels in the pooled analyses, but did not affect VLDL-cholesterol levels; however, these findings were not confirmed in our subgroup analyses by participant's health conditions, age, dosage of L-carnitine, duration of study, sample size, and study location.

Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub benthamscience. The authors recommend considering L-carnitine as a potential lipid-modulating agent, either alone or in combination with other lipid-lowering drugs, based on suggestive evidence.

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We also found genetically predicted higher acetyl-carnitine was associated with lower HDL-cholesterol in men and possibly also in women Additional file 2 : Fig. The results of the power calculations are shown in Additional file 1 : Table S6 [ 38 , 39 ].

The detectable effect size is slightly smaller in men than in women. Genetically predicted l -carnitine per SD increase in l -carnitine and CVD risk factors by sex in the UK Biobank and MAGIC for insulin. Consistent with observational studies and systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs [ 5 , 14 ], our study suggests no benefit of l -carnitine for CVD or its risk factors.

Instead, our findings suggest genetically predicted l -carnitine could be linked to higher risk of CAD overall and in men, and heart failure overall. To our knowledge, this is the first MR to investigate the role of l -carnitine overall and sex-specifically.

Using genetic proxies for l -carnitine minimizes confounding, which is challenging in observational studies. Our findings, together with observational evidence [ 5 ], do not support the use of l -carnitine in the primary prevention of CVD because of no benefit and the potential harm.

We also found an association with CAD in men but not women. Consistently, we also found an association of genetically predicted l -carnitine and its isoform, acetyl-carnitine, with higher triglycerides and lower HDL-cholesterol. However, whether these factors are causally related to CAD has been questioned in MR studies [ 45 , 46 ], and we found no difference by sex in the risk factors.

As such, other mechanisms might exist. l -carnitine supplementation greatly increases TMAO [ 47 ], which has been considered on the biological pathway through which red meat intake increases cardiovascular risk [ 5 ]. The association of genetically predicted l -carnitine with CAD in men not in women is possibly due to a smaller number of CAD cases in women therefore a lower power as shown in Additional file 1 : Table S6.

Meanwhile, the more obvious association in men has some consistency with higher CVD risk and higher carnitine in men than women [ 48 ]. The underlying mechanisms may involve factors with sex-specific roles in CVD, such as testosterone.

Genetically predicted testosterone is associated with higher risk of CAD in men rather than in women [ 10 ]. Carnitine deficiency is associated with late-onset hypogonadism in men [ 49 ]; consistently, testosterone increases after l -carnitine supplementation [ 50 ].

Despite the novelty of this study, several limitations exist. First, this MR study examined the role of endogenous l -carnitine, which may not entirely correspond to exogenous carnitine supplementation. l -carnitine can be obtained from dietary sources such as beef, poultry, and dairy products, with the highest content of l -carnitine in red meat 2 ; l -carnitine increases after consuming food rich in carnitine, mainly red meat [ 5 ].

Second, some associations, including the association with CAD, did not reach Bonferroni-corrected significance, so we cannot exclude the possibility of a chance finding.

However, the association was also shown for acetyl-carnitine, an isoform of l -carnitine, which adds confidence to the findings.

Third, MR estimates, although less confounded, are less precise than conventional observational studies, because the genetic variants only explain a small proportion of the variance in exposure [ 38 ]. Replication in a larger sample, especially for the nominal associations, would be worthwhile.

Fourth, MR requires stringent assumptions, i. To satisfy these assumptions, we only selected SNPs strongly associated with l -carnitine. The large heterogeneity for some outcomes, such as CAD, may suggest different mechanisms underlying the genetic associations or the existence of pleiotropy [ 37 ].

However, we used different analytic methods robust to pleiotropy, which gave a similar interpretation. Fifth, population stratification might affect MR estimates. However, the genetic associations with l -carnitine and with the outcomes are all from studies in people of European descent, with genomic control.

Sixth, MR estimates reflect long-term effects, which may not be comparable with short-term effects of l -carnitine supplementation. Seventh, associations based on people of European ancestry might not apply to other populations, such as East Asians.

However, causal effects are not expected to vary by setting [ 51 ], although the effect might be smaller in people with a lower intake of food rich in l -carnitine. The sex-specific associations were mostly based on the UK Biobank, which also need replication in other data sources when available.

Eighth, the sex-specific genetic association with l -carnitine was not available; however, the genetics of most biomarker traits are shared between males and females [ 52 ]. Ninth, the role of l -carnitine might interact with microbiota [ 16 ]; however, information about microbiota is not available in the UK Biobank.

Tenth, our study could be affected by survivor bias selection bias. However, genetically predicted l -carnitine was not associated with longevity data not shown. Nevertheless, different CVD subtypes share common risk factors, so it is possible that people dying of CAD were precluded from dying from stroke, heart failure or AF [ 53 ], which might underestimate the role of l -carnitine in these diseases.

Finally, the relatively small effect size might not be of clinical significance. However, relatively small effects of causal factors may still be an important determinant of population health [ 54 ], particularly for foods often eaten daily. From the perspective of clinical practice and dietary recommendation, our findings do not support a beneficial association of l -carnitine with CVD and its risk factors, but suggest potential harm.

As such, dietary patterns lowering l -carnitine, such as lowering red meat intake, might be beneficial for CVD prevention. This study adds another piece of evidence to support lowering red meat consumption, which is also an environment-friendly lifestyle [ 55 ]. The more obvious association in men indicates more benefits from such dietary intervention might be achieved in men.

Our study also raises safety concerns about carnitine supplements, especially in men, with direct relevance to those currently taking carnitine due to deficiency and for athletes and body-builders aiming to improve exercise performance.

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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW article L-C is found to be naturally occurring in red meat, dairy, and poultry products [ 6 ]. Impact of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein a concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Following the PRISMA statement guidelines for meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials RCTs [ 9 ], relevant RCTs were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases up to July Clinical characteristics and biochemical values from baseline and month 6 were compared and the change in median calculated Additional file 1 : Table S2. l -carnitine may also exert a sex-specific role in CAD. Two reviewers H. The analysis of other publicly available summary statistics does not require additional ethical approval.
Haohai Huang L-carnifine, Lijun SongChoolesterol ZhangHanbin L-carnitine and cholesterol levelsJiping Zhang Adaptogen energy boost, Wenchang Zhao; Influence of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile Lcarnitine Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Pomegranate Tea and Ane. Kidney L-carnitine and cholesterol levels Press Res 1 March ; 38 1 : 31— However, there are still some reservations about its benefits. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on lipid profile in HD patients. Methods: Literature search was performed to identify the relevant randomized controlled trials that investigated the effects of L-carnitine on the lipid profile of subjects. Two independent authors used an Excel file to extract data and assess trials quality.

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L-Carnitine to Lower Cholesterol

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