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L-carnitine and overall wellness

L-carnitine and overall wellness

J Peripher Nerv Wellnesss. Hopefully, you now L-carnitine and overall wellness a better L-acrnitine of the numerous health benefits L-carnitine can offer you. You can find it in foods, liquids, powders, and even injections. References 1. L-carnitine and overall wellness

L-carnitine and overall wellness -

L-Carnitine is required for mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids for energy production 1. Long-chain fatty acids must be esterified to L-carnitine acylcarnitine in order to enter the mitochondrial matrix where β-oxidation occurs Figure 3.

This reaction is a rate-controlling step for the β-oxidation of fatty acid A transport protein called CACT carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase facilitates the transport of acylcarnitine across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

On the inner mitochondrial membrane, CPTII carnitine-palmitoyl transferase II catalyzes the transfer of fatty acids from L-carnitine to free CoA.

Fatty acyl-CoA is then metabolized through β-oxidation in the mitochondrial matrix, ultimately yielding propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA 6. Carnitine is eventually recycled back to the cytosol Figure 3. Free nonesterified CoA is required as a cofactor for numerous cellular reactions.

The flux through pathways that require nonesterified CoA, such as the oxidation of glucose , may be reduced if all the CoA available in a given cell compartment is esterified.

Carnitine can increase the availability of nonesterified CoA for these other metabolic pathways 6. Within the mitochondrial matrix, CAT carnitine acetyl transferase catalyzes the transesterification of short- and medium-chain fatty acids from CoA to carnitine Figure 3.

The resulting acylcarnitine esters e. Free nonesterified CoA can then participate in other reactions, such as the generation of acetyl-CoA from pyruvate in a reaction catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase Acetyl-CoA can then be oxidized to produce energy ATP in the citric acid cycle.

In addition to its importance for energy production, L-carnitine was shown to display direct antioxidant properties in vitro Age-related declines in mitochondrial function and increases in mitochondrial oxidant production are thought to be important contributors to the adverse effects of aging.

Tissue L-carnitine concentrations have been found to decline with age in humans and animals The expression of most proteins involved in the transport of carnitine OCTN2 and the acylcarnitine shuttling system across the mitochondrial membrane CPTIa, CPTII, and CAT; Figure 3 was also found to be much lower in the white blood cells of healthy older adults than of younger adults Preclinical studies in rodents showed that supplementation with high doses of acetyl-L-carnitine ALCAR; Figure 1 reversed a number of age-related changes in liver mitochondrial function yet increased liver mitochondrial oxidant production ALCAR supplementation in rats has also been found to improve or reverse age-related mitochondrial declines in skeletal and cardiac muscular function 19, Co-supplementation of aged rats with L-carnitine and α-lipoic acid blunted age-related increases in reactive oxygen species ROS , lipid peroxidation , protein carbonylation, and DNA strand breaks in a variety of tissues heart, skeletal muscle, and brain Co-supplementation for three months improved both the number of total and intact mitochondria and mitochondrial ultrastructure of neurons in the hippocampus Although ALCAR exerts antioxidant activities in rodents, it is not known whether taking high doses of ALCAR will have similar effects in humans.

Nutritional carnitine deficiencies have not been identified in healthy people without metabolic disorders, suggesting that most people can synthesize enough L-carnitine 1.

Even strict vegetarians vegans show no signs of carnitine deficiency, despite the fact that most dietary carnitine is derived from animal sources 9.

Infants, particularly premature infants, are born with low stores of L-carnitine, which could put them at risk of deficiency given their rapid rate of growth. One study reported that infants fed carnitine-free, soy-based formulas grew normally and showed no signs of a clinically relevant carnitine deficiency; however, some biochemical measures related to lipid metabolism differed significantly from infants fed the same formula supplemented with L-carnitine Soy-based infant formulas are now fortified with the amount of L-carnitine normally found in human milk Low carnitine status is generally due to impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism or to carnitine not being efficiently reabsorbed by the kidneys.

The rate of carnitine excretion is not a useful indicator of carnitine status because it can vary with dietary carnitine intake and other physiologic parameters. At present, there is no test that assesses functional carnitine deficiency in humans 6.

Primary systemic carnitine deficiency is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations including deletions in the SLC22A5 gene coding for carnitine transporter protein OCTN2 organic cation transporter novel 2 Individuals with defective carnitine transport have poor intestinal absorption of dietary L-carnitine, impaired L-carnitine reabsorption by the kidneys i.

The clinical presentation can vary widely depending on the type of mutation affecting SLC22A5 and the phenotypic manifestation of the mutation, i. The disorder usually presents in early childhood and is characterized by episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia that can cause encephalopathy , hepatomegaly , elevated liver enzymes transaminases , and hypoammonemia in infants; progressive cardiomyopathy , elevated creatine kinase, and skeletal myopathy in childhood; or fatigability in adulthood 34, The metabolic and myopathic symptoms in infants and children can be fatal such that treatment should start promptly to prevent irreversible organ damage The diagnosis is established by demonstrating abnormally low plasma free carnitine concentrations, reduced carnitine transport of fibroblasts from skin biopsy, and molecular analysis of the gene coding for OCTN2 33, Treatment consists of pharmacological doses of L-carnitine that are meant to maintain a normal blood carnitine concentration, thereby preventing the risk of hypoglycemia and correcting metabolic and myopathic manifestations Secondary carnitine deficiency or depletion may result from either genetic or acquired conditions.

Hereditary causes include genetic defects in the metabolism of amino acids , cholesterol , and fatty acids , such as propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency aka propionic acidemia and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Such inherited disorders lead to a buildup of organic acids, which are subsequently removed from the body via urinary excretion of acylcarnitine esters.

Increased urinary losses of carnitine can lead to the systemic depletion of carnitine 6. Systemic carnitine depletion can also occur in disorders of impaired renal reabsorption. For instance, Fanconi's syndrome is a hereditary or acquired condition in which the proximal tubular reabsorption function of the kidneys is impaired This malfunction consequently results in increased urinary losses of carnitine.

Patients with renal disease who undergo hemodialysis are at risk for secondary carnitine deficiency because hemodialysis removes carnitine from the blood see End-stage renal disease One example of an exclusively acquired carnitine deficiency involves chronic use of pivalate-conjugated antibiotics.

Pivalate is a branched-chain fatty acid anion that is metabolized to form an acyl-CoA ester, which is transesterified to carnitine and subsequently excreted in the urine as pivaloyl carnitine. Urinary losses of carnitine via this route can be fold greater than the sum of daily carnitine intake and biosynthesis and lead to systemic carnitine depletion see Drug interactions Finally, a number of inherited mutations in genes involved in carnitine shuttling and fatty acid oxidation pathways do not systematically result in carnitine depletion such that carnitine supplementation may not help mitigate the symptoms but lead to abnormal profiles of acylcarnitine esters in blood 35 , Endogenous biosynthesis of L-carnitine is catalyzed by the concerted action of four different enzymes see Metabolism and Bioavailability Figure 2.

One of the earliest symptoms of vitamin C deficiency is fatigue, thought to be related to decreased synthesis of L-carnitine In most studies discussed below, it is important to note that treatment with L-carnitine or acyl-L-carnitine esters i.

Only a fraction of the dose is thought to enter the endogenous carnitine pool — largely found in skeletal muscle reviewed in 8. Several small clinical trials have explored whether supplemental L-carnitine could improve glucose tolerance in people with impaired glucose metabolism.

A potential benefit of L-carnitine in these patients is based on the fact that it can i increase the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids which accumulation may contribute to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and ii enhance glucose utilization by reducing acyl-CoA concentration within the mitochondrial matrix see Biological Activities A meta-analysis of five trials in participants with either impaired fasting glucose, type 2 diabetes mellitus , or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis found evidence of an improvement in insulin resistance with supplemental L-carnitine compared to placebo Another meta-analysis of four randomized , placebo-controlled trials found evidence of a reduction in fasting plasma glucose concentration and no improvement of glycated hemoglobin concentration in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus supplemented with acetyl-L-carnitine ALCAR A third meta-analysis of 16 trials suggested that supplementation with acyl -L-carnitine may reduce fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations, but not resistance to insulin In a recent double-blind , randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the effect of ALCAR was examined in participants treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension , and dyslipidemia In the studies discussed below it is important to note that treatment with L-carnitine or propionyl-L-carnitine was used as an adjunct in addition to appropriate medical therapy, not in place of it.

Myocardial infarction MI occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery ruptures and obstructs the blood supply to the heart muscle, causing injury or damage to the heart see the page on Heart Attack. Several clinical trials have explored whether L-carnitine administration immediately after MI diagnosis could reduce injury to heart muscle resulting from ischemia and improve clinical outcomes.

However, not all clinical trials have found L-carnitine supplementation to be beneficial after MI. This has not been examined in subgroup analyses. Heart failure is described as the heart's inability to pump enough blood for all of the body's needs see the page on Heart Failure.

In coronary heart disease , accumulation of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries may prevent heart regions from getting adequate circulation, ultimately resulting in cardiac damage and impaired pumping ability.

Myocardial infarction may also damage the heart muscle, which could potentially lead to heart failure. Because physical exercise increases the demand on the weakened heart, measures of exercise tolerance are frequently used to monitor the severity of heart failure.

Echocardiography is also used to determine the left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF , an objective measure of the heart's pumping ability. An abnormal acylcarnitine profile and a high acylcarnitine to free carnitine ratio in the blood of patients with heart failure have been linked to disease severity and poor prognosis Addition of L-carnitine to standard medical therapy for heart failure has been evaluated in several clinical trials.

A meta-analysis of 17 randomized , placebo -controlled studies in a total of 1, participants with heart failure found that oral L-carnitine 1.

Angina pectoris is chest pain that occurs when the coronary blood supply is insufficient to meet the metabolic needs of the heart muscle as with ischemic heart disease; see the page on Angina Pectoris In a prospective cohort study in over 4, participants with suspected angina pectoris, elevated concentrations of certain acylcarnitine intermediates in blood were associated with fatal and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction In early studies, the addition of oral L-carnitine or propionyl-L-carnitine to pharmacologic therapy for chronic stable angina modestly improved exercise tolerance and decreased electrocardiographic signs of ischemia during exercise testing in some angina patients In this study, propionyl-L-carnitine decreased myocardial ischemia, evidenced by significant reductions in ST-segment depression and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure In peripheral arterial disease , atherosclerosis of the arteries that supply the lower extremities may diminish blood flow to the point that the metabolic needs of exercising muscles are not sufficiently met, thereby leading to ischemic leg or hip pain known as claudication see the page on Intermittent Claudication in Peripheral Arterial Disease Several clinical trials have found that treatment with propionyl-L-carnitine improves exercise tolerance in some patients with intermittent claudication.

Two systematic reviews of interventions concluded that the modest benefit of propionyl-L-carnitine on walking performance was equivalent or superior to that obtained with drugs approved for claudication in the US e.

Both L-carnitine loss into the dialysate and impaired synthesis by the kidneys contribute to a progressive carnitine deficiency in patients with end-stage renal disease ESRD undergoing hemodialysis The low clearance of long-chain acylcarnitine molecules leads to a high acylcarnitine-to-L-carnitine ratio that has been associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality Carnitine depletion in patients undergoing hemodialysis may lead to various conditions, such as muscle weakness and fatigue, plasma lipid abnormalities, and refractory anemia.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of 31 randomized controlled trials in a total of 1, patients with ESRD found that L-carnitine treatment — administered either orally or intravenously — resulted in reductions of serum C-reactive protein a marker of inflammation and predictor of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis and LDL - cholesterol , although the latter was not deemed to be clinically relevant There was no effect of L-carnitine on other serum lipids i.

The US National Kidney Foundation did not recommend routine administration of L-carnitine to subjects undergoing dialysis yet encouraged the development of trials in patients with select symptoms that do not respond to standard therapy, i.

The use of certain antiretroviral agents nucleoside analogs has been associated with an increased risk of developing peripheral neuropathy in HIV -positive individuals 77, Small, uncontrolled, open-label intervention studies have suggested a beneficial effect of acetyl-L-carnitine ALCAR in patients with painful neuropathies.

An early uncontrolled study found that 10 out of 16 HIV-positive subjects with painful neuropathy reported improvement after three weeks of intravenous or intramuscular ALCAR treatment Results from another uncontrolled intervention in 21 HIV-positive patients suggested that long-term two to four years oral ALCAR supplementation 1.

Large-scale, controlled studies are needed before any conclusions can be drawn. Advanced stages of diabetic peripheral neuropathy can lead to recurrent foot ulcers and infections, and eventually amputations A systematic review 87 identified three placebo -controlled interventions that examined the effect of oral supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine ALCAR; 1.

Low-quality evidence suggested a lower level of pain with ALCAR, as measured with a visual scale analog. Low-quality evidence from another trial that compared the effect of ALCAR 1. A few randomized , double-blind , placebo -controlled trials have examined whether ALCAR might help prevent or treat chemotherapy -induced peripheral neuropathy.

A trial in participants with either ovarian cancer or castration-resistant prostate cancer found no evidence that ALCAR 1g every 3 days given with the anticancer drug sagopilone for up to six cycles of treatment reduced the overall risk of peripheral neuropathy compared to a placebo However, ALCAR reduced the risk of high-grade sagopilone-induced neuropathy A follow-up study reported that the negative impact of week treatment with ALCAR was still observed at week 52; however, no differences between ALCAR and placebo were apparent at week Improvements in electrophysiological parameters were also observed with ALCAR treatment The results from these trials are conflicting and thus difficult to interpret.

The efficacy of ALCAR in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy remains to be established A meta-analysis identified 12 randomized controlled trials , including participants, that examined the effect of ALCAR on symptoms of depression Another meta-analysis of trials that compared the safety profile of antidepressants found evidence of fewer adverse effects, and consequently, better adherence to treatment with ALCAR compared to placebo and in contrast to classical pharmaceutical agents The metabolomic profiling of acylcarnitine molecules showed variations in serum concentrations of subjects along the continuum from cognitively healthy to affected by Alzheimer's disease Several clinical trials conducted in the s examined the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine ALCAR treatment on the cognitive performance of patients clinically diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease.

Early, small trials suggested a beneficial effect of ALCAR with respect to cognitive decline , whereas later, larger trials found little-to-no effect compared to placebo However, a systematic review highlighted differences in methodologies between early and later studies that make it difficult to compare results A meta-analysis of 21 trials found that ALCAR was superior to placebo in several psychometric tests assessing global patient functioning, attention, memory, and some intellectual functions Hepatic encephalopathy refers to the occurrence of a spectrum of neuropsychiatric signs or symptoms in individuals with acute or chronic liver disease Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy may not feature any symptoms beyond abnormal behavior on psychometric tests or symptoms that are nonspecific in nature.

In contract, overt hepatic encephalopathy can present with disorientation, obvious personality change, inappropriate behavior, somnolence, stupor, confusion, and coma Changes in mental status are thought to be caused by the liver failing to detoxify neurotoxic compounds like ammonia.

A systematic review of five placebo -controlled trials conducted by one group of investigators examined the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine ALCAR in participants with cirrhosis and portal hypertension high blood pressure in the portal vein and presenting with either subclinical or overt hepatic encephalopathy.

ALCAR was found to significantly reduce blood ammonium concentration compared to placebo. However, none of the trials reported on serious adverse outcomes, including mortality. Additionally, the evidence was too limited to assess the impact on quality of life or mental and physical fatigue.

Fatigue is not uncommon in people who have undergone chemotherapy and survived cancer , with fatigue symptoms depending on the specific type of cancer and treatment. Cancer-related fatigue can persist well beyond the end of chemotherapy and be associated with cognitive and functional decline, insomnia, depression, and a reduction in the quality of life A systematic review and meta-analysis identified 12 intervention studies that assessed the effect of L-carnitine or ALCAR on cancer-related fatigue reported as a primary or secondary outcome in cancer survivors Three studies had no control arm, eight studies were open-label , and eight studies included fewer than participants.

Overall, only three studies were deemed of good quality. The meta-analysis of these three randomized , double-blind , placebo -controlled trials found no effect of L-carnitine 0.

L-Carnitine is concentrated in the epididymis , where sperm mature and acquire their motility An early cross-sectional study of fertile and infertile men found that L-carnitine concentrations in semen were positively correlated with the number of sperm, the percentage of motile sperm, and the percentage of normal appearing sperm in the sample , suggesting that L-carnitine may play an important role in male fertility.

In both trials, the effect of carnitine was greater in the most severe cases of asthenozoospermia reduced sperm motility at baseline , However, a pooled analysis of the two trials that employed ALCAR found no significant effect of ALCAR and L-carnitine on sperm concentration, motility, and morphology Evidence from larger scale clinical trials is still needed to determine whether L-carnitine and ALCAR could play a role in the treatment of male infertility.

Frailty is a syndrome prevalent among geriatric populations and characterized by a functional decline and a loss of independence to perform the activities of daily living. Frailty in individuals may include at least three of the following symptoms: unintentional weight loss, exhaustion poor endurance , weakness low grip strength , slowness, and physical inactivity It is believed that early stages of frailty are amenable to interventions that could avert adverse outcomes, including the increased risk of hospitalization and premature death The suggestion that carnitine deficiency may lead to frailty through mitochondrial dysfunction has been examined in one trial.

This randomized , double-blind , placebo -controlled trial in 58 older adults identified as "pre-frail" found an decrease in a Frailty Index score and an improvement in the hand grip test in individuals supplemented with L-carnitine 1.

However, there was no difference in Frailty Index and hand grip test scores between supplemental L-carnitine and placebo groups. Loss of skeletal muscle mass is associated with a decrease in muscle strength and occurs with aging , as well as in several pathological conditions Based on preclinical studies, it has been suggested that L-carnitine supplementation could limit the imbalance between protein anabolism synthesis and catabolism degradation that leads to skeletal muscle wasting A randomized , double-blind , placebo -controlled trial in 28 older women ages, years found no effect of L-carnitine supplementation 1.

One major limitation of this study beyond its retrospective design is that patients who received L-carnitine had a significantly different clinical presentation; in particular, liver dysfunction was significantly more severe in these patients than in those who were not supplemented Muscle cramps are involuntary and painful contractions of skeletal muscles.

Two uncontrolled studies conducted in participants with cirrhosis found that L-carnitine supplementation was safe to use at doses of 0. However, whether supplemental L-carnitine can be efficacious to limit the incidence of muscle cramps in patients with cirrhosis remains unknown.

An open-label , non-randomized trial in 69 patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus found a reduction in the incidence of muscle cramps and an improvement in the quality of life of those prescribed 0.

In contrast, there is little evidence to date to suggest that supplemental L-carnitine could reduce muscle cramps in patients undergoing hemodialysis Well-designed trials are necessary to examine whether L-carnitine could be helpful in the management of cramps.

Interest in the potential of L-carnitine supplementation to improve athletic performance is related to its important roles in energy metabolism. However, the content carnitine in skeletal muscle, phosphocreatine, ATP , glycogen , and lactate, as well as measures of physical performance during exercise were equivalent between vegetarians and omnivores.

While L-carnitine supplementation normalized plasma carnitine concentration in vegetarians to that observed in omnivores, there was no effect on energy metabolism and physical performance compared to no supplementation and between vegetarians and omnivores The normal rate of L-carnitine biosynthesis in humans ranges from 0.

Thus, a 70 kg 1b person would synthesize between 11 and 34 mg of carnitine per day. Meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products are the richest sources of L-carnitine, while fruit, vegetables, and grains contain relatively little L-carnitine.

Non-milk-based infant formulas e. Some carnitine-rich foods and their carnitine content in milligrams mg are listed in Table 1. Intravenous L-carnitine is available by prescription only for the treatment of primary and secondary L-carnitine deficiencies Oral L-carnitine is available by prescription for the treatment of primary and secondary L-carnitine deficiencies It is also available without a prescription as a nutritional supplement ; supplemental doses usually range from 0.

Acetyl-L-carnitine ALCAR is available without a prescription as a nutritional supplement. In addition to providing L-carnitine, it provides acetyl groups that may be used in the formation of the neurotransmitter , acetylcholine.

Supplemental doses usually range from 0. Propionyl-L-carnitine is not approved by the US FDA for use as a drug to prevent or treat any condition. It is, however, available without prescription as a nutritional supplement. See Figure 1 for the chemical structures of L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine.

In general, L-carnitine appears to be well tolerated; no toxic effects have been reported in relation to intakes of high doses of L-carnitine. L-Carnitine supplementation may cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Acetyl-L-carnitine ALCAR has been reported to increase agitation in some Alzheimer's disease patients Despite claims that L-carnitine or ALCAR might increase seizures in some individuals with seizure disorders , these are not supported by any scientific evidence Only the L- isomer of carnitine is biologically active; the D-isomer may actually compete with L-carnitine for absorption and transport, thereby increasing the risk of L-carnitine deficiency 4.

Supplements containing a mixture of the D- and L-isomers D,L-carnitine have been associated with muscle weakness in patients with kidney disease. Long-term studies examining the safety of ALCAR supplementation in pregnant and breast-feeding women are lacking Pivalic acid combines with L-carnitine and is excreted in the urine as pivaloylcarnitine, thereby increasing L-carnitine losses see also Secondary carnitine deficiency.

Consequently, prolonged use of pivalic acid-containing antibiotics, including pivampicillin, pivmecillinam, pivcephalexin, and cefditoren pivoxil Spectracef , can lead to secondary L-carnitine deficiency The anticonvulsant valproic acid Depakene interferes with L-carnitine biosynthesis in the liver and forms with L-carnitine a valproylcarnitine ester that is excreted in the urine.

However, L-carnitine supplements are necessary only in a subset of patients taking valproic acid. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that nucleoside analogs used in the treatment of HIV infection i.

Originally written in by: Jane Higdon, Ph. Linus Pauling Institute Oregon State University. Updated in April by: Victoria J.

Drake, Ph. Updated in July by: Barbara Delage, Ph. Reviewed in December by: Tory M. Hagen, Ph. Principal Investigator, Linus Pauling Institute Professor, Dept.

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Twitter Facebook Instagram Youtube Pinterest. Left Right. Search Shop All Women Men Love Your Health Sale Healthy Digest Blog. Account Search Cart. Benefits of L-Carnitine in Daily Life.

L-Carnitine Boosts Metabolism Efficient metabolism will significantly promote weight loss because you can burn more calories while resting. L-Carnitine Aids in Burning Fat L-carnitine is an excellent choice for weight management.

L-Carnitine Enhances Insulin Response In addition to speeding up the fat-burning process, L-carnitine also improves insulin response.

L-Carnitine Enhances Energy for Workout When you take L-carnitine supplements, amino acids are used less as an energy source. L-Carnitine Helps Muscle Recovery L-carnitine helps keep your muscles from getting too full of lactic acid.

Where You Can Get L-Carnitine The common food sources for L-carnitine include meat, fish, poultry, and milk. The Bottom Line L-carnitine is an amino acid crucial for transporting fats to the mitochondria and turning them into energy the body can use. References Flanagan, J. Role of carnitine in disease.

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Beneficial effects of l-carnitine supplementation for weight management in overweight and obese adults: An updated systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Pharmacological research , , Owen, K. Dietary L-carnitine suppresses mitochondrial branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase activity and enhances protein accretion and carcass characteristics of swine.

Journal of Animal Science , 79 12 , Huang, A. Role of supplementary L-carnitine in exercise and exercise recovery. In Acute Topics in Sport Nutrition Vol. Karger Publishers.

L-carnitine, also known as wllness, is L-carnitine and overall wellness naturally sellness amino L-carnitinf structure that the body produces. L-carnitine plays a critical role in energy production, L-carnitine and overall wellness it converts weklness into energy. Those with low L-carnitine levels Immune function optimizer benefit from taking an oral supplement, though. As well as supporting energy production, L-carnitine may help some other functions in the body, such as maintaining general brain function and reducing the risk of certain disorders. Some people may experience mild side effects when increasing their L-carnitine intake, especially with long-term use. In this article, we explore what the current research says about L-carnitine, including its benefits, effectiveness, and side effects. Or L-carjitine you Vehicle Refueling Solutions sluggish, Acid reflux prevention, tired, unmotivated, wellnss fatigued, even to make Acid reflux prevention to a minute brisk walk post-work? You may have weplness about it or L-carnitine and overall wellness the L-cxrnitine in ads overwll workout supplements, etc. Keep reading to learn how this ingredient can help you reach your weight goals while also improving your overall health. L-carnitine is an amino acid that occurs naturally in our bodies and plays a crucial role in metabolizing energy. It is synthesized in our liver and kidneys and is derived from two other essential amino acids, namely lysine, and methionine.

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