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Antifungal properties of colloidal silver

Antifungal properties of colloidal silver

Silver damages bacterial Antifkngal walls, enters and disrupts bacterial cells, and stops the replication of bacteria by damaging its DNA. Application of the Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles as Antimicrobial and Anticancer Agents. Medically reviewed by Kathy W. Antifungal properties of colloidal silver

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Antifungal properties of colloidal silver -

Ionic silver , which is wrongly declared as colloidal by many producers, is photosensitive and interacts with plastic surface , therefore many companies use non-transparent glass bottles, that moreover do not allow to check the product colour.

Electromagnetic field influences ionic silver , it has no negative effect on colloidal silver by our experience. Cooling of the colloid silver slowers agglomeration of particles and prolongs the shelflife of the product by our experience, please avoid freezing of the product. Colourless products usually contain no nanoparticles or just a fraction of declared quantity - such products usually contain ionic silver which is photosensitive therefore stored in non-transparent bottles.

Distribution and Storage. Colloidal silver is distributed in form of stable dispersion in plastic canisters 10 L, ppm or in transparent PET bottles , or mL at various concentrations: ppm. Storage in a refrigerator at °C is highly recommended. Do not freeze or heat the product!

Process within 6 months from the date of manufacture. Sample request ×. Figure 3 a shows the effect of silver ions, AgNPs and stabilizing agents of AgNPs on the mycelium growth rate index of F. avenaceum after the end of exposure to the compounds lasting 24 and h.

The total inhibition of growth or weaker growth in these variants and the subsequent faster growth rate of the mycelium can be explained by their response to the stress conditions.

In contrast, the treatment of F. An analysis of the main factors showed that F. avenaceum treated with the investigated compounds for h showed a lower growth rate than in the case of the short treatment Fig.

Of the treatments used, only the highest concentration of silver ions significantly reduced the growth rate of F. avenaceum Fig. The remaining compounds did not differ significantly from the controls. The impact of silver ions, AgNPs and stabilizing agents on the mycelium growth rate index of F.

avenaceum after culture over 24 h and h of the exposure period: factors interaction effect a , factors effect b. The influence of the investigated experimental factors on the sporulation of F.

equiseti is shown in Fig. The lowest index of the growth rate of F. equiseti mycelium Fig. An analysis of the main factors showed that longer treatment of F. equiseti conidia with the investigated compounds reduced the mycelial growth rate more than short treatment Fig.

equiseti after culture over 24 h and h of the exposure period: factors interaction effect a , factors effect b. Figure 5 a shows the interaction of the influence of the investigated experimental factors on F.

avenaceum sporulation. avenaceum with silver ions, CHSB-AgNPs at each investigated concentration and TCSB-AgNPs at the highest concentration resulted in a significant reduction of sporulation of the mycelium in comparison to the control group.

An analysis of the main factors showed that confirmed that with the passage of time, sporulation of F. avenaceum was reduced to a greater extent, regardless of the type of the compound used Fig. Considering the effect of the treatment alone on the sporulation of the F. avenaceum mycelium, it was found that all silver compounds and TC and CH significantly reduce this parameter Fig.

The impact of silver ions, AgNPs and stabilizing agents on the sporulation of F. The influence of the investigated experimental factors on the number of F.

equiseti spores is shown in Fig. equiseti did not form spores at all in case of silver ions at the highest concentration. As with F. equiseti conidia with the investigated compounds resulted in greater reduction of sporulation than shorter treatment Fig.

In the case of second factor-treatment, all silver compounds and stabilizers were shown to be toxic to F. equiseti spores Fig. TEM was used to evaluate the ultrastructure of F.

In the case of the control, the longitudinal section of the spores was presented, while for the silver ions and AgNPs — a transverse section was examined. As shown in Fig.

However, micrographs of conidia treated with both AgNPs showed different changes, confirming their antifungal activity. After the damage to the membrane, the intracellular contents leaked and the internal structures were deformed Fig.

TEM micrographs of F. Based on the results of the hierarchical clustering of agglomerations AHC , a clear grouping of the fungi into two clades consisting of F. equiseti and F. avenaceum was observed Fig. When analyzing the arrangement of the AHC dendrogram for variant distribution, it was observed that, in the F.

equiseti clade, two groups were formed, which in turn were divided into two subgroups consisting of both short and long treatment times. In the first subgroup from the left , the effect of the applied measures, i. The second subgroup consisted of the controls h , TCSB-AgNPs at the concentrations of 2.

The second group of the F. equiseti clade was more extensive. The second clade of F. avenaceum also consisted of two groups. The first group consisted of 2 subgroups.

The second group consisted of a first subgroup with little differentiation—silver ions at the highest concentration h and the second, more extensive subgroup. Interaction between silver ions, AgNPs and stabilizing agents, and fungi parameters over 24 h and h on the basis of agglomerative hierarchical clustering a and principal component analysis b.

FA, F. avenaceum ; FE, F. equiseti ; S, sporulation; MG, mycelial growth; MGRI, mycelium growth rate index. The PCA biplot for the interaction between the compounds and the tested fungal parameters is shown separately for each treatment time 24 h and h in Fig.

In each case, the first two factors F1 and F2 show the high values of the initial data variability, i. The effect of investigating compounds on fungi in the short treatment 24 h showed that TCSB-AgNPs at concentrations of 2.

avenaceum compared to the control. In the case of F. equiseti also silver ions and CHSB-AgNPs at the highest concentration were the most fungistatic.

The results of the analysis for the long treatment h indicate that TCSB-AgNPs, especially at the lowest concentration, had no effect in comparison to the control on the parameters of both fungal species tested.

avenaceum, albeit on a smaller scale than the highest concentration of silver ions. The other treatments had a negligible impact or no effect on the developmental parameters of both species of fungi.

As in the short treatment, F. equiseti conidia treated for h with the compounds showed a stronger reaction than F. avenaceum conidia. In recent years, AgNPs have been intensively applied to control microbial proliferation 36 , 46 , This study assessed the use of AgNPs to control important pathogens from the point of view of crop protection, namely fungi of the genus Fusarium: F.

It was shown that the investigated negatively charged TCSB-AgNPs and positively charged CHSB-AgNPs are able to reduce these pathogens.

It was found that positively charged CHSB-AgNPs stabilized by cysteamine molecules exhibited higher antifungal activity than negatively charged TCSB-AgNPs coated with citrate anions.

Numerous literature reports have shown that the physicochemical properties of AgNPs, including morphology, surface charge and chemistry of stabilizing layers, can be tuned already at the stage of their synthesis. It is well-known that, by selection of biologically active stabilizers of AgNPs, one can induce synergistic effects and enhance the toxicity of whole nanometric systems towards diverse pathogens 33 , For instance, Kasemets et al.

Our studies showed also a negative effect of the CH stabilizer against Fusarium spp. CH limited the growth of F. equiseti after h of treatment and sporulation of F.

avenaceum in both the long and short treatments 24 and h. CH molecules also made it possible to generate a positive charge on the surface of CHSB-AgNPs, which increased its toxicity. Therefore, the hypothesis was confirmed that the biocidal activity of AgNPs will depend on the presence of the stabilizing agent molecules and surface charge generated by these molecules.

In the case of the TC stabilizer, it was shown that it had no or little effect on the tested vital parameters of the fungi, which could have resulted in a lower toxicity of TSCB-AgNPs towards the pathogens compared to CHSB-AgNPs.

In turn, Kriti et al. In our study, the fungistatic activity of AgNPs and silver ions differed depending on the Fusarium strains.

equiseti strain showed greater sensitivity to the silver compounds compared to the F. avenaceum strain. The observed differences between strains in response to the AgNPs may result from different resistance mechanisms of the tested fungi 50 , In our experiment, longer contact h of conidia with the silver compounds resulted in weaker growth on the PDA medium and indicates a stronger inactivation of conidia compared to the shorter treatment 24 h.

This suggests that the effectiveness of silver compounds also depends on the duration of their use. Tarazona et al. graminearum , F. culmorum , F. sporotrichioides , F. langsethiae , F.

poae , F. proliferatum and F. Jo et al. sorokiniana and Magnaporthe grisea spores effectively reduced the severity of leaf spot on perennial ryegrass. The efficacy of silver compounds was significantly reduced when they were used 24 h after inoculation, suggesting that direct contact of silver with spores is important in inhibiting their viability and thus limiting the progression of disease.

This was confirmed by Lamsal et al. Lamsal et al. The same relationship was noted by Carvalho et al. Malandrakis et al. AgNPs were more toxic at the spore germination level of important plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea , Alternaria alternata , Monilinia fructicola , Colletotrichum gloesosporioides , Verticillium dahliae than during mycelial growth and in most cases more effective than the commercial Copperblau-N fungicide containing copper II hydroxide Cu OH 2.

In addition, the treatment with AgNPs resulted in a significant reduction in gray mold symptoms caused by B. The enhanced toxic effect of NPs on fungal spores compared to the growth of hyphae may result from differences in the structure.

In general, the walls of the spores contain less chitin than the hyphae, which makes them more susceptible to heavy metals Moreover, during the spore germination process, disulfide reductases and glucanases soften the cell walls in order to facilitate the elongation of the germinal sprouts, which creates a sensitive place for toxic substances in contact with the fungal cell Numerous studies have shown that higher concentrations of AgNPs may result in greater toxicity in cells 31 , This thesis was confirmed also in our experiment by proving that both AgNPs were most active against the tested strains at the highest concentration used, i.

A similar tendency was described by Xia et al. The results of Kim et al. The authors showed the growth of the pathogenic saccharides Raffaelea sp.

Moreover, AgNPs had a detrimental effect on fungal hyphae and conidia germination. Mahdizadeh et al. In turn, the growth of R. The fungistatic effect of AgNPs against phytopathogens may also apply to fungi useful in agrocenoses, which would be undesirable. However, testing of the same AgNPs against the plant growth-promoting fungus Trichoderma harzianum showed a different reaction The growth limitation of T.

The attachment of AgNPs to the cell membranes of microorganisms may be an initial toxicity-inducing process as it increases the exposure of microorganisms to silver in the ionic form 31 , Many scientists believe that AgNPs are highly reactive because they release silver ions, which increases their cytotoxicity inside the cell.

This mechanism was referred to as the "Trojan horse type mechanism" 33 , Szaniawski et al. Phytophthora cactorum The remaining species, i. oxysporum , F. redolens , Giberella sp. AgNPs caused stronger growth inhibition mycelium than CuNPs. The cell wall acts as a barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses and influences the movement of particles between the external environment and the cell.

According to Navarro et al. The main component of the fungal cell is chitin, which is semi-permeable, allowing the small AgNPs to pass through, while restricting the passage of the larger ones.

AgNPs and silver ions also reduce or completely inhibit the fatty acid content that plays an important role in cell membrane formation 64 , As a result of the action of AgNPs, "holes" are formed on the surface of the cell wall, which cause pore formation, leakage of cytoplasmic content and subsequent cell death 66 , In our study, TEM imaging showed that negatively charged TCSB-AgNPs generally deposit on the cell surface.

In turn, treatment of F. It has been clearly confirmed that positively charged CHSB-AgNPs attach to the surface of cells, causing local damage to the cell wall, which allows them to penetrate the cell interior. In addition, hardly recognizable organelles and extracellular leakage were observed.

Firstly, smaller AgNPs are believed to be more toxic than larger AgNPs because they exhibit a larger active surface and have more reactive surface atoms 40 , 68 , Secondly, smaller AgNPs are more sensitive to oxidative dissolution and, as a result, generate more silver ions, which in turn are considered to be a true reactive toxic agent 70 , It should be emphasized that these relationships were also confirmed by the results of our studies.

CHSB-AgNPs were characterized by slightly lower size and a higher ion release profile than TCSB-AgNPs Table S1 , Supporting materials and they exhibited stronger fungicidal properties. It is worth mentioning that properly selected stabilizers make it possible to tune the electrokinetic properties of AgNPs and, as a consequence, the electrostatic interactions between these nanoparticles and charged cell membranes 72 , This issue has been described in numerous literature reports.

For instance, Silva et al. This report remains consistent with our findings established for positively charged CHSB-AgNPs and negatively charged TCSB-AgNPs.

However, Silva et al. In the case D. magna , it was established that the toxicity of silver ions and BPEI-AgNP was not significantly different. It seems plausible that the enhanced toxicity of positively charged AgNPs is associated with attractive electrostatic interactions occurring between them and negatively charges membranes of cells.

Overall, it is assumed that these forces facilitate the penetration of AgNPs inside cells 74 , 75 , 76 , In turn, silver ions leached inside cells can easily bind to thiol moieties of proteins and cause protein denaturation 36 , The research of Morones et al.

metabolism and respiration. Moreover, independently of physicochemical properties, each type of AgNP generates the formation of reactive oxygen species ROS.

Free radicals can cause lipid peroxidation, resulting in an increase in superoxide dismutase activity SOD , damage to the integrity of cell membranes, and cell apoptosis 81 , 82 , Pietrzak et al.

The authors observed hyphae shortening and condensation, increased vacuolization, collapsed cytoplasm, disintegration of organelles, nuclear deformation, and fragmentation of chromatin.

Similar results have been reported by Xia et al. asahii were significantly damaged by AgNPs. The results obtained supported by literature review confirmed that the surface chemistry of AgNPs plays an important role in their antifungal efficacy.

Based on the results collected, one can state that the positive surface charge and enhanced ion release profile of silver ions increase the fungicidal properties of AgNPs. The main advantage of AgNPs as antimicrobials is their pleiotropic mechanism of action, as a result of which they attack microorganisms in multiple structures at one time.

It is for these reasons that AgNPs have potential as a unique replacement for antibiotics, which are beginning to fail The toxicity of individual AgNPs is not yet precisely known, because it varies widely, and it is not possible to establish a common criterion The reaction of microorganisms to AgNPs is also an individual feature.

There is considerable variation in the scale of resistance to AgNPs between species. Therefore, AgNPs will require a thorough assessment before being applied in practice, so as not to lead to unfavorable disturbances in ecosystems 23 , The research conducted revealed strong antifungal activity of positively charged CHSB-AgNPs, negatively charged TCSB-AgNPs and silver ions against common phytopathogens F.

equiseti strain exhibited greater sensitivity towards the AgNPs and silver ions than the F. This finding proves that the sensitivity of Fusarium fungi to silver compounds is an individual feature of the species.

equiseti in the h treatment. The action of AgNPs in some cases was comparable to the silver ions released by AgNO 3 , which is a well-known but dangerous compound for microorganisms. Positively charged CHSB-AgNPs showed a much stronger effect against Fusarium fungi over both the shorter and longer treatment times than negatively charged TCSB-AgNPs.

The toxicity of CHSB-AgNPs can be attributed to the properties of the stabilizer adsorbed on their surface CH , which enhances the positive surface charge effect and thus increases their direct penetration by the fungal cell.

This proves that the inactivation of pathogens by AgNPs depends on their surface properties. The data that support this study will be shared upon reasonable request to the corresponding author.

Dinolfo, M. Fusarium —plant interaction: state of the art—a review. Plant Prot. Article CAS Google Scholar. Savary, S. et al. The global burden of pathogens and pests on major food crops. Article Google Scholar. Shuping, D.

The use of plants to protect plants and food against fungal pathogens: a review. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Blackwell, M. The fungi: 1, 2, 3 ….. Baldrian, P.

High-throughput sequencing view on the magnitude of global fungal diversity. Fungal Divers. Ferrigo, D. Fusarium toxins in cereals: occurrence, legislation, factors promoting the appearance and their management.

Molecules 21 5 , Article PubMed Central Google Scholar. Hýsek, J. Influence of temperature, precipitation, and cultivar characteristics on changes in the spectrum of pathogenic fungi in winter wheat. Article ADS PubMed Google Scholar.

Kiseleva, M. The differentiation of winter wheat Triticum aestivum cultivars for resistance to the most harmful fungal pathogens.

Google Scholar. Nazari, L. Effect of temperature on growth, wheat head infection, and nivalenol production by Fusarium poae. Food Microbiol. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Zayan, S. Impact of climate change on plant diseases and IPM strategies. Arab J. Askun, T. Introductory chapter: Fusarium : pathogenicity, infections, diseases, mycotoxins and management.

In Fusarium - plant diseases, pathogen diversity, genetic diversity, resistance and molecular markers. IntechOpen, Matras, E. Response of winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. to micronutrient foliar application enriched with silver. Różewicz, M. The most important fungal diseases of cereals—problems and possible solutions.

Agronomy 11 4 , Doehlemann, G. Plant pathogenic fungi. Newitt, J. Biocontrol of cereal crop diseases using Streptomycetes. Pathogens 8 2 , 78 Article CAS PubMed Central Google Scholar. Ji, F. Occurrence, toxicity, production and detection of Fusarium mycotoxin: A review.

Food Prod. CAS Google Scholar. Piacentini, K. Assessment of toxigenic Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in brewing barley grains. There have been research studies that…. Inflammation is one of the leading drivers of many common diseases.

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A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Nutrition Evidence Based What Is Colloidal Silver, and Is It Safe?

Medically reviewed by Jerlyn Jones, MS MPA RDN LD CLT , Nutrition — By Katey Davidson, MScFN, RD, CPT and Helen West, RD — Updated on June 25, Safety What it is Forms How it works Health claims Argyria Recommendation Bottom line Colloidal silver is a controversial alternative medicine.

Share on Pinterest. Is colloidal silver safe? What is colloidal silver, and why is it used? How do people take colloidal silver? How does colloidal silver work?

Health claims surrounding colloidal silver. Is there a danger of argyria? Should you try colloidal silver? The bottom line. Just one thing Try this today: Not all alternative medicine therapies are unsafe, though the best course of action if you have a serious health condition is to consult your doctor for a treatment regimen.

Was this helpful? How we reviewed this article: History. Jun 25, Written By Katey Davidson, MScFN, RD, CPT, Helen West.

Jan 19, Medically Reviewed By Jerlyn Jones, MS MPA RDN LD CLT. Share this article. Read this next. What Is Colloidal Silver? Medically reviewed by Kathy W. Warwick, R. Is Colloidal Copper Good for Your Skin?

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Colloidal Silver ppm Silver has been used for Anntifungal germs and Antifungal properties of colloidal silver infections for centuries. Antifungal properties of colloidal silver nano form of this colpoidal is becomming even more popular cilloidal to Diuretic effect of alcohol applicability and product availability. Well known antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties are enhanced by small particle size and large surface area nanoparticles are thus more efficient. The product serves for modification of cosmetic products, paintings or other individual application. Please do not use ordinary tap-water for the dilution, it may cause agglomeration of nanoparticles and inhibit product efficiency.

Antifungal properties of colloidal silver -

In turn, treatment of F. It has been clearly confirmed that positively charged CHSB-AgNPs attach to the surface of cells, causing local damage to the cell wall, which allows them to penetrate the cell interior.

In addition, hardly recognizable organelles and extracellular leakage were observed. Firstly, smaller AgNPs are believed to be more toxic than larger AgNPs because they exhibit a larger active surface and have more reactive surface atoms 40 , 68 , Secondly, smaller AgNPs are more sensitive to oxidative dissolution and, as a result, generate more silver ions, which in turn are considered to be a true reactive toxic agent 70 , It should be emphasized that these relationships were also confirmed by the results of our studies.

CHSB-AgNPs were characterized by slightly lower size and a higher ion release profile than TCSB-AgNPs Table S1 , Supporting materials and they exhibited stronger fungicidal properties.

It is worth mentioning that properly selected stabilizers make it possible to tune the electrokinetic properties of AgNPs and, as a consequence, the electrostatic interactions between these nanoparticles and charged cell membranes 72 , This issue has been described in numerous literature reports.

For instance, Silva et al. This report remains consistent with our findings established for positively charged CHSB-AgNPs and negatively charged TCSB-AgNPs. However, Silva et al. In the case D. magna , it was established that the toxicity of silver ions and BPEI-AgNP was not significantly different.

It seems plausible that the enhanced toxicity of positively charged AgNPs is associated with attractive electrostatic interactions occurring between them and negatively charges membranes of cells. Overall, it is assumed that these forces facilitate the penetration of AgNPs inside cells 74 , 75 , 76 , In turn, silver ions leached inside cells can easily bind to thiol moieties of proteins and cause protein denaturation 36 , The research of Morones et al.

metabolism and respiration. Moreover, independently of physicochemical properties, each type of AgNP generates the formation of reactive oxygen species ROS.

Free radicals can cause lipid peroxidation, resulting in an increase in superoxide dismutase activity SOD , damage to the integrity of cell membranes, and cell apoptosis 81 , 82 , Pietrzak et al. The authors observed hyphae shortening and condensation, increased vacuolization, collapsed cytoplasm, disintegration of organelles, nuclear deformation, and fragmentation of chromatin.

Similar results have been reported by Xia et al. asahii were significantly damaged by AgNPs. The results obtained supported by literature review confirmed that the surface chemistry of AgNPs plays an important role in their antifungal efficacy.

Based on the results collected, one can state that the positive surface charge and enhanced ion release profile of silver ions increase the fungicidal properties of AgNPs. The main advantage of AgNPs as antimicrobials is their pleiotropic mechanism of action, as a result of which they attack microorganisms in multiple structures at one time.

It is for these reasons that AgNPs have potential as a unique replacement for antibiotics, which are beginning to fail The toxicity of individual AgNPs is not yet precisely known, because it varies widely, and it is not possible to establish a common criterion The reaction of microorganisms to AgNPs is also an individual feature.

There is considerable variation in the scale of resistance to AgNPs between species. Therefore, AgNPs will require a thorough assessment before being applied in practice, so as not to lead to unfavorable disturbances in ecosystems 23 , The research conducted revealed strong antifungal activity of positively charged CHSB-AgNPs, negatively charged TCSB-AgNPs and silver ions against common phytopathogens F.

equiseti strain exhibited greater sensitivity towards the AgNPs and silver ions than the F. This finding proves that the sensitivity of Fusarium fungi to silver compounds is an individual feature of the species.

equiseti in the h treatment. The action of AgNPs in some cases was comparable to the silver ions released by AgNO 3 , which is a well-known but dangerous compound for microorganisms.

Positively charged CHSB-AgNPs showed a much stronger effect against Fusarium fungi over both the shorter and longer treatment times than negatively charged TCSB-AgNPs. The toxicity of CHSB-AgNPs can be attributed to the properties of the stabilizer adsorbed on their surface CH , which enhances the positive surface charge effect and thus increases their direct penetration by the fungal cell.

This proves that the inactivation of pathogens by AgNPs depends on their surface properties. The data that support this study will be shared upon reasonable request to the corresponding author. Dinolfo, M. Fusarium —plant interaction: state of the art—a review. Plant Prot.

Article CAS Google Scholar. Savary, S. et al. The global burden of pathogens and pests on major food crops. Article Google Scholar. Shuping, D. The use of plants to protect plants and food against fungal pathogens: a review. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Blackwell, M. The fungi: 1, 2, 3 ….. Baldrian, P. High-throughput sequencing view on the magnitude of global fungal diversity. Fungal Divers. Ferrigo, D. Fusarium toxins in cereals: occurrence, legislation, factors promoting the appearance and their management.

Molecules 21 5 , Article PubMed Central Google Scholar. Hýsek, J. Influence of temperature, precipitation, and cultivar characteristics on changes in the spectrum of pathogenic fungi in winter wheat.

Article ADS PubMed Google Scholar. Kiseleva, M. The differentiation of winter wheat Triticum aestivum cultivars for resistance to the most harmful fungal pathogens.

Google Scholar. Nazari, L. Effect of temperature on growth, wheat head infection, and nivalenol production by Fusarium poae. Food Microbiol. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Zayan, S. Impact of climate change on plant diseases and IPM strategies.

Arab J. Askun, T. Introductory chapter: Fusarium : pathogenicity, infections, diseases, mycotoxins and management. In Fusarium - plant diseases, pathogen diversity, genetic diversity, resistance and molecular markers.

IntechOpen, Matras, E. Response of winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. to micronutrient foliar application enriched with silver.

Różewicz, M. The most important fungal diseases of cereals—problems and possible solutions. Agronomy 11 4 , Doehlemann, G. Plant pathogenic fungi. Newitt, J. Biocontrol of cereal crop diseases using Streptomycetes.

Pathogens 8 2 , 78 Article CAS PubMed Central Google Scholar. Ji, F. Occurrence, toxicity, production and detection of Fusarium mycotoxin: A review. Food Prod.

CAS Google Scholar. Piacentini, K. Assessment of toxigenic Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in brewing barley grains.

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Download references. This work was supported by a subsidy of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education for the University of Agriculture in Kraków [grant number DO11]. The authors would like to thank Doctor Dorota Duraczyńska and Doctor Olga Woźnicka for the TEM imaging of AgNPs and F.

avenaceum treated with silver compounds, respectively. Department of Microbiology and Biomonitoring, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Kraków, Mickiewicz Ave. Department of Entomology, Phytopathology and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Prawocheńskiego 17, , Olsztyn, Poland.

Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Niezapominajek 8, , Kraków, Poland. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Conceptualization: E. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Correspondence to Ewelina Matras.

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nature scientific reports articles article. Download PDF. Subjects Microbiology Nanoscience and technology. Abstract Silver nanoparticles AgNPs exhibit unusual biocidal properties thanks to which they find a wide range of applications in diverse fields of science and industry.

Introduction Agricultural production is under constant threat from various plant pathogens 1. Biological material Two species of fungi of the genus Fusarium were used for the study: F. Experimental part Experimental methods to determine AgNP characteristics A DMAM densitometer was used to measure the density of purified AgNP suspensions and effluents obtained during the purification procedure Mycelium sporulation The spore formation of the fungal cultures was assessed after 24 and h of incubation of the fungi treated with the both types of AgNPs, their stabilizing agents TC and CH and silver ions, and grown on PDA.

Transmission electron microscope TEM conidia image TEM was used to examine the ultrastructure of treated and untreated fungal cells. Results Physicochemical characteristics of AgNPs Based on the TEM micrographs, it was established that TCSB-AgNPs and CHSB-AgNPs exhibited a quasi-spherical shape and comparable size distribution.

Linear growth and growth rate index of mycelium Figure 1 a and Table S2 Supporting materials show the effect of silver compounds and the AgNP stabilizing agents on the growth of F. Figure 1. Full size image. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Discussion In recent years, AgNPs have been intensively applied to control microbial proliferation 36 , 46 , Conclusions The research conducted revealed strong antifungal activity of positively charged CHSB-AgNPs, negatively charged TCSB-AgNPs and silver ions against common phytopathogens F.

Data availability The data that support this study will be shared upon reasonable request to the corresponding author. Abbreviations NPs: Nanoparticles TC: Trisodium citrate CH: Cysteamine hydrochloride AgNO 3 : Silver nitrate AgNPs: Silver nanoparticles TCSB-AgNPs: AgNPs prepared with the use of sodium borohydride SB and trisodium citrate TC CHSB-AgNPs: AgNPs prepared with the use of sodium borohydride SB and cysteamine hydrochloride CH.

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Article CAS PubMed Central Google Scholar Eskola, M. Nanoparticles are usually synthesised through a variety of physical and chemical processes that are costly and pollute the environment. For this reason, biogenic synthesis is emerging as an environmentally friendly technology and new strategies are increasingly based on the use of biogenic AgNPs as antifungal agents for clinical use.

The aim of this review is to compare the antifungal activity of different biogenic AgNPs and to summarise the current knowledge on the mechanisms of action and resistance of fungi to AgNPs.

Finally, a general analysis of the toxicity of biogenic AgNPs in human and veterinary medicine is performed. In recent decades, fungal infections have increased and become a major public health threat. More than million people suffer from severe fungal diseases and more than 2 million people die each year from mycoses, making fungal diseases one of the leading causes of death worldwide.

Moreover, the problem of mycoses is exacerbated by the increase in emerging pathogenic fungi, but also by resistance to the limited antifungal drugs available, which significantly reduces the effectiveness of treatments Denning et al.

From this perspective, Candida auris infections have become a global threat to human health for four main reasons: It has caused public health outbreaks; it is difficult to identify using standard laboratory methods; it has a high mortality rate; and some strains are resistant to all classes of available antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections Du et al.

On the other hand, there are certain mycoses whose treatment remains ineffective and leads to disability, including certain superficial fungal infections and implantation mycoses.

This situation, which has a significant social impact, also includes the economic factor caused by the need for expensive drugs and lengthy medical care, which in many cases leads to patients not adhering to treatment GAFFI, The lack of antifungal drugs is mainly due to the difficulty in finding selective therapeutic targets against fungi, as they have a cellular and molecular biology very similar to that of animal cells Konopka et al.

Among the various metals, silver has a long history in medicine as an antimicrobial agent Rai et al. Currently, silver nanoparticles AgNPs occupy a prominent place as potential antifungal agents for clinical use due to their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and their enormous number of applications in the health sciences, ranging from topical formulations to catheters impregnated with AgNPs Rai et al.

AgNPs are particles that have all three dimensions on the nanometre scale 10 —9 m. These nanoparticles can be synthesised by physical, chemical and biological methods. However, biological synthesis stands out because it is environmentally friendly, economically viable and easy to transfer to industrial production Siddiqi et al.

Since natural coating agents can impart some functionality to the nanoparticles, such as antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory properties, lower toxicity, modulation of immune response, etc.

However, there are no organised data on the antifungal activity of biogenic AgNPs, nor on the mechanisms of action and resistance of fungi to AgNPs. For this reason, this review aims to compare the antifungal activity of different biogenic AgNPs and to summarise the current knowledge on the mechanisms of action and resistance of fungi to AgNPs.

Thanks to their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and their ability to effectively inhibit biofilm formation, biogenic AgNPs have become one of the most promising options to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with fungal infections caused by resistant fungi Ahamad et al.

The antimicrobial activity antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, etc. of biogenic AgNPs is largely determined by the following factors:. Living organisms produce a variety of biological molecules metabolites, proteins, lipids, etc.

It has even been shown that different AgNPs can be obtained from different strains of the same species under identical synthesis conditions El-Bendary et al. Therefore, the correct identification of the species used and their preservation in a culture collection or herbarium is crucial.

The chemical composition of the same organism may vary according to the conditions of growth. It is therefore important that these conditions are well defined, especially if you are aiming for industrial production. In the case of plants, several points also need to be defined, such as the part of the plant to be used, the time of harvesting, post-harvest treatment, etc.

All these aspects can influence the chemical composition and thus the properties of the synthesised AgNPs. The size, shape and coating agent of biogenic AgNPs determine their antifungal activity. These properties are strongly influenced by the synthesis conditions, such as: Temperature, reaction time, pH, biological molecules, molar ratio of reagents, speed and type of stirring, etc.

Song and Kim, ; El Badawy et al. Therefore, standardisation of the synthesis conditions allows obtaining identical nanoparticles in each production batch.

Due to genetic variability between species of the same genus and between strains of the same species, a given nanoparticle may exhibit different levels of antimicrobial activity Mussin et al.

Therefore, to obtain meaningful statistical values, the test must be performed against a considerable number of strains of the same species. In addition, when assessing antimicrobial activity, it is important to note that a standardised method should be used that is widely accepted by the scientific community, as parameters such as the concentration of the inoculum, temperature and incubation time, among others, influence the assessment of antimicrobial activity.

One of the most widely accepted methods is the broth microdilution method proposed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI. In addition, the method provides for the use of reference strains, quality control strains and positive inhibitory controls antimicrobial drugs for clinical use to ensure that the microdilution test is performed correctly and that the results are reproducible and comparable.

Table 1 summarises the most important papers in which the MIC of biogenic AgNPs against fungi of clinical importance was determined using a broth dilution method.

Analysis of these studies leads us to the following conclusions:. Therefore, it is important to consider all the above aspects about the factors that determine the antifungal activity of a biogenic AgNP, otherwise each synthesised nanoparticle must be considered as a different compound.

However, considering only the papers in which a control drug and a quality control strain were used for the CLSI broth microdilution method Candida krusei ATCC and Candida parapsilosis ATCC , the MIC range of AgNPs was 0.

This shows, firstly, the importance of using standardised method controls and, secondly, that biogenic AgNPs have similar or even better antifungal activity than certain clinically used antifungal agents. Against the quality control strains, Candida krusei ATCC and Candida parapsilosis ATCC , the biogenic AgNPs showed MIC ranges of 0.

As mentioned earlier, the antifungal activity of biogenic AgNPs is highly dependent on the size, shape and coating agents. The great diversity of biogenic AgNPs therefore makes it difficult to decipher a single mechanism of action.

For this reason, most research has focused on determining the mechanism of action of chemically synthesised AgNPs, which is attributed to the attachment of AgNPs to the surface of the fungus as a result of electrostatic attraction Figure 1.

So far, no cell receptors or membrane channels have been described for the uptake of silver. FIGURE 1. Mechanism of action of AgNPs on fungi. The figure was created with BioRender.

Down-regulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle genes, genes related to redox metabolism and genes involved in ergosterol synthesis and lipid metabolism have been reported, leading to structural changes mainly at the level of biological membranes Das and Ahmed, ; Babele et al.

Our studies suggest that AgNPs have fungicidal action against the major fungi that cause skin infections. A fungicidal agent causes death of fungal cells, while a fungistatic agent inhibits the growth or multiplication of the fungus without causing death Mussin et al.

However, the results are suggestive and further studies should be conducted. AgNPs have also been shown to be more effective when combined with antifungal drugs. Synergistic effects have been reported with fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, terbinafine, natamycin, nystatin, amphotericin B and echinocandins Gajbhiye et al.

Since the antifungal activity of AgNPs is the result of several simultaneous processes, this has led to the assumption that fungi cannot develop resistance mechanisms to AgNPs. Few studies have analysed the possible mechanisms of fungal resistance to silver.

Terzioğlu et al. In particular, the missense mutation in the RLM1 gene, which encodes a transcription factor involved in maintaining cell wall integrity and has potential gene targets, may play a key role.

On the other hand, using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans , Antsotegi-Uskola et al. have suggested that the copper-transporting ATPase type PI, CrpA, may play an important role in the development of silver resistance Antsotegi-Uskola et al.

Due to the increasing use of silver and AgNPs in many areas of human and veterinary medicine, further research is needed. The toxicity of AgNPs depends on the size, shape and coating agents. For biogenic AgNPs, the coating agents play a very important role in terms of toxicity to human cells and modulation of the immune response Mussin et al.

There is evidence that biogenic AgNPs are more biocompatible than chemically synthesised AgNPs Khan et al. However, due to the complex interactions between the different coating agents and eukaryotic cells, each biogenic AgNP should be evaluated individually to confirm its safety in humans and other animals.

The route of administration, exposure time and pharmacokinetics also influence toxicity Stensberg et al. Another interesting aspect of biogenic AgNPs is the reported synergistic effects with antifungals Gajbhiye et al. The increase in multidrug-resistant fungal pathogens and the limited number of clinically available antifungal drugs highlight the need to develop new antifungal strategies to address these problems in the face of an already complicated future.

AgNPs have been presented as a promising solution, but biological AgNPs have been shown to have several advantages over AgNPs produced by chemical and physical methods.

The antifungal activity of the different biogenic nanoparticles varies according to their physicochemical properties, which are determined by the organism used for synthesis, the growth conditions of the organism, the physicochemical properties of the AgNPs and the target organism.

An important challenge for future research is therefore to standardise these conditions and determine the key biocomponents involved in the synthesis of AgNPs to produce safe and effective drugs for the treatment of fungal infections. The wide variety of methods used to evaluate the antifungal activity of these biogenic nanoparticles highlights the need to use internationally accepted methods with appropriate controls to obtain reproducible and comparable results.

Since there may be genetic variability within a species, it is important to test a considerable number of isolates of the same species to obtain meaningful results on the antifungal activity of a new agent against a particular species.

Great progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism of action of AgNPs on fungi. They have shown that they can act on multiple targets, which makes them very promising as antifungal agents for clinical use.

In addition, further research is being conducted for use in healthcare settings. In the near future, these efforts will lead to a clearer picture of the antifungal potential of biogenic AgNPs and help establish them in the field of veterinary and human mycology.

The broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and the potential synergistic effects with antifungal drugs make biogenic AgNPs viable alternatives to overcome the problematic infections caused by resistant fungi and the toxicity of currently available drugs.

We anticipate that biogenic AgNPs will be used as cost-effective broad-spectrum antifungal agents. However, since toxicity and in vivo effects have not yet been sufficiently researched, we think it more likely that they will initially be used in human and veterinary medicine as antimycotics for topical application or as disinfectants for catheters, surgical materials, etc.

JM: conceived and designed the research, JM and GG: wrote the manuscript, analyzed and interpreted the data. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Hwang, I.

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2 thoughts on “Antifungal properties of colloidal silver

  1. Ja, ich verstehe Sie. Darin ist etwas auch mir scheint es der ausgezeichnete Gedanke. Ich bin mit Ihnen einverstanden.

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