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Endurance nutrition for long-distance events

Endurance nutrition for long-distance events

Metab Clin Exp. However, consuming too few calories Endutance training increases your risk of getting stress fractures and soft tissue injuries. Winter Feet December 3, Rob Rinaldi DPM 0.

Endurance nutrition for long-distance events -

Here are a few highlights that stuck with me:. Elite marathoners, she pointed out, get about 85 percent of their in-race energy from carbohydrates, with most of that coming from glycogen stored in the muscles and the remainder from glucose in the bloodstream. To keep those carb reservoirs fully stocked, she shared some specific carbohydrate intake goals she uses with elite runners for various distances:.

Yes, this message surprised me—but read on to see what she meant. One of the big trends in sports nutrition over the past decade has been the idea that, instead of just eating the same things every day, you should adjust your intake to match your expenditures.

Olympic Committee that offers visual guidance for how you might eat during periods of light, moderate, and heavy training. You can see the three plates here. On the easy training plate, vegetables and fruits take up half the plate. Grains and fats are good options, along with subtler tweaks.

For example, the easy training plate includes only fresh fruit; the moderate and hard plates add stewed and dried fruits. In practice, that means cutting way back on fiber for a few days. Researchers at Liverpool John Moores University in Britain tested this approach in a study published earlier this year.

Second, consuming only one item for hours on end while suffering mentally and physically is a recipe for flavor fatigue — where you achieve such a distaste for nourishment that your exhausted, exercise-addled brain actively prevents you from eating or drinking.

By mixing liquids and solids, you stand a better chance of avoiding flavor fatigue and maintaining your appetite. Anything that tastes good and consists primarily of carbs will probably work. You want to absorb those sugars fast, so high-glycemic foods i.

Some of my go-tos include bananas, melon, other low-fiber fruit, and mini-pretzels. Three to four hours into an especially hard event, I also take great pleasure in an eight-ounce can of Coke. Hooray for carbs and caffeine!

But if your event is going to be consistently grueling or jarring on your system — triathlons and marathons come to mind — gels and chews are both easy-digesting feeding options. Again, make sure to read the ingredients to verify the sugar sources.

So make a point of being fully fed and hydrated before you start your race and focus on fueling the moment you hit terra firma. Have a full bottle either by your bike or in your transition bag to sip as best you can as you change.

If you can chomp a chew or two during transition without slowing down, great. Otherwise, make a point of feeding during the first few miles on your bike. Treat this transitional fueling like any other part of your training.

While protein is instrumental post-event, it should play very little part in during-event feeding. Your goal is to restore glycogen as fast as humanly possible, and protein slows absorption.

The exception is a multi-stage race. The amount of fluid you need to drink before, during, and after a run depends on how long you will be running and your sweat rate. During a run, runners should drink 4 to 6 ounces of fluid every 20 minutes. For runners who run faster than 8-minute miles, 6 to 8 ounces of water every 20 minutes is recommended.

During long runs of 90 minutes or more, drink 5 to 10 ounces of fluid every 15 to 20 minutes. There are a number of sports gels, chews, and protein bars marketed to runners that claim to provide the fuel you need to power through long runs.

Although some provide a good source of quick and convenient energy for long runs, there is no strong evidence to prove that supplements improve health or athletic performance. However, during long-distance runs your stored glycogen levels will get depleted.

Your body will need some quick burning fuel to get you through to the finish line. Many marathon and half-marathon runners run with packaged supplements such as gels, chews, and bars stuffed into their running belts.

After about 60 minutes of running, you need to replenish lost calories with simple sugars. In addition to quick-burning sugars, these products may contain caffeine, vitamins, antioxidants, and electrolytes.

A good energy gel should contain two different forms of carbohydrates such as glucose and fructose for quicker absorption and also offer some sodium to replenish your electrolytes.

Some energy gels will also provide caffeine to help push you through remaining miles. If you are worried about gastrointestinal issues, you may want to alternate between caffeinated and non-caffeinated gels throughout your run.

Most energy chews or blocks resemble candy in some way as they are often chewy, sweet, and fruit-flavored. You will find many vitamins, antioxidants, and amino acids packed into a small fruit chew to help your body rebuild muscle tissue while giving you quick energy.

Chews come in both caffeinated and non-caffeinated versions. There are many different types of bars out in the market. Protein bars will help to deliver protein to your muscles with upwards of 20 grams of protein per bar.

An energy bar will have a higher carbohydrate content than a protein bar. A good energy bar will provide a good ratio of carbs to protein aim for a or ratio. Recovery bars are designed to contain carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, and antioxidants to help your body recover from a long run and stave off muscle cramps.

Aside from the types of foods you eat, it is also very important to know that nutrient timing can play a role in optimizing your running performance. Since our carb stores are limited and carbohydrates are the primary fuel burned during physical activity, ideally, you want to eat foods that are rich in carbs and moderate to low in protein and fat in the weeks before an event.

Many runners prefer to increase their daily carb intake in the days before an event, which is known as carb-loading. When carb-loading, your total calorie intake should stay roughly the same. This means you will need to slowly increase the percentage of carbs in your diet, maintain the same percentage of proteins, and very slightly lower your percentage of fats.

Be cautious and remember that carb-loading doesn't mean stuffing yourself full of pasta the night before a race. Focus on carb-loading with the inclusion of the following foods:. For breakfast before your long run or race, focus on getting mostly carbs and some protein.

Pick foods that are easily digestible. Some examples of good pre-long run fuel include:. Consuming a high-carb snack or energy gel around 15 minutes prior to the start of your race will act as a fast-acting source of energy during the beginning stretch.

When you begin the run, you shouldn't be starving, but you also shouldn't feel heavy and stuffed. You don't want to eat a meal immediately before running because it could lead to cramping or annoying side stitches. An energy gel or chew can give you a boost to keep you from running on an empty stomach , which can cause you to run out of energy and leave you feeling fatigued.

During a race, take in enough carbs and fluids to fuel your run, but don't overdo it. Filling up or drinking too much can lead to stomach upset and impair your performance. You shouldn't deviate from the eating patterns you followed during training. Some runners even opt for high-sugar snacks like gummy bears or other small candies.

But you're not limited to processed products. Some mid-run whole food choices include:. The goal is to opt for foods that have carbs with a high glycemic index but are small and light to carry.

You will also want to maintain hydration levels by drinking 5 to 10 ounces of fluid every 15 to 20 minutes during your long run. What you choose to eat after a run depends on your personal training goals, but after a long run or race, your aim should be to replace lost fluids and restore glycogen levels.

Immediately following a long training run or race, eat a to calorie snack to aid recovery and allow you to start stocking up on stored carbohydrate for the next run. Good choices include:. Within two hours after a race or long run, aim to eat foods high in carbohydrates and protein.

Look for a ratio to replenish glycogen stores and rebuild muscles. If possible, make a high protein smoothie with a variety of fruit and your favorite protein powder. You may opt for lower-calorie choices if you are trying to lose weight, or focus on higher-protein choices if you are trying to build muscle.

Heading out long-distsnce door? Read this Fluid balance assessment on the Outside app available now Endurancf iOS devices for members! Both EGCG and caffeine have valuable perspectives, but Fluid balance assessment find Encurance the best advice comes from those who manage to straddle both sides of the divide. On that note, I attended a presentation by Jennifer Sygo at a recent conference in Toronto. Sygo currently serves as a dietitian for the Canadian track and field and gymnastics teams, as well as the Toronto Raptors basketball team. Here are a few highlights that stuck with me:. Endurance nutrition for long-distance events

Endurance nutrition for long-distance events -

Vitamin C is perhaps best known for boosting immunity. But it also serves other important purposes. One is that it is an antioxidant, protecting the cells against free radical damage.

Another is that it supports wound healing. According to a study , vitamin C also helps athletes recover during the competitive season 2. Citrus fruits and potatoes are high in vitamin C.

So are peppers, broccoli, strawberries, and kiwi. Vitamin D is important for bone health. Weak bones mean more fractures and breaks. A study also ties adequate vitamin D levels with improved athletic performance 3.

Taking a cod liver oil supplement is one way to get more of this nutrient. Orange juice and dairy are also high in vitamin D. We lose water throughout the day. It escapes our body through normal respiration, sweating, and urinary output. When we exercise, we lose more.

Staying hydrated is more than about satisfying thirst. The top reasons for proper hydration, which are especially important for clients taking on endurance events, include:. Endurance athletes need to watch their hydration throughout the day, especially during workouts.

Water intake guidelines are provided by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 4. Current guidelines are 2. This includes water consumed both from beverages and food. When your client is taking part in endurance activity, they need to up their intake.

Here are some recommendations to follow:. After endurance exercise: 24 ounces for every pound of body weight lost. In addition to water loss through sweating, we also lose electrolytes. When we sweat, we lose sodium, chloride potassium, magnesium, and calcium.

These electrolytes serve important roles in supporting bodily systems. There are many electrolyte drinks on the market. These can help replace lost nutrients. Many exist in the form of a sports drink. The problem is that these drinks can also be high in sugar and calories.

One of the best ways to replenish electrolytes after a long endurance training session is by eating whole foods. Here are a few options to consider:. Potassium - banana, sweet potato, dried fruits, avocado, kale, peas, beans.

Magnesium - whole grains, leafy vegetables, nuts, lentils, peanut butter. Achieving peak performance requires having nutrients available when you need them. This can be accomplished by developing a nutrient intake plan.

And this plan should provide nutrient timing guidelines. Timing the intake of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and water is essential to endurance success. It involves laying out what to consume before, during, and after endurance training and endurance events. Consume 20 ounces of water 2 hours before the start of endurance training.

Carbohydrate loading should only occur leading up to an endurance event. Consume 1. Consume 15 to 25 grams of protein within the first 30 minutes post-exercise. Nutrition for endurance involves a lot. But when endurance athletes pay attention to the recommendations and figure out what methods work best for them, the outcome is improved athletic performance.

This can translate to higher awards come race day. Whether you are an elite athlete, a weekend warrior, or a personal trainer designing programs for athletes, it is important to fuel the body properly. Proper nutrients at the right time allow the body to perform at its highest level.

Want to learn more about nutrition and its impact on sports performance? Check out the ISSA Nutritionist Certification and join a network of experts in sports nutrition.

By becoming an ISSA Nutritionist, you'll learn the foundations of how food fuels the body, plus step by step methods for implementing a healthy eating plan into clients' lifestyles.

Healthy Fat foods for your diet. Heaton, L. During extreme effort, the human body can burn to 1, calories per hour. This process can happen concurrently to glucose absorption, so if you consume a mix of the two, you should be able to absorb more carbs overall — 90 grams an hour. Start with an amount that works for you, and then slowly increase your intake.

Just remember to experiment during training, not during races. The science behind event feeding is surprisingly vague, but the science behind event hydration is relatively solid, so by pinning that down, you can simplify the feeding part.

The amount of your fluid intake should vary depending on your sweat rate, which, according to the American College of Sports Medicine, can range from 8 to 67 ounces per hour during an event. Finding your perfect hydration level can take some time, but cyclists typically start with about 24 ounces an hour.

You may be tempted to fill that bottle with a sugar-laden sport drink so that you can get your feeding and hydrating out of the way at the same time. Such solutions tend to absorb more efficiently and effectively. A good sports drink will offer carbs as a combination of fructose and glucose.

Second, consuming only one item for hours on end while suffering mentally and physically is a recipe for flavor fatigue — where you achieve such a distaste for nourishment that your exhausted, exercise-addled brain actively prevents you from eating or drinking.

By mixing liquids and solids, you stand a better chance of avoiding flavor fatigue and maintaining your appetite. Anything that tastes good and consists primarily of carbs will probably work.

You want to absorb those sugars fast, so high-glycemic foods i. Some of my go-tos include bananas, melon, other low-fiber fruit, and mini-pretzels. Three to four hours into an especially hard event, I also take great pleasure in an eight-ounce can of Coke.

Hooray for carbs and caffeine! Pre-Race: Athletes vulnerable to muscle cramping and fatigue as well as those competing in heat may benefit from increasing salt intake in the few days leading up to race day. Many of the carbo-loading options, such as pretzels, sports drinks, breads, and cereals, accommodate this.

Similarly, on race morning, choosing saltier carbohydrate sources, such as a salt bagel, and sipping on a sports drink rather than plain water may help. Salt loading is not recommended for athletes on blood pressure medications.

During Race: Aim for mg of sodium per standard bike bottle of water consumed ounces as well as smaller amounts of potassium, magnesium, and calcium. Note that too much sodium can lead to bloating and GI discomfort so be sure to account for all your sources, including sports drinks mg per 8 oz , energy gels mg per packet and chews mg per 3 pieces , salt packets ~ mg per packet , and electrolyte capsules ~ mg per capsule.

Post-Race: Sipping on a sports drink, rather than plain water, post-race will facilitate optimal rehydration of muscles, including replacement of lost electrolytes. Because water serves as the medium for all metabolic activity, helps to lubricate our muscles and joints, and also keeps our core body temperature in check, failure to take in enough fluids during a long run can have a dramatic negative impact on both health and performance.

Therefore, determination of sweat rate and consequent fluid demands is extremely important for athletes. Daily: Drink half your body weight in pounds in fluid ounces or so urine runs pale yellow during the day.

For example, a lb man requires approximately 75 ounces of fluid daily. Unfortunately, this level of dehydration can have significant negative consequences on performance so be sure to sip on ounces of fluid in the hours leading up to race start or so that urine runs pale yellow.

During-Race: Aim for ½-1 liter or approximately 1 standard bike bottle ~ ounces per hour or so that urine runs pale yellow. It is important to note that over-hydration, also known as hyponatremia, can be just as dangerous as dehydration and is generally caused by consuming fluids, especially water, beyond that of what the body can absorb.

Cardinal symptoms of over- hydration include clear urine, pressure headaches, nausea, vomiting, and confusion. To monitor hydration status, weigh in pre- and post-workout. It is estimated that one needs approximately 20 ounces of fluid to replenish 1-lb of body weight.

Long-distqnce details. Nutritoin paper examines the various nutritional challenges Refillable notebook athletes encounter in preparing for and participating ofr ultra-endurance walking and running events. It outlines, by way Endurance nutrition for long-distance events a Probiotics and brain function of Endurance nutrition for long-distance events, Enduracne factors which promote optimal performance for the ultra-endurance athlete and provides recommendations from multiple researchers concerned with the nutrition and performance of ultra-endurance athletes. Despite the availability of some research about the subject, there is a paucity of longitudinal material which examines athletes by nature and type of ultra-endurance event, gender, age, race, and unique physiological characteristics. Optimal nutrition results in a decreased risk of energy depletion, better performance, and quicker full-recovery.

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