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Quercetin and mood regulation

Quercetin and mood regulation

The protocol reulation approved by Quercetin and mood regulation Querceyin Ethics Moof of Tianjin Rgeulation of Traditional Chinese Weight management tools TCM-LAEC While improvements were at times small, it makes sense that antioxidants could boost physical performance since they Quercetin and mood regulation increase the health of modo vessels, which carry BMR and meal planning Quercetin and mood regulation nutrients to muscle and joint tissue. Association of serum interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein in childhood with depression and psychosis in young adult life: a population-based longitudinal study. Article PubMed Google Scholar Woodburn SC, Asrat HS, Flurer JK, Schwierling HC, Bollinger JL, Vollmer LL, Wohleb ES. Article CAS Google Scholar Alavian, F. Characterization is considered to be one of the critical steps in order to identify the physicochemical properties of the prepared nanoparticles Categorical variables were summarized using counts and proportions, and differences between groups were assessed using Fisher's exact test. Quercetin and mood regulation

Quercetin and mood regulation -

We examined whether quercetin affects anxiety- and depression-like behavior in aged wild-type mice Fig. First, we examined the EPM test for anxiety-like behavior Fig.

The two groups of mice moved similarly right graph in Fig. We found that the number of head dips from the open arms was significantly increased in mice that received the quercetin-rich chow diet compared to mice that received the control chow diet Fig.

Next, we used the FST. Global activity in the FST was not different between groups Fig. Since Bastioli et al. recently demonstrated that exercise enhances dopamine release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens NAc via BDNF [ 25 ], we examined the levels of dopamine and BDNF in the NAc of mice by ELISA Fig.

We did not observe a significant difference Fig. We also did not observe an intergroup difference in the BDNF context of the NAc Fig. More experiments are needed to explore the involvement of these molecules in anxiety- and depression-like behavior.

A-g Aged wild-type mice that were fed a quercetin-supplemented chow diet exhibited an increase in head dipping from the open arms of the EPM. a Experimental schedule.

b-d Representative trajectories of mice walking in the open and closed arms of the EPM b. h-i in vivo mouse brain imaging. The decay rates of pixels in the DNP-MRI brain scans were calculated and visualized as a redox map right panels in h.

T1WI: time 1—weighted imaging; T2WI: time 2—weighted imaging. Quercetin has antioxidant activity, producing beneficial effects in several diseases [ 26 ]. Interestingly, we found that redox activity, evaluated by the decay rate of the blood—brain barrier BBB -permeable probe MC-PROXYL [ 28 ], was significantly increased in the brains of mice that received the quercetin-rich chow diet compared with mice that received the control chow diet Fig.

We did not observe any change in brain morphology upon a regular anatomical analysis of the MR images. In this study, we found that subjects who took quercetin-rich onion powder wrote more adjectives and adverbs per sentence after onion intake than before on the MMSE language test compared to subjects who took placebo onion powder.

We also demonstrated that in mice that received the quercetin-rich chow diet, the number of head dips from the open arms was significantly increased in the elevated plus maze EPM and redox activity was significantly increased in the brain.

Quercetin, an abundant natural dietary flavonoid, is recognized as a promising neuroprotective compound that acts through several mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiproliferative, antiviral, and antioxidant effects [ 13 ].

However, the effect of quercetin-rich onion on the emotional condition of people living with cognitive impairment remains to be determined. Recently, it was shown that continuous intake of quercetin-rich onion suppresses cognitive decline in aged people by improving their emotional condition [ 18 ].

In the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we demonstrated that subjects with MCI or AD cognitive impairment wrote more adjectives and adverbs per sentence in the MMSE language test after a regimen of quercetin-rich onion intake than before intake.

However, a difference in regional cerebral blood flow on I-IMP SPECT was not observed between the quercetin-rich and placebo onion powder groups. Depression and anxiety overlap, and it has been hypothesized that neural dysregulation in depression may be mediated by the stress system hippocampus and hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal HPA axis and the reward system ventral tegmental area VTA -NAc pathway [ 29 , 30 ].

BDNF plays a critical role in depression and anxiety, and antidepressants exert their effects by activating BDNF-tropomyosin receptor kinase B TrkB signaling [ 30 ]. It has also been indicated that BDNF regulates exercise-induced dopamine release, underpinning the effects of exercise in dopamine-related mood disorders [ 25 ].

In our experiments, the number of head dips from the open arms of the EPM was significantly increased in mice that received the quercetin-rich chow diet Although we did not observe a difference in the concentrations of dopamine or BDNF between the NAcs of control and quercetin-supplemented mice, more experiments are needed to explore the role of quercetin in dopamine release and BDNF mRNA expression in light of two prior findings.

First, the levels of dopamine are increased by quercetin in the 1-methylphenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine MPTP -induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease PD [ 31 ]. Second, quercetin o -glucuronide Q3G , a major metabolite that accumulates in the brain and other tissues after oral administration of quercetin [ 32 ], increases BDNF mRNA expression in human embryonic neural stem cells NSCs [ 33 ].

I n vivo DNP-MRI measuring redox activity in the mouse brain showed that redox activity was significantly increased in the brain tissue of mice that received the quercetin-rich chow diet compared with mice that received the control chow diet.

BBB-permeable MC-PROXYL is a nitroxyl radical that acts biologically as a superoxide dismutase mimic, antioxidant, and spin probe; therefore, its decay rate indicates the redox status of the brain. A high concentration of reactive oxygen species ROS is suggested to mediate oxygen toxicity and thereby disrupt redox signaling, while a low concentration of ROS is reported to shift redox signaling toward cell growth and differentiation, for example, in stem cells [ 27 , 34 ].

Since redox status deteriorates during aging in humans [ 27 ], we demonstrated that quercetin may prevent deterioration of redox homeostasis. In the ER, ROS are produced from protein oxidation by ER oxidoreductin-1 ERO1 and NADPH oxidase NOX through disulfide bond generation catalyzed by protein disulfide isomerase PDI during protein folding [ 35 ].

The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER stimulates ER stress signaling to reduce the burden of misfolded proteins; however, persistent ER stress induces ROS production that leads to an imbalance in redox homeostasis [ 35 , 36 ], while an imbalance in redox homeostasis elicits ER stress [ [37] , [38] , [39] ], demonstrating that redox and ER stress control each other [ 40 ].

We assessed cognition and emotion in patients using the MMSE, HDS-R, and NPI-NH. Text analysis allows researchers to assess moods, emotions, and depression [ 41 ].

Early depression detection is important for interventions; for this purpose, Guohou S. et al. Developed automatic depression detection using machine learning [ 22 ].

In the category of verbal features, they listed several textual subcategories, including sentence count, word count, number of adjectives, number of adverbs, and sentiment of response, as useful variables for depression assessment.

Using text mining software, we found that subjects with cognitive impairment used more adjectives and adverbs per sentence after taking quercetin-rich onion powder than before taking the supplement.

The evidence and results suggested that quercetin may influence the emotional condition of people living with cognitive impairment, which it may accomplish by controlling ER stress and maintaining redox homeostasis, although more study is needed to explore the precise mechanism of action of quercetin.

In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we did not identify any effect of quercetin-rich onion intake on regional cerebral blood flow or measures of cognitive performance MMSE and HDS-R. However, on the MMSE language test, subjects who took quercetin-rich onion powder wrote more adjectives and adverbs per sentence after onion intake than before, whereas subjects who took low-quercetin placebo onion powder showed no such change.

Several limitations are worth noting. Subjects wrote sentences as part of the MMSE test in the consultation room at the hospital and all tests including MMSE, neurological, physical, and hematological examinations on the same day; however, MR and SPECT images were taken within one week.

Future research may clarify these concerns, and the effects of quercetin-rich onion on emotional condition may be assessed in subjects with MCI due to AD. Yuichi Hayashi: Performed the experiments; Analyzed and interpreted the data; Contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data; Wrote the paper.

Fuminori Hyodo, Tana, Kiyomi Nakagawa, Takuma Ishihara, Masayuki Matsuo, Takayoshi Shimohata: Performed the experiments; Analyzed and interpreted the data; Wrote the paper.

Toshiyuki Nakagawa: Conceived and designed the experiments; Performed the experiments; Analyzed and interpreted the data; Contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools or data; Wrote the paper. The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

The authors have no financial conflicts of interest to declare in regard to this study or the preparation of the manuscript. The authors are grateful to Dr. Okamoto Plant Breeding Institute Co. Contact us. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively.

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By using the site you are agreeing to this as outlined in our privacy notice and cookie policy. Hayashi Y 1 ,. Hyodo F 2 ,. Tana 3 ,. Nakagawa K 3 ,. Ishihara T 4 ,. Matsuo M 2 ,. Shimohata T 1 ,. Nishihira J 5 ,. Kobori M 6 ,. Nakagawa T 3. Affiliations 1. Department of Neurology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan.

Authors Hayashi Y 1 Shimohata T 1. Department of Radiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan.

Authors Hyodo F 2 Matsuo M 2. Department of Neurobiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan. Authors Tana 3 Nakagawa K 3 Nakagawa T 3.

Innovative and Clinical Research Promotion Center, Gifu University Hospital, Gifu, Japan. Authors Ishihara T 4. Department of Medical Management and Informatics, Hokkaido Information University, Hokkaido, Japan.

Authors Nishihira J 5. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Abstract Depression in later life is associated with dementia. Free full text.

Published online Jul PMCID: PMC PMID: Yuichi Hayashi , b, 1 Fuminori Hyodo , c, g Tana , a Kiyomi Nakagawa , a, h Takuma Ishihara , d Masayuki Matsuo , c Takayoshi Shimohata , b Jun Nishihira , e Masuko Kobori , f and Toshiyuki Nakagawa a,.

Yuichi Hayashi b Department of Neurology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan Find articles by Yuichi Hayashi. Fuminori Hyodo c Department of Radiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan g Institute for Advanced Study Gifu University, Gifu, Japan Find articles by Fuminori Hyodo.

Tana a Department of Neurobiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan Find articles by Tana. Kiyomi Nakagawa a Department of Neurobiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan h Department of Nursing, University of Tokyo Health Science, Tokyo, Japan Find articles by Kiyomi Nakagawa.

Takuma Ishihara d Innovative and Clinical Research Promotion Center, Gifu University Hospital, Gifu, Japan Find articles by Takuma Ishihara. Masayuki Matsuo c Department of Radiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan Find articles by Masayuki Matsuo.

Takayoshi Shimohata b Department of Neurology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan Find articles by Takayoshi Shimohata. Jun Nishihira e Department of Medical Management and Informatics, Hokkaido Information University, Hokkaido, Japan Find articles by Jun Nishihira.

Masuko Kobori f Institute of Food Research, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Ibaraki, Japan Find articles by Masuko Kobori.

Toshiyuki Nakagawa a Department of Neurobiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan Find articles by Toshiyuki Nakagawa. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

a Department of Neurobiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan. b Department of Neurology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan. c Department of Radiology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu, Japan. g Institute for Advanced Study Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.

h Department of Nursing, University of Tokyo Health Science, Tokyo, Japan. Toshiyuki Nakagawa: pj. Corresponding author. Received May 3; Revised Jul 12; Accepted Jul Copyright © The Authors.

Go to:. docx 18K. docx 17K. Keywords: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Mild cognitive impairment, Depression, Redox. Human clinical trial 2. Human patients Thirteen AD patients and six MCI patients aged Experimental design for clinical trial Patients were diagnosed with AD and MCI according to diagnostic guidelines for AD [ 19 ].

Open in a separate window. Animal study 2. Experimental design for animal study Mice were randomly divided into two groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA Dopamine release was measured with a Dopamine Research ELISA ImmuSmol, Bordeaux, France.

Sample size In a previous pilot study conducted by Nakagawa et al. Ethics and institutional review board statement We obtained informed consent from all participants by written consent form.

Human clinical trial 3. Subjects were clinically diagnosed with MCI or AD and enrolled in the clinical study A total of 19 subjects were included based on feasibility and randomly assigned: 9 to the placebo onion powder group and 10 to the quercetin-rich onion powder group.

Table 1 Characterization of subjects. b Statistical tests performed: Wilcoxon rank sum test. Changes in MMSE, HDS-R, and NPI scores in the two groups To evaluate the effect of the treatment on cognitive function, emotion, and mood, we administered MMSE, HDS-R, and NPI tests before and after the regimen of onion powder intake.

Table 2 Changes in MMSE, HDS-R, and NPI scores. Protein expression of the glutamatergic system was demonstrated in Fig.

These results presented that chronic stress significantly reduced the GRIA3 the receptor of AMPA protein content and increased the GRIN2B the receptor of NMDA protein content in the hippocampus of rats. Moreover, BDNF-Quercetin nanogels regulated the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway by improving the abnormal expression of BDNF, TrkB, GSK3β, and p-mTOR after CUMS Fig.

These results showed that exogenously supplemented BDNF might bind to its receptor TrkB and further activate the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, thereby regulating the expression of abnormal GSK3β and p-mTOR proteins.

In summary, the protective effects of quercetin nanogels on BDNF were achieved by antioxidant activities associated with oxidative phosphorylation.

By integrating omics prediction and protein expression verification, the results showed that BDNF-Quercetin nanogels exerted antidepressant effects on CUMS rats by modulating the glutamatergic system and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

Antidepressant mechanism of BDNF-Quercetin nanogels in the thermosensitive gel on the CUMS rats. a Volcano map. b GO enrichment analysis. c KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of BDNF-quercetin nanogels vs.

CUMS model. d Partial least squares-discriminant analysis PLS-DA. e VIP analysis. f Major metabolic pathways that BDNF-Quercetin nanogels improve CUMS rats. g-h Expression of GRIA3, BDNF, TrkB, P-mTOR, GRIN2B, and GSK3β in the hippocampus of rats.

In conclusion, quercetin nanogels were successfully prepared and characterized. Quercetin nanogels showed protective effects against protein damage, exhibited antioxidant activities without affecting cell viability, proliferation, and immune response, and increased in vitro inflammatory cytokine levels.

The intranasally administered quercetin nanogels rapidly distributed in the brain within 30 min and improved the bioavailability of quercetin nearly fold at a lower dose. The BDNF-quercetin nanogels in the thermosensitive gel exhibited excellent thermosensitivity and co-delivered quercetin and BDNF slowly and sustainably.

As a protein drug carrier, quercetin nanogels exerted antidepressant effects on reserpine-induced rats and alleviated the depletion of monoamine neurotransmitters. BDNF-quercetin nanogels effectively reversed despair behavior in mice, alleviated weight loss and anhedonia in rats, ameliorated dramatic pyramidal cell damage in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions and inflammatory cytokine levels, and ameliorated CUMS-induced cell apoptosis and proliferation in rat hippocampus.

Further omics analysis and protein verification revealed that the treatment of BDNF-Quercetin nanogels on depressive disorder was mainly related to the glutamatergic system, PI3K-Akt, and BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway.

These results showed that the brain delivery of BDNF- Quercetin nanogels via intranasal administration has a significant potential for the combination treatment of depressive disorder. Chemicals and Materials and animals are described in Additional file 1 : S1 Chemicals and Materials and S2 Animals, respectively.

BDNF-Quercetin nanogels were prepared using the previous study with slight modifications [ 49 ]. Preparation and characterization of BDNF-Quercetin nanogels are described in Additional file 1 : S3 Preparation and characterization of BDNF-Quercetin nanogels.

In vitro release of quercetin nanogels was investigated in 0. In vitro release of BDNF-Quercetin nanogels was investigated in 0. Quercetin nanogels and BDNF-Quercetin nanogels were placed in a dialysis bag molecular weight of 10, and suspended in 40 mL of release medium at 34 °C on a shaker at 50 rpm.

Each release sample was taken at appropriate intervals and added by fresh release medium. The analysis was conducted three times for each batch. Antioxidant activities of quercetin nanogels : The protective effects of quercetin on protein were determined using the method of Coomassie brilliant blue.

The methods are described in the Additional file 1 : S4 Antioxidant activities of quercetin nanogels. BDNF-Quercetin nanogels in the thermosensitive gel were obtained using two steps.

One step was that BDNF-Quercetin nanogels were dissolved in normal saline at room temperature, cooling to 4 °C. The gelation temperature was observed through changes in the modulus [ 50 ]. In vitro release of BDNF-Quercetin nanogels in the thermosensitive gel was explored using PBS to mimic intranasal release behavior.

Each release sample was taken at appropriate intervals and added to fresh PBS. The residual weight was weighed and compared with the initial weight to calculate the weight loss rate. Each batch was analyzed in triplicate. RAW Cell biology evaluation and immune response were performed in Additional file 1 : S5 Cell biology evaluation and immune response.

For brain distribution studies, the Sprague-Dawley SD rats, intranasally administered to RBITC-labeled quercetin nanogels in the thermosensitive gel, were investigated after being sacrificed for 0.

In a pharmacokinetic study, SD rats were randomly divided into intranasal quercetin nanogels in the thermosensitive gel and oral administration quercetin solution at the dose of 0. The hippocampi were collected, detected, and analyzed as described in Additional file 1 : S6 Pharmacokinetic study.

Open field test OFT , forced swim test FST , tail suspension test TST , and reserpine-induced depression model are described in Additional file 1 : S7 Open field test OFT and forced swim test FST , tail suspension test TST , and reserpine-induced depression model.

The chronic unpredictable mild stress CUMS model was used to investigate the antidepressant effect of BDNF-Quercetin nanogels in the thermosensitive gel and its mechanism. The protocol was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine TCME The experiments are reported by the Animal Research: Reporting in Vivo Experiments ARRIVE guidelines.

The SD rats were divided into control and CUMS groups treated with drugs. CUMS involved exposure to various mild stressors. After administration, the locomotor activity was evaluated by the OFT, consisting of the number of rearings and total distance.

The rat heparinized plasma was collected by centrifugation at × g for 10 min after the behavioral despair test. The inflammatory levels TNF-α and IL-6 and HPA axis function CRH, ACTH, corticosterone, and testosterone were measured by ELISA Assay Kit.

The CA1 and CA3 regions in the hippocampus were observed and photographed by a light microscope OLYMPUS, Japan. At the same time, the mRNA expression of the apoptosis gene was performed in a Bio-Rad C Bio-Rad, Pleasanton, CA, USA. The real-time RT-PCR primers of GAPDH, Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-xL were demonstrated in Table S3.

To measure pyramidal neuron proliferation in the hippocampus, the slides were incubated with an anti-MKI67 polyclonal antibody overnight at 4 °C, then a secondary antibody anti-rabbit IgG.

The number of positive cells was counted using a Nikon Eclipse Ti-U inverted fluorescent microscope Nikon, Japan. The antidepressant mechanism of BDNF-Quercetin nanogels was explored by combining RNA sequencing, metabolomic analysis, and Western blot analysis. Transcriptome sequencing was accomplished by Beijing Novogene Technology Co.

Ltd, as presented in Additional file 1 : S8 The procedure of RNA sequencing. Metabolite levels in the hippocampal tissues were determined using our previous methods in Additional file 1 : S9 Determination of hippocampal tissues in metabolite levels.

The protein expressions of GRIA3, GRIN2B, BDNF, TrkB, GSK3β, and p-mTOR were determined by western blotting according to Additional file 1 : S10 Western blotting detection.

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Haapakoski R, Mathieu J, Ebmeier KP, Alenius H, Kivimäki M. Cut-off blood flow in the arteries is one of the primary risk factors for experiencing a heart attack or stroke, which is why cardiac arrest is less likely among people who eat a nutrient-packed diet. Certain studies show that quercetin prevents damage to LDL cholesterol particles, and it seems that people who eat the most flavonoid-rich foods typically have healthier and lower cholesterol levels , plus fewer incidences of hypertension and high blood pressure.

Taking quercetin supplements may help lower pain associated with autoimmune conditions such as arthritis, as well as infections, including those of the prostate and respiratory tract.

Flavonoids are also linked to reduced symptoms of prostatitis inflammation of the prostate and rheumatoid arthritis RA.

While improvements were at times small, it makes sense that antioxidants could boost physical performance since they help increase the health of blood vessels, which carry oxygen and nutrients to muscle and joint tissue.

Other studies also show that it helps increase immune function and prevents susceptibility to illnesses that can occur when someone trains intensely and experiences exhaustion. One study found evidence that taking milligrams of quercetin twice daily helped protect cyclists from developing exercise-induced respiratory infections following periods of heavy exercise.

Because it can boost your energy level, does quercetin affect sleep? For example, is there a link between quercetin and insomnia?

One study found evidence that it may alter the sleep-wake cycle partly through activation of GABA gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. However, insomnia is generally not believed to be a common side effect of taking it in dietary supplement form. A Boston University School of Medicine study published in the Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents shows a link between a nutrient-dense diet rich in quercetin plus other antioxidants and a lowered risk of cancer.

Quercetin seems to have potential chemo-preventive activity and might have a unique antiproliferative effect on cancerous cells, making it an effective addition to any natural cancer treatment approach.

Research shows that this may result from the modulation of either EGFR or estrogen-receptor pathways. Other studies have found quercetin can help stop the processes involved in cell proliferation and mutation, the growth of tumors, and symptoms related to typical cancer treatments, such as radiation or chemotherapy.

This is especially true when taken in high doses above the amount someone would get from a healthy diet. Studies have found that this compound has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that help fight allergic and inflammatory diseases, as well as some prescriptions, when taken in oral supplement form.

For example, some people take quercetin for eczema since it can inhibit the secretion of histamine and pro-inflammatory markers. Research has shown that this antioxidant has protective effects when administered to rats with ethanol-induced acute liver injury. A study found evidence indicating that quercetin attenuates liver inflammation and fibrosis in mice through inhibiting macrophages infiltration.

What foods have the most quercetin? All types of tasty red, green and purple-pigmented plants come packed with quercetin — for example, red wine, blueberries, apples, red onion and even green tea are some of the best sources. Quercetin is actually believed to be the most abundant flavonoid in the human diet.

Some of the most common types of dietary supplements include: quercetin 3, quercetin 3 glucoside, quercetin aglycone, isoquercetin, quercetin 7 rutinoside, and quercetin 3 0 rhamnoside.

Some quercetin supplements are also labeled as quercetin dihydrate, which is mostly insoluble in water and may not be absorbed as well as other kinds. Quercetin supplements are available in all types of pills or capsules and are commonly used in formulas along with other anti-inflammatory ingredients.

For example, quercetin with bromelain an anti-inflammatory enzyme found in pineapples may be taken to help manage allergies. What are side effects of quercetin?

Methamphetamine MA Collagen production results Querceton neurotoxic outcomes, including Quercetin and mood regulation anxiety and depression. Studies have reported an reguation between MA Quercetin and mood regulation regultaion anxiety, nonetheless, regylation Quercetin and mood regulation mechanism remains elusive. In the mkod study, we developed a Fitness nutrition truth model of anxiety-like behavior induced by MA administration. RNA-seq was then performed to profile the gene expression patterns of hippocampus HIPPand the differentially expressed genes DEGs were significantly enriched in signaling pathways related to psychiatric disorders and mitochondrial function. Based on these, mitochondria was hypothesized to be involved in MA-induced anxiety. Quercetin, as a mitochondrial protector, was used to investigate whether to be a potential treatment for MA-induced anxiety; accordingly, it alleviated anxiety-like behavior and improved mitochondrial impairment in vivo. Quercetin belongs to a group of plant Quercetin and mood regulation called flavonoids that give many Quercetib, flowers, and Circadian rhythm melatonin their colors. Quercetin and mood regulation, such as quercetin, are Querceton. They scavenge particles in the body known as free radicals which damage cell membranes, tamper with DNA, and even cause cell death. Antioxidants can neutralize free radicals. They may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage free radicals cause. In test tubes, quercetin has strong antioxidant properties.

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