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Obesity and discrimination

Obesity and discrimination

This framing of obesity as a discriminatuon Obesity and discrimination responsibility can also Obesity and discrimination seen in public-health campaigns that solely focus on behaviour changes in their efforts to lower obesity levels. PLoS One. In Press. Carr D, Friedman MA Is obesity stigmatizing?

Obesity and discrimination -

The stigma and prejudice towards obese persons significantly impact adverse physical and psychological outcomes. The current belief is that labeling an individual obese will motivate weight loss. Weight stigma is also associated with an increased risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, and low self-esteem.

When obese patients experience weight bias in a medical setting, they are more likely to cancel appointments and avoid future preventative health care, ultimately increasing their medical risks and healthcare costs. Weight stigma affects healthcare access and outcomes for obese individuals.

Some studies have demonstrated elevated C-reactive protein levels indicating systemic inflammation in individuals with perceived weight stigmatization. These factors can lead to delayed cancer diagnoses, increasing morbidity and mortality. Weight bias and stigma are troubling, influencing perceptions and resource allocation for crucial obesity-related research.

This unfortunate reality has resulted in chronic underfunding, hindering the advancement of knowledge in this field. Even interventions like weight loss surgeries are not immune to societal bias.

One study revealed that individuals undergoing weight loss surgeries face more negative judgments compared to those who lose weight through diet and exercise alone.

In the healthcare sector, it's crucial for professionals to confront weight stigma and acquire a comprehensive understanding of obesity. When discussing the need for weight loss, healthcare providers should consider not only biological factors but also environmental influences.

This involves effective communication and creating clinical settings that accommodate patients. Healthcare providers must also be mindful of the language they use when interacting with patients. Research indicates that terms like obese , fat , and morbidly obese can have negative outcomes, whereas referring to patients as individuals with obesity or specifying the grade of obesity can yield more positive results.

To further improve interpersonal interactions and avoid embarrassment for obese patients, clinicians should ensure their physical environment includes office chairs that are armless and large enough to seat overweight patients and provide large gowns and medical equipment such as larger blood pressure cuffs and scales.

In primary care settings, the 5 As method ask, assess, advise, agree, and assist offers a nonjudgmental framework for obesity counseling. This approach involves asking patients for permission to discuss weight, assessing their readiness for change, evaluating key metrics like BMI, waist circumference, and obesity stage, providing advice on associated health risks, shifting the focus toward behavior rather than just weight, setting realistic weight-loss expectations and treatment plans, and assisting patients in identifying and addressing barriers.

It's essential to recognize obesity as a chronic, relapsing disease throughout this process. In addition to generating awareness, a pivotal strategy for combating weight bias involves advocating for the implementation of robust public policies.

These policies should span various domains, including education, employment, healthcare, and public spaces, ensuring protection against unjust treatment for individuals with obesity. Engaging in open dialogues is vital to garner support, dispel misconceptions, and highlight the detrimental impact of weight bias on individuals' mental and physical well-being.

To bring about meaningful change, we must take a 2-pronged approach: first, we need to increase awareness to reshape how society perceives obesity, and second, we must push for legislative reforms that provide concrete protections.

By adopting this approach, we can work towards creating a fairer and more inclusive society where individuals with obesity are treated with respect, receive support, and are empowered to succeed without the burden of unfair bias or discrimination.

Disclosure: Melody Fulton declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies. Disclosure: Sriharsha Dadana declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies. Disclosure: Vijay Srinivasan declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4. You are not required to obtain permission to distribute this article, provided that you credit the author and journal.

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StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island FL : StatPearls Publishing; Jan-. Show details Treasure Island FL : StatPearls Publishing ; Jan-. Search term. Obesity, Stigma, and Discrimination Melody Fulton ; Sriharsha Dadana ; Vijay N. Author Information and Affiliations Authors Melody Fulton 1 ; Sriharsha Dadana 2 ; Vijay N.

Affiliations 1 West Virginia School of Medicine. Obesity Classification Table. Issues of Concern Understanding Weight Stigma Weight stigma refers to individuals' social devaluation and denigration due to their excess body weight, leading to negative attitudes, stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination.

Clinical Significance The current belief is that labeling an individual obese will motivate weight loss. Nursing, Allied Health, and Interprofessional Team Interventions Addressing Weight Stigma in Healthcare Settings In the healthcare sector, it's crucial for professionals to confront weight stigma and acquire a comprehensive understanding of obesity.

Nursing, Allied Health, and Interprofessional Team Monitoring To bring about meaningful change, we must take a 2-pronged approach: first, we need to increase awareness to reshape how society perceives obesity, and second, we must push for legislative reforms that provide concrete protections.

Review Questions Access free multiple choice questions on this topic. Comment on this article. References 1. Hales CM, Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Freedman DS, Aoki Y, Ogden CL. Differences in Obesity Prevalence by Demographic Characteristics and Urbanization Level Among Adults in the United States, Ward ZJ, Bleich SN, Cradock AL, Barrett JL, Giles CM, Flax C, Long MW, Gortmaker SL.

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This finding also tells us that women begin experiencing weight discrimination at lower levels of body weight than men. Unfortunately, there are few legal options available for individuals who suffer weight discrimination.

Currently, there are no federal laws that exist to prohibit discrimination based on weight. With the exception of one state law Michigan and a few local jurisdictions that address discrimination on the basis of weight or appearance e.

must pursue legal recourse through other indirect avenues. In particular, individuals with obesity have depended on the Rehabilitation Act of RA and the Americans with Disabilities Act of ADA.

Most cases filed under these categories pertain to weight-based discrimination in employment settings, and only a few cases have been successful. It places an unfair burden for individuals to prove that their obesity is debilitating and disabling in order to obtain fair and equitable treatment in the workplace.

These unresolved issues, in addition to public perceptions that place blame on people with obesity, have led to inconsistent court rulings and often deter individuals with obesity from taking any legal action. Clearly, legislation is badly needed to protect individuals from weight discrimination.

Massachusetts recently introduced legislation House Bill to prohibit weight-based discrimination in employment settings. The hearing was held on March 25th , with no opposition present at the hearing, and all expert testimonies were in favor of the bill. No decision has yet been made, but if this bill passes, it will be an important step in encouraging other states to follow suit.

Reducing weight bias requires major shifts in societal attitudes, and national actions are needed to establish meaningful legislation to ensure that persons with obesity receive the equitable treatment they deserve. About the Author: Rebecca Puhl, PhD, is the Director of Research and Weight Stigma Initiatives at the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale University.

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It found that these participants strongly supported laws and policies to address weight-based bullying and to address weight discrimination in workplace hiring. Download references. School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

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Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Susannah Westbury.

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Reprints and permissions. Westbury, S. et al. Obesity Stigma: Causes, Consequences, and Potential Solutions. Curr Obes Rep 12 , 10—23 Download citation. Accepted : 20 December Published : 14 February Issue Date : March Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Download PDF. Abstract Purpose of Review This review aims to examine i the aetiology of obesity; ii how and why a perception of personal responsibility for obesity so dominantly frames this condition and how this mindset leads to stigma; iii the consequences of obesity stigma for people living with obesity, and for the public support for interventions to prevent and manage this condition; and iv potential strategies to diminish our focus on personal responsibility for the development of obesity, to enable a reduction of obesity stigma, and to move towards effective interventions to prevent and manage obesity within the population.

Summary Obesity stigma does not prevent obesity. Social Media Use and Mental Health among Young Adults Article 01 November Update on the Obesity Epidemic: After the Sudden Rise, Is the Upward Trajectory Beginning to Flatten?

Article Open access 02 October Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript. Aetiology of Obesity Our best current explanation for the global rise in the prevalence of obesity over recent decades promotes complex interactions between underlying genetic predisposition and our environment [ 14 ].

Physical Activity The technological revolution over the past years has seen great changes to our physical world, characterised by mechanisation, computerisation, and automation [ 27 ]. Global Food System The global food system has shifted towards food that is increasingly processed, energy-dense, and nutrient-poor [ 27 ].

Personal Responsibility as a Dominant Explanation for Obesity in Public Discourse Disease stigma is a social phenomenon that occurs when distinct groups, often those with pre-existing vulnerabilities, are discriminated against on the basis of a medical condition, resulting in stereotyping, labelling, isolation, and reduced status.

Contributors and consequences of obesity stigma. Full size image. Consequences of Obesity Stigma The damaging effects of obesity stigmatisation are widespread and include psychological, physical, and socioeconomic harm [Fig.

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Obesity has evolved discriminagion a discriminaion pandemic, raising concerns discrimknation its impact on Obesity and discrimination health and societal costs Sawers qnd Dobbs Discriminatiion association between obesity and Discriminattion range of health problems Obesity and discrimination well-established in the medical literature. Pre-workout nutrition well-recognised is the strain it places on health insurance and social security systems literature Cawley and Meyerhoefer The implications are clear: obesity matters, and it matters a lot. But what about the connection between obesity and economic wellbeing? In particular, how does obesity influence wages, and why is it important to understand this relationship? There is a large body of research in economics which consistently finds a negative association between obesity and hourly wages, particularly among women e. Obesity and discrimination

Obesity and discrimination -

Furthermore, the examples outlined here reflect a likely minority of trends in the representation of obesity, and obesity stigmatisation continues to appear rife within the public consciousness and lived experience of people with obesity.

The damaging effects of obesity stigmatisation are widespread and include psychological, physical, and socioeconomic harm [Fig. These data suggest that depression associates with obesity stigmatisation rather than obesity per se.

A recent meta-analysis by Alimoradi et al. Beyond its severe mental health consequences, obesity stigma is also detrimental to short- and long-term physical health. Counter to traditional public health beliefs that social pressure encourages people with obesity to lose weight [ 25 ], ironically, evidence suggests that obesity stigma actually increases the risk of obesity.

Obesity stigma may be associated with increased difficulty of losing weight and medication non-adherence and people with obesity may exclude themselves from some exercise settings [ , ].

Unlike other public health issues addressing social norms, such as tobacco smoking [ ], making obesity socially unacceptable does not appear to reduce obesity rates, and on the contrary results in increased harms.

In addition to worsening mental and physical health, obesity stigma may also augment all-cause mortality and shorten lifespan. This increased mortality risk persisted when controlled for common risk factors, including BMI [ 11 ].

Chronic psychological stress resulting from obesity stigma can trigger activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis with increased release of adrenally derived cortisol that in turn can drive increased fat deposition and appetite [ , ].

Enhanced cortisol release may contribute to increased mortality through weight gain and associations with inflammation, immune dysregulation, hypertension, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress [ , , ]. Furthermore, enhanced cortisol release may also mediate some of the worsening effects of obesity stigma on abdominal obesity, glycaemic control, and the development of metabolic syndrome [ 12 ].

These associations parallel the pathophysiology contributing to worse health outcomes for those experiencing other forms of discrimination such as racism [ , ].

Obesity stigma contributes to poorer healthcare for people with obesity. There is growing evidence that healthcare providers have strong explicit and implicit biases against people with obesity [ , ].

Healthcare obesity stigma is characterised by stereotypes of laziness, lack of discipline, and willpower [ ].

Inevitably, this mindset influences the judgement, behaviour, and decision-making of healthcare providers [ ], who tend to have less respect for people with obesity [ ] and believe that people with obesity are less likely to follow self-care recommendations or adhere to recommended treatments [ , ].

Understandably, people with obesity have reported avoiding healthcare encounters due to discriminatory and stigmatising experiences [ , ]. People with obesity report being mistreated and even ignored when receiving healthcare, and are up to three times more likely to report being denied healthcare [ 13 ].

Obesity stigma within healthcare and stigmatised judgements from healthcare professionals also perpetuates obesity by reducing the likelihood of people achieving their weight loss targets [ ].

Finally, the socioeconomic impact of obesity is extensive. In employment, researchers from high-income countries believe that having obesity negatively impacts wages, promotion, and the potential for disciplinary action [ , ].

In the USA, people with obesity have previously been found to be less likely to be hired than their lean counterparts, even when qualifications are identical [ ].

In Korea, women who are overweight receive less pay than lean women for the same work [ ]. There is plentiful anecdotal evidence of people getting fired for having overweight or obesity [ , ].

In education also, obesity stigma appears to be present at all levels of schooling and college — at least in some countries — and leads to prejudice, rejection, and harassment, making educational spaces less safe for people with obesity [ ].

In public settings too such as theatres, cinemas, shops, restaurants, and transport, obesity stigma may shape attitudes that people with obesity should not be accommodated for.

Accordingly, people with obesity may be prevented from the same level of participation as their lean counterparts through a public infrastructure that fails to accommodate them adequately.

Overall, obesity stigma has a substantial impact on socioeconomic factors through diverse means that include unequal standards in education, employment, career progression, salary, and public infrastructure.

Addressing obesity stigma is a healthcare imperative. Furthermore, obesity stigma perpetuates obesity through physiological, psychological, and social effects, acting like a vicious circle [ 25 ]. Addressing obesity stigma is also an ethical imperative.

Stigma burdens groups with undue discrimination, prejudice, and exclusion, and dehumanises them in the face of their community [ 60 ]. Stigma is especially unethical in the context of obesity insofar that it burdens already underprivileged and vulnerable groups, such as the global poor, rural, and certain minority ethnic groups [ 60 ].

Addressing obesity stigma is necessary to improve the public health efforts to prevent and manage obesity, which despite global efforts has had limited success to date [ ].

Interventions that target the individual have had little success, partly due to obesity stigma-induced barriers to the widespread adoption of healthy behaviours [ , ]. When obesity is seen as a personal choice, as reinforced by obesity stigma, solutions focus on changing individual behaviours in lieu of synergistic strategies that focus on changing systems and environments to support healthy behaviours, the latter being consistent with the current evidence base [ 25 , 78 , , , ].

However, such an approach is hampered through widespread obesity stigma within society. Re-calibrating this perception amongst society, including politicians, healthcare providers, and town planners, will help to support the development of effective public health strategies for the future that should properly address the many and diverse environmental and systemic contributors to the development of obesity, balanced with consideration of personal factors.

Firstly, it is important to acknowledge the striking paucity of research on the topic of reducing obesity stigma within society. Authors of systematic reviews have repeatedly highlighted this deficiency and the low quality of existing research papers within the field [ , , ].

A prerequisite for tackling the problem of obesity stigma within society is the generation of high-quality research on effective interventions that have consistent theoretical frameworks, strong study designs, and sound methodologies [ , ].

Such data will facilitate the development of a consensus on the development of optimal strategies to reduce obesity stigma within society, and enable implementation of consistent and co-ordinated public health action [ ].

Secondly, shifting public health messaging away from obesity and towards healthy behaviours, or alternatively away from behaviour completely, to allow the appropriate focus on the environments where the behaviour takes place, may facilitate the deconstruction of obesity stigma.

We do not deny that there is strong evidence that having overweight and obesity increases all-cause mortality [ ], and that weight loss can improve obesity-related morbidity [ ].

However, benefits of healthy behaviours are often overlooked in the context of BMI [ ]. The year prospective Rotterdam study showed that physical activity moderated the risk of cardiovascular disease in people with overweight and obesity to the extent that there was no difference in CVD risk between people with high or normal-range BMI [ ].

Other studies show that healthy diets may reduce all-cause mortality risk, particularly CVD risk, even when accounting for BMI [ ].

Based on such evidence, placing too much emphasis on obesity per se, and focussing too much on weight loss purely to reduce obesity severity, is perhaps unhelpful.

Although this may appear counterintuitive, such a traditional approach to obesity unfortunately also places emphasis on appearance and may actually demotivate and ostracise people with obesity [ 9 , ], thereby hampering rather than helping with obesity management.

An alternate approach, and one that we support, promotes the use of public health policies that encourage the adoption of healthy behaviours, including for example nutrient-rich diets cooked from their raw ingredients rather than ultra-processed foods , regular engagement in physical activity, and sleep sufficiency by intervening to create environmental drivers for these behaviours.

All people, including those with overweight and obesity, should be empowered and supported through structural interventions and policies and positive public health messaging to adopt such healthy lifestyle activities and behaviours [ , ]. This approach does not deny the harmful effects of excess body weight, but by detracting attention from body shape and size should help to diminish societal obesity stigma, whilst facilitating healthy living, that in turn should help in the prevention and management of obesity, stigma-free.

As interventions that rely solely on education and individual behaviour change are largely ineffective [ , ], enabling healthy behaviours will require both physical and food environmental changes and fiscal policies to support them [ 25 ].

Examples include improvements to the availability, accessibility, and affordability of fresh nutrient-rich foods, improved public transportation and urban planning to facilitate active and safe outdoor lifestyles [ , ]. Thirdly, deconstructing obesity stigma through educational interventions is promising.

Educational interventions that provide information on the genetic and environmental causes of obesity have shown some success in changing attitudes about how much control individuals have over their own body weight [ , ].

Other studies on healthcare students and workers have had modest success by evoking empathy and acceptance of persons with obesity through positive contact [ ]. Current evidence suggests that the greatest efficacy on tackling obesity stigma is achieved when multiple and diverse educational strategies are combined [ ].

Extrapolating these early findings, obesity could be reframed in public education efforts as a chronic condition that manifests primarily from a combination of genetic predisposition that interacts maladaptively with our obesogenic environment: factors that are predominantly beyond our individual control [ 9 ].

Furthermore, people living with obesity should receive positive representation in the media, including acceptance, inclusion, and empowerment.

Importantly, the voices of people with obesity should be amongst the forefront of these public health campaigns [ ]. Educational efforts could be targeted at institutions where the impact of obesity stigma is particularly pronounced, such as healthcare, educational settings, and places of employment [ ].

The re-classification of obesity has been discussed by others as key to education efforts. There is significant debate in academic and public realms on the appropriateness of this stance [ ]. In contrast, there is legitimate concern that a disease label will worsen the stigmatisation of people with obesity and increase discrimination [ , ].

There is also evidence that disease-labelling may disempower and reduce self-efficacy; Hoyt et al. found that labelling obesity as a disease reduced concerns about weight and predicted higher-calorie food choices amongst people with higher BMIs [ ].

We caution against the labelling of obesity as a disease prior to more extensive investigation of its impact on obesity stigmatisation and psychosocial wellbeing, in addition to potential policy, fiscal, and healthcare impacts. Fourthly, efforts to reduce obesity stigmatisation in the public domain could be spearheaded by legislation to prohibit prejudice and discrimination on the basis of weight [ 86 ].

Although educational efforts are important, without the support of our formal institutions, these messages are likely to be insufficient [ ]. Few national or state legislations globally protect citizens from weight discrimination, providing legal freedom for industries to discriminate based on obesity status [ 62 ].

Weight-based discrimination should be formally recognised as a legitimate social concern and be included in antidiscrimination acts that prohibit discrimination based on other personal characteristics such as sex, marital status, or disability.

Notably, it will be important to balance the need for protection and equal treatment of people with obesity against the risk of even greater obesity stigmatisation that may stem from such new legislation [ ].

Position statements from government and public health organisations should demonstrate non-stigmatising language and discourse around obesity. Implementing these changes will take no less than a social overhaul and is likely to require decades of consistent action.

Perhaps we can use the example of racial discrimination, which decades ago was rife globally, and in many countries acceptable and legally permitted and even encouraged through, for example, apartheid. Although, sadly, racial discrimination continues in our modern world, it is often illegal, and generally much better recognised and managed than in previous decades.

We need to move towards such a scenario with obesity stigma and discrimination. We predict that in the decades to come, we will look back at our current era in shame.

We will recognise obesity stigma for what it is: discrimination just like any other form of discrimination that has become normalised within our society to an extent that its existence often even goes unnoticed. An important step on this long road will be to dispel myths around obesity, and to educate society on its true causes.

Improved understanding should help to dispel associated myths around personal responsibility and should help to foster more empathy for people living with obesity. Gradually, such renewed understanding and insights should help us to have the courage and conviction to question obesity stigma when we encounter it, and hold the perpetrators to account, so that they too can question their misjudged beliefs and behaviours.

As outlined, this approach will only work through a combined, concerted, and sustained effort from multiple stakeholders and key decision-makers within society.

Only then can we hope for a transformed society which is finally freed from the shackles of obesity stigma, in which body weight no longer defines the people living in it. World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. Accessed Meldrum DR, Morris MA, Gambone JC.

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General concepts. Obesity Epidemiology Overweight Underweight Body shape Weight gain Weight loss Gestational weight gain Diet nutrition Weight management Overnutrition Childhood obesity Epidemiology. Medical concepts. Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of obesity Metabolic syndrome Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox Set point theory.

Body adiposity index Body mass index Body fat percentage Body Shape Index Corpulence index Lean body mass Relative Fat Mass Waist—hip ratio Waist-to-height ratio. Related conditions. Obesity-associated morbidity. Arteriosclerosis Atherosclerosis Fatty liver disease GERD Gynecomastia Heart disease Hypertension Obesity and cancer Osteoarthritis Prediabetes Sleep apnea Type 2 diabetes.

Management of obesity. Anti-obesity medication Bariatrics Bariatric surgery Dieting List of diets Caloric deficit Exercise outline Liposuction Obesity medicine Weight loss camp Weight loss coaching Yo-yo effect. Social aspects. Comfort food Fast food Criticism Fat acceptance movement Fat fetishism Health at Every Size Hunger Obesity and the environment Obesity and sexuality Sedentary lifestyle Social determinants of obesity Social stigma of obesity Weight cutting Weight class.

See also: Obesity social stigma in television. Main article: Fat acceptance movement. Obesity Reviews. doi : ISSN X. PMID S2CID Süddeutsche Zeitung.

August 11, Retrieved March 8, June American Journal of Public Health. ISSN PMC BMC Public Health. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved January 17, Obesity Research. Eating Disorders.

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Anti-fat prejudice reduction: A review of published studies. Obesity Facts ; 3: 47— Body Weight, Perceived Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being in the United States".

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Medical Anthropology Quarterly. Wiley, American Anthropological Association. American Anthropology Association. New York: Creative Books. Human Nature Hawthorne, N. New York: Emory University. Fat Studies. Int J Obes. Retrieved 16 May Developmental Psychology.

The Huffington Post. Retrieved Current Obesity Reports. StatPearls Publishing. Health Psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Body Image. Kevin March Science, the News Media, and the "Obesity Epidemic" ".

Sociological Forum. JSTOR Bloomberg View. The New York Times. The Cut. Retrieved November 20, The Fat Studies Reader. NYU Press. JSTOR j. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity. Bryn A qualitative study of classroom teachers".

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Obesity Facts. Michigan State University. May Retrieved 7 February elections, study finds". August Xavier; Stevens, June The Guardian. One study revealed that individuals undergoing weight loss surgeries face more negative judgments compared to those who lose weight through diet and exercise alone.

In the healthcare sector, it's crucial for professionals to confront weight stigma and acquire a comprehensive understanding of obesity. When discussing the need for weight loss, healthcare providers should consider not only biological factors but also environmental influences.

This involves effective communication and creating clinical settings that accommodate patients. Healthcare providers must also be mindful of the language they use when interacting with patients.

Research indicates that terms like obese , fat , and morbidly obese can have negative outcomes, whereas referring to patients as individuals with obesity or specifying the grade of obesity can yield more positive results.

To further improve interpersonal interactions and avoid embarrassment for obese patients, clinicians should ensure their physical environment includes office chairs that are armless and large enough to seat overweight patients and provide large gowns and medical equipment such as larger blood pressure cuffs and scales.

In primary care settings, the 5 As method ask, assess, advise, agree, and assist offers a nonjudgmental framework for obesity counseling. This approach involves asking patients for permission to discuss weight, assessing their readiness for change, evaluating key metrics like BMI, waist circumference, and obesity stage, providing advice on associated health risks, shifting the focus toward behavior rather than just weight, setting realistic weight-loss expectations and treatment plans, and assisting patients in identifying and addressing barriers.

It's essential to recognize obesity as a chronic, relapsing disease throughout this process. In addition to generating awareness, a pivotal strategy for combating weight bias involves advocating for the implementation of robust public policies. These policies should span various domains, including education, employment, healthcare, and public spaces, ensuring protection against unjust treatment for individuals with obesity.

Engaging in open dialogues is vital to garner support, dispel misconceptions, and highlight the detrimental impact of weight bias on individuals' mental and physical well-being.

To bring about meaningful change, we must take a 2-pronged approach: first, we need to increase awareness to reshape how society perceives obesity, and second, we must push for legislative reforms that provide concrete protections.

By adopting this approach, we can work towards creating a fairer and more inclusive society where individuals with obesity are treated with respect, receive support, and are empowered to succeed without the burden of unfair bias or discrimination.

Disclosure: Melody Fulton declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies. Disclosure: Sriharsha Dadana declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies. Disclosure: Vijay Srinivasan declares no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies.

This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4. You are not required to obtain permission to distribute this article, provided that you credit the author and journal. Turn recording back on.

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StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island FL : StatPearls Publishing; Jan-. Show details Treasure Island FL : StatPearls Publishing ; Jan-. Search term. Obesity, Stigma, and Discrimination Melody Fulton ; Sriharsha Dadana ; Vijay N. Author Information and Affiliations Authors Melody Fulton 1 ; Sriharsha Dadana 2 ; Vijay N.

Affiliations 1 West Virginia School of Medicine. Obesity Classification Table. Issues of Concern Understanding Weight Stigma Weight stigma refers to individuals' social devaluation and denigration due to their excess body weight, leading to negative attitudes, stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination.

Clinical Significance The current belief is that labeling an individual obese will motivate weight loss. Nursing, Allied Health, and Interprofessional Team Interventions Addressing Weight Stigma in Healthcare Settings In the healthcare sector, it's crucial for professionals to confront weight stigma and acquire a comprehensive understanding of obesity.

Nursing, Allied Health, and Interprofessional Team Monitoring To bring about meaningful change, we must take a 2-pronged approach: first, we need to increase awareness to reshape how society perceives obesity, and second, we must push for legislative reforms that provide concrete protections.

Review Questions Access free multiple choice questions on this topic. Comment on this article. References 1. Hales CM, Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Freedman DS, Aoki Y, Ogden CL.

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Nat Rev Endocrinol. Okorodudu DO, Jumean MF, Montori VM, Romero-Corral A, Somers VK, Erwin PJ, Lopez-Jimenez F. Diagnostic performance of body mass index to identify obesity as defined by body adiposity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Obes Lond.

Brewis AA. Stigma and the perpetuation of obesity. Soc Sci Med. Puhl RM, Heuer CA. Obesity stigma: important considerations for public health. Am J Public Health. Luck-Sikorski C, Riedel-Heller SG, Phelan JC. Changing attitudes towards obesity - results from a survey experiment.

BMC Public Health.

Obesity and discrimination is highly stigmatized in our society. Individuals discrimiantion excess discrmination Obesity and discrimination obesity are vulnerable to negative bias, prejudice and Obesity and discrimination in ddiscrimination different discriminatiln, including the workplace, Eco-friendly kitchen appliances institutions, healthcare siscrimination Obesity and discrimination even within interpersonal relationships. Unfortunately, weight bias remains very socially acceptable in North American culture; it is rarely challenged, and often ignored. As a result, thousands of individuals with obesity are at risk for unfair treatment, and there are few outlets available to provide support or protection. Weight stigma or bias generally refers to negative weight-related attitudes toward an individual with excess weight or obesity.

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