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Body composition and aging

Body composition and aging

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Subject Area: ComposltionFurther CpmpositionGeriatrics and GerontologyNutrition and Dietetics Boyd, Surgery. Book Series: Interdisciplinary Topics Body composition and aging Gerontology and Geriatrics.

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Cite Icon Cite. Digital Version Pay-Per-View Access. BUY THIS Book. Print Version. Body Composition and Aging. Derek M Huffman ; Derek M Huffman.

a Departments of Medicine. c Institute for Aging Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N. Nir Barzilai Nir Barzilai. View Chapter. Open the PDF Link PDF for 1 - Contribution of Adipose Tissue to Health Span and Longevity in another window. Ian M Chapman Ian M Chapman.

Division of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. Open the PDF Link PDF for 20 - Obesity Paradox during Aging in another window. Zbigniew Kmiec Zbigniew Kmiec. Department of Histology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Open the PDF Link PDF for 37 - Central Control of Food Intake in Aging in another window. Roger B McDonald ; Roger B McDonald.

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Calif. C Ruhe Rodney. C Ruhe. Open the PDF Link PDF for 51 - Changes in Food Intake and Its Relationship to Weight Loss during Advanced Age in another window.

Tami Wolden-Hanson Tami Wolden-Hanson. Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center and Research Service, Veterans Administration Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Wash.

Open the PDF Link PDF for 64 - Changes in Body Composition in Response to Challenges during Aging in Rats in another window. Catherine A Wolkow Catherine A Wolkow.

Laboratory of Neurosciences, NIA Intramural Research Program, NIH, Baltimore, Md. Michael J. Berger ; Michael J. a School of Kinesiology, and Departments of Clinical Neurological Sciences and. Timothy J. Doherty Timothy J. b Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Schulich School of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont.

Open the PDF Link PDF for 94 - Sarcopenia: Prevalence, Mechanisms, and Functional Consequences in another window. a Department of Physiology, Human Physiology Unit and Interuniversity Institute of Myology, University of Pavia, Pavia, and.

Enzo Nisoli Enzo Nisoli. b Department of Pharmacology, Chemotherapy and Medical Toxicology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Open the PDF Link PDF for - mTOR Signaling as a Target of Amino Acid Treatment of the Age-Related Sarcopenia in another window. Gianni Parise ; Gianni Parise.

a Departments of Kinesiology and. b Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. Michael De Lisio Michael De Lisio. Open the PDF Link PDF for - Mitochondrial Theory of Aging in Human Age-Related Sarcopenia in another window.

Derek M Huffman Derek M Huffman. Department of Medicine and Institute for Aging Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N. Open the PDF Link PDF for - Exercise as a Calorie Restriction Mimetic: Implications for Improving Healthy Aging and Longevity in another window.

Farhan A Syed ; Farhan A Syed. a College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jameel Iqbal ; Jameel Iqbal. b The Mount Sinai Bone Program, and Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, N.

Yuanzhen Peng ; Yuanzhen Peng. Li Sun ; Li Sun. Mone Zaidi Mone Zaidi. Open the PDF Link PDF for - Clinical, Cellular and Molecular Phenotypes of Aging Bone in another window.

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: Body composition and aging

Author Contributions In addition, longitudinal studies might show different relationships between body composition and physical function, although there are reports that suggest associations similar to those we report here. Cruz-Jentoft, A. Tissue loss reduces the amount of water in your body. Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials 9 — Karger AG P. Kwon J, Suzuki T, Yoshida H, Kim H, Yoshida Y, Iwasa H, Sugiura M, Furuna T Association between change in bone mineral density and decline in usual walking speed in elderly community-dwelling japanese women during 2 years of follow-up.
Aging human body: changes in bone, muscle and body fat with consequent changes in nutrient intake This decrease in muscle mass did not Leafy greens for hair growth in a parallel Leafy greens for hair growth in Cmoposition, as fat appeared agijg replace compositon lost muscle tissue, sging infiltrating compossition Zhang et al. JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Cojposition, 8— Even Diuretic effect on inflammation so, Body composition and aging suffering from osteosarcopenic obesity showed significantly poorer performance in handgrip strength, balance and walking speed, compared to each other group Ilich et al. Eriksson Clinicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland Tuija M. Musculoskeletal disorders are common among older people and are a leading cause of morbidity worldwide [ 1 ]. The magnitude of this association was greater in males than females, with addition of body fat percentage slightly increasing the ability of the model to predict muscle strength.
Aging changes in body shape

Bernstein, M. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: food and nutrition for older adults: promoting health and wellness. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 8 , Canadian Frailty Network n. Diet and nutrition. Cox, N.

Assessment and treatment of the anorexia of aging: A systematic review. Nutrients, 11 1 , De Castro, J. Age-related changes in spontaneous food intake and hunger in humans. Appetite , 21, — Di Francesco, V.

The anorexia of aging. Kojima, G. Prevalence of Frailty in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JAMDA, 16, Landi, F. Anorexia of aging: risk factors, consequences, and potential treatments. Nutrients, 8 2 , Prevalence and potentially reversible factors associated with anorexia among older nursing home residents: Results from the ULISSE project.

Laviano, A. Therapy insight: Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome—When all you can eat is yourself. MacIntosh, C. Nutrition , 16, — Mir, F. Anorexia of aging: Can we decrease protein energy undernutrition in the nursing home? Morley, J. Pathophysiology of the anorexia of aging. Care , 16, 27— Onder, G.

Recommendations to prescribe in complex older adults: Results of the Criteria to assess appropriate Medication use among Elderly complex patients CRIME project. Drugs Aging , 31, 33— Prado, C.

Nutrition in the spotlight in cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle: Avoiding the wildfire. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 12 1 , 3.

Rockwood, K. A global clinical measure of fitness and frailty in elderly people. Cmaj, 5 , Sinha, S. Natl Institute Ageing, Twells, L. August 4, Epidemiology of adult obesity. Wang, M. et al. Trajectories of body mass index among Canadian seniors and associated mortality risk.

BMC Public Health 17, Wharton, S. Obesity in adults: a clinical practice guideline. Cmaj, 31 , EE name: Tracy Everitt.

institution: St. Francis Xavier University. name: Brittany Yantha. institution: St Francis University. name: Megan Davies.

institution: St Francis Xavier University. name: Shannon Roode. institution: Sienna Senior Living. Chapter 6: Body Composition Changes Copyright © by Tracy Everitt; Brittany Yantha; Megan Davies; and Shannon Roode is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.

Skip to content Chapter 6 Learning Objectives. Describe the connection between body weight and health status. Explain the concern towards obesity in older adults. Identify interventions to aid in health weight loss. Describe the condition of anorexia of aging and why this is a concern for older adults.

Describe sarcopenia along with the cause and treatment. Roger B McDonald ; Roger B McDonald. Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Calif.

C Ruhe Rodney. C Ruhe. Open the PDF Link PDF for 51 - Changes in Food Intake and Its Relationship to Weight Loss during Advanced Age in another window. Tami Wolden-Hanson Tami Wolden-Hanson. Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center and Research Service, Veterans Administration Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Wash.

Open the PDF Link PDF for 64 - Changes in Body Composition in Response to Challenges during Aging in Rats in another window. Catherine A Wolkow Catherine A Wolkow. Laboratory of Neurosciences, NIA Intramural Research Program, NIH, Baltimore, Md.

Michael J. Berger ; Michael J. a School of Kinesiology, and Departments of Clinical Neurological Sciences and. Timothy J. Doherty Timothy J. b Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Schulich School of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont.

Open the PDF Link PDF for 94 - Sarcopenia: Prevalence, Mechanisms, and Functional Consequences in another window. a Department of Physiology, Human Physiology Unit and Interuniversity Institute of Myology, University of Pavia, Pavia, and.

Enzo Nisoli Enzo Nisoli. b Department of Pharmacology, Chemotherapy and Medical Toxicology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Open the PDF Link PDF for - mTOR Signaling as a Target of Amino Acid Treatment of the Age-Related Sarcopenia in another window.

Gianni Parise ; Gianni Parise. a Departments of Kinesiology and. b Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.

Michael De Lisio Michael De Lisio. Open the PDF Link PDF for - Mitochondrial Theory of Aging in Human Age-Related Sarcopenia in another window.

Derek M Huffman Derek M Huffman. Department of Medicine and Institute for Aging Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.

Open the PDF Link PDF for - Exercise as a Calorie Restriction Mimetic: Implications for Improving Healthy Aging and Longevity in another window. Farhan A Syed ; Farhan A Syed. a College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Arch Public Health Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

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J Am Geriatr Soc — Pinedo-Villanueva R, Westbury LD, Syddall HE, Sanchez-Santos MT, Dennison EM, Robinson SM, Cooper C Health care costs associated with muscle weakness: a UK population-based estimate.

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Arch Osteoporos Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. St-Onge MP, Gallagher D Body composition changes with aging: the cause or the result of alterations in metabolic rate and macronutrient oxidation?

Nutrition — Visser M, Langlois J, Guralnik JM, Cauley JA, Kronmal RA, Robbins J, Williamson JD, Harris TB High body fatness, but not low fat-free mass, predicts disability in older men and women: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr — Bigaard J, Frederiksen K, Tjønneland A, Thomsen BL, Overvad K, Heitmann BL, Sørensen TI Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality.

Obes Res — Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

JAMA — Winter JE, MacInnis RJ, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Nowson CA BMI and all-cause mortality in older adults: a meta-analysis. Bowman K, Atkins JL, Delgado J, Kos K, Kuchel GA, Ble A, Ferrucci L, Melzer D Central adiposity and the overweight risk paradox in aging: follow-up of , UK Biobank participants.

Bowman K, Delgado J, Henley WE, Masoli JA, Kos K, Brayne C, Thokala P, Lafortune L, Kuchel GA, Ble A Obesity in older people with and without conditions associated with weight loss: follow-up of , primary care patients.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci — Batsis JA, Villareal DT Sarcopenic obesity in older adults: aetiology, epidemiology and treatment strategies. Nat Rev Endocrinol — Curtis E, Litwic A, Cooper C, Dennison E Determinants of muscle and bone aging. J Cell Physiol — Patel A, Edwards M, Jameson K, Ward K, Fuggle N, Cooper C, Dennison E Longitudinal change in peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessment in older adults: the hertfordshire cohort study.

Auyeung TW, Lee SWJ, Leung J, Kwok T, Woo J Age-associated decline of muscle mass, grip strength and gait speed: a 4-year longitudinal study of community-dwelling older Chinese. Geriatr Gerontol Int — Locquet M, Beaudart C, Durieux N, Reginster J-Y, Bruyère O Relationship between the changes over time of bone and muscle Health in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord National Institute on Aging Introducing the Health ABC Study: The Dynamics of Health, Aging, and Body Composition. Accessed 4 October Taylor HL, Jacobs DR, Schucker B, Knudsen J, Leon AS, Debacker G A questionnaire for the assessment of leisure time physical activities.

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J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci M— Kennedy T, Ohls J, Carlson S, Fleming K The healthy eating index: design and applications. J Am Diet Assoc — Hengeveld LM, Wijnhoven HA, Olthof MR, Brouwer IA, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Newman AB, Visser M, Study HA Prospective associations of poor diet quality with long-term incidence of protein-energy malnutrition in community-dwelling older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Health ABC Study.

Visser M, Fuerst T, Lang T, Salamone L, Harris TB Validity of fan-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for measuring fat-free mass and leg muscle mass.

Health, aging, and body composition study—dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and body composition working group. J Appl Physiol — Salamone LM, Fuerst T, Visser M, Kern M, Lang T, Dockrell M, Cauley JA, Nevitt M, Tylavsky F, Lohman TG Measurement of fat mass using DEXA: a validation study in elderly adults.

Goodpaster BH, Park SW, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt M, Schwartz AV, Simonsick EM, Tylavsky FA, Visser M, Newman AB The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study.

Delmonico MJ, Harris TB, Visser M, Park SW, Conroy MB, Velasquez-Mieyer P, Boudreau R, Manini TM, Nevitt M, Newman AB, Goodpaster BH, Health Aging Body Longitudinal study of muscle strength, quality, and adipose tissue infiltration.

Ding J, Kritchevsky SB, Newman AB, Taaffe DR, Nicklas BJ, Visser M, Lee JS, Nevitt M, Tylavsky FA, Rubin SM, Pahor M, Harris TB Effects of birth cohort and age on body composition in a sample of community-based elderly.

Newman AB, Lee JS, Visser M, Goodpaster BH, Kritchevsky SB, Tylavsky FA, Nevitt M, Harris TB Weight change and the conservation of lean mass in old age: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

Forbes GB Longitudinal changes in adult fat-free mass: influence of body weight. Frederiksen H, Hjelmborg J, Mortensen J, Mcgue M, Vaupel JW, Christensen K Age trajectories of grip strength: cross-sectional and longitudinal data among 8, Danes aged 46 to Ann Epidemiol — PLoS ONE e Article PubMed PubMed Central CAS Google Scholar.

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J Bone Miner Res — Liu-Ambrose T, Kravetsky L, Bailey D, Sherar L, Mundt C, Baxter-Jones A, Khan K, McKay H Change in lean body mass is a major determinant of change in areal bone mineral density of the proximal femur: a year observational study.

Milliken L, Cussler E, Zeller R, Choi J-E, Metcalfe L, Going SB, Lohman TG Changes in soft tissue composition are the primary predictors of 4-year bone mineral density changes in postmenopausal women.

Osteoporos Int — Arabi A, Baddoura R, El-Rassi R, Fuleihan GE-H PTH level but not 25 OH vitamin D level predicts bone loss rates in the elderly. Bleicher K, Cumming RG, Naganathan V, Travison TG, Sambrook PN, Blyth FM, Handelsman DJ, Le Couteur DG, Waite LM, Creasey HM The role of fat and lean mass in bone loss in older men: findings from the CHAMP study.

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Sirola J, Rikkonen T, Tuppurainen M, Jurvelin J, Kröger H Association of grip strength change with menopausal bone loss and related fractures: a population-based follow-up study. Sirola J, Tuppurainen M, Honkanen R, Jurvelin JS, Kröger H Associations between grip strength change and axial postmenopausal bone loss—a year population-based follow-up study.

Kwon J, Suzuki T, Yoshida H, Kim H, Yoshida Y, Iwasa H, Sugiura M, Furuna T Association between change in bone mineral density and decline in usual walking speed in elderly community-dwelling japanese women during 2 years of follow-up. Forrest KY, Bunker CH, Sheu Y, Wheeler VW, Patrick AL, Zmuda JM Patterns and correlates of grip strength change with age in Afro-Caribbean men.

Age Ageing — Westbury L, Fuggle N, Syddall HE, Duggal N, Shaw S, Maslin K, Dennison E, Lord J, Cooper C Relationships between markers of inflammation and muscle mass, strength and function: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

Singer NG, Caplan AI Mesenchymal stem cells: mechanisms of inflammation. Annu Rev Pathol — Frost HM Bone's mechanostat: a update. Anat Rec A — Download references. Department of Agriculture USDA , under agreement No. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the USDA.

The authors thank the participants of the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study as well as members of the scientific and data collection teams.

MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Leo D. Westbury, Holly E. Syddall, Nicholas R.

Fuggle, Elaine M. Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA. Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, USA.

Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, USA.

NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK. NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. LW conducted the statistical analysis and wrote the first draft of the manuscript; HES provided guidance regarding the statistical analysis and made extensive contributions to the content of the manuscript; NRF contributed to the literature review and the interpretation of the findings; EMD and CC designed the study; JAC, EJS and ABN were investigators of the Health ABC Study.

All authors made substantial contributions to the manuscript and approved the final version. Correspondence to Cyrus Cooper. CC reports personal fees outside the submitted work from Alliance for Better Bone Health, Amgen, Eli Lilly, GSK, Medtronic, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Servier, Takeda and UCB.

EMD reports personal fees outside the submitted work from Pfizer Healthcare and from the UCB Discussion panel. RAF reports grants from National Institutes of Health National Institute on Aging and the USDA, during the conduct of the study; grants, personal fees and other from Axcella Health, other from Inside Tracker, grants and personal fees from Biophytis, grants and personal fees from Astellas, personal fees from Cytokinetics, personal fees from Amazentis, grants and personal fees from Nestle', personal fees from Glaxo Smith Kline, outside the submitted work.

LDW, HES, NRF, JAC, EJS and ABN declare that they have no conflicts of interest. The study was approved by the institutional review boards at the University of Tennessee and the University of Pittsburgh.

Chapter 6: Body Composition Changes – Nutrition in Aging Table 2 describes body composition and physical performance of the participants by studies and combined at enrollment of each study. BMI was negatively associated with the Short Form SF physical component summary score and all physical health subdomains in a study including adults aged 60 years and older [ 13 ]. Barbat-Artigas S, Rolland Y, Vellas B, Aubertin-Leheudre M. The measurements were made with the subject standing in light indoor clothing on the four foot electrodes on the platform of the analyzer and gripping the two palm and thumb electrodes. Ministry of social development. Domain scores were the averages of the items.
Body Composition and Aging | Books Gateway | Karger Publishers

The mean ± SD age of participants was Males were taller, heavier and had a lower body fat percentage than females, but these differences were not significant.

The mean BMI for this study population fell in the overweight BMI category Using BMI categories, In males and females, 9. The prevalence of low muscle mass was 2. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and muscle strength were higher in males compared with females, this difference was significant for muscle strength only Table 1.

When exploring the association between muscle strength and muscle mass according to obesity classification using body fat percentage, muscle mass was significantly associated with muscle strength in non-obese males and females. However, in participants with obesity, muscle mass was no longer associated with muscle strength Tables 4 and 5.

In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationship between muscle strength, muscle mass, and body fat percentage in older adults living in Auckland, NZ. The findings indicate that muscle strength was associated with muscle mass. The magnitude of this association was greater in males than females, with addition of body fat percentage slightly increasing the ability of the model to predict muscle strength.

When exploring the association between muscle strength and muscle mass according to obesity classification using body fat percentage, muscle mass was associated with muscle strength in non-obese participants.

However, this association was not observed in older adults who were classified as obese. This indicates that body fat percentage should be considered when measuring associations between muscle mass and muscle strength in older adults. We found a higher prevalence of participants with obesity using body fat percentage classifications This result was as expected, as BMI has been shown to underestimate adiposity in older adults [ 37 ].

A recent survey in New Zealand using BMI classifications reported that the prevalence of obesity in older adults between 65—74 years was The lower level of obesity reported in our population may reflect our recruitment inadvertently targeting healthy older adults.

We also identified 3. The lack of studies reporting the prevalence of low muscle strength and the application of different cut-off values makes it difficult to compare studies. In this cohort, we applied the updated cut off values of low muscle strength defined by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People EWGSOP2.

A nationally representative sample of Brazilians aged 65 years and older using the same cut-off values as our study observed a higher prevalence of low muscle strength Other studies which applied the older cut off values defined by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People EWGSOP , observed a higher prevalence of low muscle strength of The higher prevalence observed in these groups, is possibly explained by the inclusion of people older than 74 years, and a potentially less healthy population than those participants included in our study.

The prevalence of low ASMI was 6. The higher percentage in the study appears to be explained by the inclusion of adults over the ages of 74 years. Our results provide evidence that muscle mass is positively associated with muscle strength in older men and women.

This result aligns with the literature [ 43 , 44 ] and suggests that efforts to maintain muscle mass should have a significant effect on preserving strength in older adults.

When stratified by sex, we observed strong evidence that muscle mass was significantly associated, but not a major contributor to muscle strength in older men and women.

In a regression model taking into account muscle mass, it was shown that an increase of 1 unit muscle mass will increase the value of muscle strength by 0.

These results highlight not only the importance of increasing muscle mass, but also the importance of decreasing body fat percentage to preserve muscle strength in older adults.

The cross-sectional nature of our data impedes any causal inference. Nevertheless, the results from our study provide justification for further prospective research that evaluates the effects of interventions, which are aimed at optimising body composition and muscle strength in older adults.

To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the role of obesity classification based on body fat percentage in the relationship between muscle strength and muscle mass. Results from multiple linear regression analyses provide evidence supporting the important role of obesity classification according to body fat percentage when investigating the relationship between muscle strength and muscle mass.

Our study demonstrated that when obesity was classified using body fat percentage, muscle mass was significantly associated with muscle strength in non-obese older adults.

However, an association between muscle strength and muscle mass was not observed in older adults categorised as obese. The accumulation of intramuscular lipid content or poor muscle quality , which is seen in people with obesity may explain the influence of obesity in the relationship between muscle strength and muscle mass.

Goodpaster et al. reported that higher intramuscular lipid content is associated with lower muscle strength, independent of muscle mass [ 45 ]. Also, accumulation of intramuscular lipid content is known to be associated with insulin insensitivity, inflammation and functional deficits in skeletal muscle.

It will be important in the future to continue to focus on understanding predictors of muscle strength in older adults with obesity in order to provide appropriate interventions to increase muscle strength.

There were significant strengths to our study. The relatively large sample size permits us to examine whether the relationship between muscle strength and muscle mass was similar in males and females.

Also, it is possible that the inclusion of community-dwelling healthy older adults provides the opportunity to identify issues and promote preventative action in early old age.

Furthermore, the use of DXA is an accurate measure of body composition. However, in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging MRI or computed tomography CT DXA cannot detect intramuscular fat from muscle mass nor distinguish the composition of muscle [ 46 , 47 ].

This cross-sectional study limits the ability to detect causality; hence, only associations were discussed. Other limitations are the population group, which was not representative of the New Zealand population, as this cohort was composed of a convenience volunteer sample of men and women aged 65—74 years living in the community.

The classification by body fat percentage for obesity may also be perceived as a limitation given the arbitrary nature of the cut-off points. Finally, we did not assess lower extremity muscle strength, which is a more direct predictor of falls.

However, grip strength is associated with lower-body muscle strength [ 48 ] and a strong predictor of disability [ 49 ]. Muscle mass and body fat percentage were predictors of muscle strength in this cohort. Muscle mass was associated with muscle strength in non-obese older adults whereas, there was no association between muscle mass and muscle strength in older adults who were classified as obese.

This indicates that obesity classification plays an important role in the relationship between muscle strength and muscle mass in older adults. We suggest that this could be mainly attributed to muscle quality, which could be a contributor of muscle strength in older adults who are obese.

Further research should focus on identifying predictors of muscle strength in older adults with obesity.

We thank the REACH team including Cassie Slade for managing the recruitment of participants and data collection; and Karen Mumme, Harriet Guy, Angela Yu, and Nicola Gillies for assistance with data collection and data entry. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

Article Authors Metrics Comments Media Coverage Reader Comments Figures. Abstract Background Aging is associated with decreases in muscle strength and simultaneous changes in body composition, including decreases in muscle mass, muscle quality and increases in adiposity.

Conclusions Body fat percentage should be considered when measuring associations between muscle mass and muscle strength in older adults. Introduction Globally and in New Zealand the proportion of older adults is increasing [ 1 ].

Materials and methods 2. Study design This study was a secondary aim of the Researching Eating, Activity and Cognitive Health REACH Study.

Study participants and procedures Participants included men and women aged 65—74 years, living independently in Auckland, NZ. Data collection All participants visited the Human Nutrition Research Unit on one occasion for collection of data as part of the wider REACH study.

Statistical analysis Continuous data were assessed for normality using Shapiro Wilcoxon tests and visual assessment of histograms. Download: PPT. Table 1. Characteristics of study participants by sex a , b.

Fig 1. Table 2. Results of multiple linear regression modelling on the relationship between muscle strength, mass and body fat percentage in older females. Table 3. Results of multiple linear regression modelling on the relationship between muscle strength, mass and body fat percentage in older males.

Table 4. Results of multiple linear regression modelling on the effect of obesity in the relationship between muscle strength and mass in older females. Table 5. Results of multiple linear regression modelling on the effect of obesity in the relationship between muscle strength and mass in older males.

Discussion In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationship between muscle strength, muscle mass, and body fat percentage in older adults living in Auckland, NZ.

Prevalence of obesity, low muscle strength and low muscle mass We found a higher prevalence of participants with obesity using body fat percentage classifications Association between body composition and muscle strength Our results provide evidence that muscle mass is positively associated with muscle strength in older men and women.

The role of obesity classification in the relationship between muscle strength and muscle mass To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the role of obesity classification based on body fat percentage in the relationship between muscle strength and muscle mass.

Conclusions Muscle mass and body fat percentage were predictors of muscle strength in this cohort. Supporting information. S1 File. s SAV. Acknowledgments We thank the REACH team including Cassie Slade for managing the recruitment of participants and data collection; and Karen Mumme, Harriet Guy, Angela Yu, and Nicola Gillies for assistance with data collection and data entry.

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Predictors of falls among elderly people. Results of two population-based studies. Arch Intern Med. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR. The epidemiology of falls and syncope. Clin Geriatr Med. Schlussel MM, dos Anjos LA, de Vasconcellos MT, Kac G.

Reference values of handgrip dynamometry of healthy adults: a population-based study. Clin Nutr. Gallagher D, Ruts E, Visser M, Heshka S, Baumgartner RN, Wang J, et al.

Weight stability masks sarcopenia in elderly men and women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. Goodpaster BH, Park SW, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt M, Schwartz AV, et al. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Chen L, Nelson DR, Zhao Y, Cui Z, Johnston JA. Relationship between muscle mass and muscle strength, and the impact of comorbidities: a population-based, cross-sectional study of older adults in the United States. BMC Geriatr.

pmid; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC Reed RL, Pearlmutter L, Yochum K, Meredith KE, Mooradian AD. The relationship between muscle mass and muscle strength in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc. Hayashida I, Tanimoto Y, Takahashi Y, Kusabiraki T, Tamaki J. Correlation between muscle strength and muscle mass, and their association with walking speed, in community-dwelling elderly Japanese individuals.

PLoS One. Hughes VA, Frontera WR, Wood M, Evans WJ, Dallal GE, Roubenoff R, et al. Longitudinal muscle strength changes in older adults: influence of muscle mass, physical activity, and health.

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Keevil VL, Luben R, Dalzell N, Hayat S, Sayer AA, Wareham NJ, et al. Cross-sectional associations between different measures of obesity and muscle strength in men and women in a British cohort study. J Nutr Health Aging. Borges VS, Lima-Costa MFF, Andrade FB.

A nationwide study on prevalence and factors associated with dynapenia in older adults: ELSI-Brazil. Cad Saude Publica. Batsis JA, Zagaria AB.

Addressing Obesity in Aging Patients. Med Clin North Am. Batsis JA, Mackenzie TA, Bartels SJ, Sahakyan KR, Somers VK, Lopez-Jimenez F. Diagnostic accuracy of body mass index to identify obesity in older adults: NHANES — Int J Obes Lond.

Kim S, Leng XI, Kritchevsky SB. In human and in many animals, adipose tissue can be accumulated in very large amounts. Most probably, an upper limit was not established by natural selection because a large accumulation of body fat in the wild is uncommon, unlike what we are observing during modern times in our species.

Although the health implication of excessive body fat is evident, as they discuss, they also propose that a suitable amount of fat is probably an important feature for reaching extended longevity Conte et al.

Because of its simplicity, BMI is broadly used as a surrogate for body fat, although it is highly imprecise. For example, a bodybuilder with a low percentage of body fat could fall in the obese category.

Ponti et al. present how body composition is different at different ages, stressing that there is not only an increase in body fat but also a redistribution of body mass with age. In particular, fat mainly increases in the trunk largely visceral fat , but not in arms or legs. A major difference also exists between male and female older adults likely contributing to the sex-difference in the prevalence of age-related diseases.

Zoico et al. focus on the significance of changes happening during aging in two subcategories of body fat: brown adipose tissue BAT and beige adipose tissue, fat tissues rich in mitochondria with the univocal brown or conditional beige function of converting stored energy into heat. Adipose tissue is a recognized endocrine organ, producing a variety of adipokines, whose levels tend to increase with aging.

Arai et al. focus on the roles and significance of adiponectin, an adipokine whose levels are elevated in centenarians.

In contrast to the majority of other adipokines, its plasma levels are inversely related to body fat. In this report, the authors describe how this adipokine is considered highly beneficial for longevity, possibly contributing to enhancing insulin sensitivity.

They also describe some interesting paradoxes related to adiponectin that challenge its beneficial role: the observed association between higher adiponectin level and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease and with frailty in elderly subjects.

They propose a solution to these paradoxes introducing the concept of adiponectin resistance: higher adiponectin levels, in their view, is possibly a compensatory mechanism in response to inflammation and oxidative stress.

In light of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affecting prevalently the elderly 5 , an important topic is the role of the process of aging in the susceptibility to infectious diseases. Obesity, as it increases with age, exerts a cumulative effect.

Obese individuals are increasingly vulnerable to fungal, bacterial, and viral infection. Frasca and McElhaney present an overview of the roles of obesity on the immune response to respiratory tract infection. Specifically, they analyze the risk for the elderly represented by pneumococcus infection, highlighting the presence of an interesting obesity paradox: it appears that obesity is protective against the more serious complications of this bacterial infection.

This stresses the need to investigate further, how obesity is modulating our immune response Frasca and McElhaney. Salvestrini et al. look from further away at the interrelationship between excess body fat and aging. Their considerations stem from a reflection on the experimental paradigm of life span extension by caloric restriction, specifically on how best to consider control animals when translating experimental results to human 6.

If a control animal, ad libitum fed, has to be considered an animal with no excess fat, equivalent to a normal weight human BMI between If, instead, as many authors are proposing [reviewed in 6 ], control animals in many instances should be considered the equivalent of obese humans, then the lifespan-extending capacity of CR is simply communicating that obesity has a life shortening effect, which is well-known from epidemiological evidence.

From these considerations Salvestrini et al. have looked at obesity under the lens of the hallmarks of aging as listed by López-Otín et al.

Although the increase of body fat with age remains a major risk factor for age-related diseases, several studies are needed to disentangle the complex network of metabolic, endocrinological, and immunological mediators that are involved.

Many studies demonstrated the peculiarity of these individuals 8 , 9 , however little is known about the amount and kind of adipose tissue they have. Future researches are needed to investigate the age-related remodeling of body fat including also very old people.

AL wrote the initial draft. AS and DM implemented and revised it. All authors gave final approval of the submitted version.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. A: World Population Prospects Highlights Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, et al.

Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

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Body composition and aging

Body composition and aging -

This equals to about 30 minutes each day. Or you should get approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous exercise such as jogging each week.

A healthy diet includes vegetables and fruits, whole grains, and the right amounts of healthy fats. Included in the protein is at least one serving of milk or yogurt. You should also choose foods with low sodium amounts.

Good sources of vitamin D in addition to the natural rays of the sun include fortified drinks and cereals, fatty fish eggs, and mushrooms.

And foods rich in calcium include tofu, yogurt, and any variety of leafy greens. Moderate alcohol use for seniors is consuming up to one drink a day for women and men older than age The best advice is to avoid tobacco and illicit drugs completely.

Although the aging process is inevitable, there are some positive lifestyle choices that can help reduce or lessen the changes in your metabolism, body weight, muscles, bones, and overall height as you age.

These are choices that we all can make to help our bodies stay as healthy as possible, no matter how many birthdays we are fortunate to celebrate! Want more resources?

Want to stay updated with our blog posts and other resources? Effects of Aging on Body Composition Senior Living Link. Home Blog Effects of Aging on Body Composition. Effects of Aging on Body Composition Posted by Chad Scheib on March 29, There are three known categories of risk factors for unintentional weight loss: physiologic, psychological, and socioeconomic.

Physiologic risk factors that can lead to unintentional weight loss include decreased appetite, oral health concerns, sensory impairment, disease, and functional deficits. Psychological risk factors include depression, dementia, cognitive impairment, and mental illness.

Socioeconomic factors such as social isolation, food insecurity, and lack of caregiver support can increase the risk of unintentional weight loss. Unintended weight loss is often associated with poor health outcomes and is a marker for deteriorating well-being.

Unexplained w ei ght loss is treated by identifying and addressing the underlying condition. Loss of skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength is a prominent feature of age-related changes in body composition. Sarcopenia is defined as poor function due to losing muscle mass or muscle strength and function Morley, This condition is associated with physical disability, impaired mobility, a higher risk of falls, frailty, cognitive dysfunction, and other age-related conditions.

S arcopenia is a complex condition resulting from several changes that occur with aging; however, a sedentary lifestyle and nutritional inadequacies are primary contributors to the onset of sarcopenic symptoms.

Resistance exercise and adequate protein intake represent the most important therapeutic modalities to address sarcopenia. Regular ly consuming high-quality proteins can be challenging for older adults with limited resources, reduced appetite, and physical and environmental limitations.

T he role of dietary protein in preventing sarcopenia remains unclear ; however, a protein intake moderately greater than the Recommended Dietary Allowance may be beneficial to enhance muscle protein anabolism and reduce progressive loss of muscle mass with age. Sarcopenic obesity is the coexistence of age-related loss of skeletal mass and strength with excess body fat.

The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity has been found to increase with advancing age and increases the risk for adverse outcomes and functional impairment. Identifying factors of sarcopenic obesity include the deterioration of muscle composition and quality in combination with an increase in overall fat mass.

T he hand-grip strength test can help identify muscular strength and indicate whether sarcopenia is present. Figure 6. HA, high adiposity; LM, low muscularity; LA, low adiposity; LM, low muscularity.

There is a lot of variability in the body composition of older adults as shown in Figure 6. T he most prevalent body composition phenotype is low adiposity and high muscularity, followed by high adiposity and high muscularity Purcell et al. High adiposity and low muscularity sarcopenic obesity was present only in a minority of individuals , and the prevalence of low adiposity and low muscle across all subgroups was higher than the prevalence of underweight.

Ultimately, the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity varied greatly and was frequently associated with low hand — grip strength Purcell et al.

Chronic disease and illness are more common among the aging population due to lower muscle mass, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Those experiencing chronic disease or illness may develop a syndrome called cachexia. Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by muscle loss with or without fat mass lo ss Evans, et al.

Weight loss and m uscle wasting are important in the pathophysiology of cache xia and can be a major cause of fatigue in older adults.

Chronic disease can cause the body to be hypermetabolic and lead to unintentional weight loss or wasting. Key components of treating cancer cachexia include identifying and managing symptom s and addressing barriers to adequate oral intake.

Those experiencing cachexia m ay be supported throug h nutrition therapies such as increased protei n and caloric intake to combat muscle wasting. Nutritional problems and increased risk of malnutrition contribute to frailty via the culmination of sociologic, biological, and cognitive issues.

Frailty is not a specific medical condition like cancer, diabetes, or a disability but is more like a syndrome that results from multiple factors in which an individual may need additional support with activities Sinha, et al. As people age, older adults can develop complex health conditions.

Multidimensional syndrome of loss of reserves such as energy, physical ability, cognition, and health can give rise to vulnerability in older adults. Frailty puts individuals at an increased risk of functional impairment, falls, hospitalization, long-term care use, and death following stress, such as a minor illness or infection Sinha et al.

Since frailty is an evolving concept, the specific factors included in measuring frailty are subject to debate. Some measurements include chronic health conditions, sleep quality, mental health, and disability.

While the prevalence of frailty increases with age, it is not necessarily synonymous with age. Factors affecting frailty include chronic conditions and cancer, cardiovascular disease, multi-morbidity, and polypharmacy Sinha, et al. Depression may also be a risk factor for frailty.

This may be due to the symptoms that correspond with depression or the use of antidepressants, which increases the risk of falls and fractures. Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with frailty, which may be due to lower muscle mass.

Having a lower income and being socially isolated are also associated with frailty. Access to secure, stable, and affordable housing can help an individual avoid the adverse outcomes of frailty.

Individuals who live in communities with greater levels of neighbourhood deprivation have higher levels of frailty. People with frailty experience low physical activity, low energy levels, slower walking speeds and non-deliberate weight loss.

Frailty is associated with a lower quality of life, a higher mortality risk, and more frequent hospitalization, and institutionalization. The definition of frailty remains unclear leading to the creation of many scales to measure, reflecting the uncertainty about the term and its components.

Measuring frailty is useful at a clinical and healthcare policy level. Information about frailty helps program planners by identifying the range of services that might be required. Because the scales are intended to stratify risk, the ability to predict adverse outcomes serves a common goal. The Clinical Frailty Scale was developed to be both predictive and easy to use.

The 7-point Clinical Frailty Scale is rooted in a theoretical model of fitness and frailty and the importance of function Rockwood et al. The Clinical Frailty Scale ranges from 1 robust health to 7 complete functional dependence on others.

Very fit — robust, active, energetic, well-motivated and fit; these people commonly exercise regularly and are in the most fit group for their age. Well, with treated comorbid disease — disease symptoms are well controlled compared with those in category 4.

Mildly frail — with limited dependance on others for instrumental activities of daily living. Moderately frail — help is needed with both instrumental and non-instrumental activities of daily living. Severely frail — completely dependent on others for the activities of daily living, or terminally ill.

A link to the Clinical Frailty Scale can be found here: Clinical Frailty Scale. In a study using the Clinical Frailty Scale, participants with higher scores were older, more likely to be female, were cognitively impaired and incontinent, had impaired mobility and function, and had more comorbid illnesses than those with lower scores.

Maintaining good nutrition as people age is one of the most critical ways to prevent frailty. For further information on what frailty is and how to identify it here is a link to the Canadian Frailty Network. Calcium and vitamin D are vital for bone and muscle health.

Vitamin D helps with the absorption of calcium and has roles in the nervous, muscle and immune systems Canadian Frailty Network, n. Protein helps maintain muscle mass, which is important for healthy aging. You can help prevent height loss by following a healthy diet, staying physically active, and preventing and treating bone loss.

Less leg muscles and stiffer joints can make moving around harder. Excess body fat and changes in body shape can affect your balance. These body changes can make falls more likely.

Changes in total body weight vary for men and women. Men often gain weight until about age 55, and then begin to lose weight later in life. This may be related to a drop in the male sex hormone testosterone.

Women usually gain weight until age 65, and then begin to lose weight. Weight loss later in life occurs partly because fat replaces lean muscle tissue, and fat weighs less than muscle. Diet and exercise habits can play a large role in a person's weight changes over their lifetime.

Your lifestyle choices affect how quickly the aging process takes place. Some things you can do to reduce age-related body changes are:. Shah K, Villareal DT. In: Fillit HM, Rockwood K, Young J, eds. Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology.

Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; chap Walston JD. Common clinical sequelae of aging.

Musculoskeletal Herbal energy stimulant are anr among older people. Anv strategies require understanding of age-related changes in strength, function Leafy greens for hair growth body composition, including how they interrelate. We have described, Green tea extract and skin health examined associations between, 9-year changes in these parameters among Bdoy, Aging and Composotion Composition Body composition and aging participants aged 70—79 years. Appendicular lean mass ALMwhole body fat mass and total hip BMD were ascertained using DXA; muscle strength by grip dynamometry; and muscle function by gait speed. For each characteristic annualised percentage changes were calculated; measures of conditional change independent of baseline were derived and their interrelationships were examined using Pearson correlations; proportion of variance at 9-year follow-up explained by baseline level was estimated; and mean trajectories in relation to age were estimated using linear mixed models. Analyses were stratified by sex.

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