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Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties

Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties

Natual purpose of this study was propwrties evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 5 essential oils extracted from plants on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and to determinate how different amount of the used oils can influence the results of inhibition tests. White Pepper Extract Piper nigrum L. Jose Luis Cotrina Aguilar. Comparative Evaluation of Piper nigrum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus and Juniperus.

Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties -

Food products should be protected against microorganisms during storage to prevent contamination. Synthetic preservatives have serious health problems with repeated use. So,consumers nowadays concern their efforts to use new natural food additives. Spices and herbs have been used for countries by many cultures enhance the flavor and aroma of foods.

In addition, they have used for preserving foods and as natural antimicrobials. Pepper ethanol extracts and volatile oils can preserve food from spoilage.

It is the major alkaloid compound accumulate in the skin and seeds of the fruit. It is a solid substance essentially insoluble in water 1,7 Figure Click here to view figure Alkaloids such as piperine have been investigated for their biological and antibacterial activities.

Plant Material: Black pepper Piper nigrum L. seeds were collected from Mansoura markets, Dakahlia, Egypt. Four pathogenic bacterial strains were used. The alcoholic solution is left overnight , where upon yellow needles of piperine are deposited,the yield is a bout 0. The seeds were sieved , dried at °C for 2hours and then the oil was extracted by mechanical pressing.

The antibacterial activity of both piperine and pepper oil was evaluated by using agar well diffusion method. Bacterial cultures are mixed in nutrient agar medium and poured in petriplates.

Wells of 5mm size were made with sterile borer into agar plates containing the bacterial inoculum. Antibacterial activity was measured by adding 0. At the end of incubation period, the inhibition zones of microbial growth were measured and recorded.

The effect of piperine and black pepper oil as antibacterial agents were listed in the Tables 1 and 2 and Figures 2 and 3. It could be noticed that antibacterial activity of piperine and black pepper oil increase as the concentrations increases.

It is supporting the view of. Black pepper oil with all concentrations gave no zones of inhibition against all the Gram negative species and that was inagreement with 10 who confirmed that spices like turmeric and ginger extracts have potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive more than Gram negative bacteria through individually and by mixtures.

The variation in the inhibition among the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria is due to the cell wall and cell membrane compositions. Coli in compare other Gram negative bacteria to piperine when it used with lowest concentrations resulting from the highly permeable membrane.

On the other hand, piperine alteration in the permeability of the cell wall which contain high level of lipid material. Table 1: Inhibition effect of black pepper oil extract on bacteria in vitro. Click here to view figure. Click here to view figure Conclusions. Piperine and black pepper oil have potent activity as antibacterial agents especially piperine with both Gram positive and Negative bacteria strains.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Volume 15, number 4 Views: Visited 1, times, 1 visits today PDF Downloads: Introduction Food products should be protected against microorganisms during storage to prevent contamination.

Microbial l Cultures Four pathogenic bacterial strains were used. Assessment of Antimicrobial Activities The antibacterial activity of both piperine and pepper oil was evaluated by using agar well diffusion method. coli 0. G-: Gram negative cells.

Table 2: Inhibition effect of piperine extract on bacteria in vitro. Data given are mean of triplicates. Figure 2: Inhibition effect of piperine extract on bacteria in vitro.

Click here to view figure Figure 3: Inhibition effect of black pepper oil extract on bacteria in vitro. Click here to view figure Conclusions Piperine and black pepper oil have potent activity as antibacterial agents especially piperine with both Gram positive and Negative bacteria strains.

Acknowledgements I owe my loving thanks to my parents, sisters, my husband and my daughter. References Badmaev V. piperine an alkaloid derived from black pepper increases serum of beta — carotene during 14 days of oral beta — carotene supplementation.

Bagamboula C. Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on shigeila sonnei and shigeilla flexneri. Banso A and Adeyemo S. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of tannins isolated from Dichrostachys cinerea. Bobbarala V. C and Penumajji S.

Antifungal activity of selected plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger F Science ans Technol. Dawidar A. A and Ayyad H. Chemistry of natural products 1st edn.

Mansoura Univ. Emad M and Abdalla W. Black pepper fruit pipper nigrum as antibacterial agent:A mini-review. Journal of Bacteriology and Mycology. Kumoro A. y and Hasan M. extracts against oral pathogenic bacteria.

J Nihon UnivSch Dent. Nzeako BC, Al-Kharousi ZSN, Al-Mahrooqui Z. Antimicrobial activities of clove and thyme extracts. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. Julianti E, Rajah KK, Fidrianny I. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination effects against acne-causing bacteria.

Sci Pharm. Saeed S, Tariq P. Antibacterial activity of oregano Origanumvulgare Linn. against gram positive bacteria. Pak J Pharm Sci. Allahghadri T, Rasooli I, Owlia P, et al. Antimicrobial property, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxicity of essential oil from cumin produced in Iran.

J Food Sci. Beyene B, Deribe H. Review on application and management of medicinal plants for the livelihood of the local community. J Resour Develop Manag.

Chaveerach A, Mokkamul P, Sudmoon R, et al. Ethnobotany of the genus Piper Piperaceae in Thailand. Ahmad N, Fazal H, Abbasi BH, et al. Biological role of Piper nigrum L. Black pepper : A review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. Islam MS, Noor MA, Hossain MS, Chemical investigation of bioactive compounds of black pepper.

Int J Pharm Sci Res. Nelson SC, Eger KT. Farm and forestry production and marketing profile for black pepper Piper nigrum. In: Elevitch CR, editor. Specialty crops for pacific island agroforestry. Charles DJ. Antioxidant properties of spices, herbs and other sources.

Murthy CT, Bhattacharya S. Cryogenic grinding of black pepper. J Food Eng. Kunnumakkara AB, Koca C, Dey S, et al. Traditional uses of spices: An Overview. In: Aggarwal BB, Kunnumakkara AB, editors. Molecular targets and therapeutic uses of spices Modern Uses for Ancient Medicine.

Gorgani L, Mohammadi M, Najafpour GD, et al. Piperine-The bioactive compound of black pepper: From isolation to medicinal formulations. Comprehensive Review in Food and Food Safety. Agbor GA,Vinson JA, Oben JE, et al.

Comparative analysis of the in vitro antioxidant activity of white and black pepper. Nut Res. Chemical and sensory properties of black pepper oil Piper nigrum L. Molec Nut Food Res. Nakatani N, Inatani R, Ohta H, et al.

Chemical constituents of peppers Piper spp. and application to food preservation: Naturally occurring antioxidative compounds. Env Health Persp. Czaplewski L, Bax R, Clokie M, et al.

Alternatives to antibiotics-a pipeline portfolio review. Lancet Infect Dis. Spellberg B, Guidos R, Gilbert D, et al. Epidemic of antibiotic-resistant infections: A call to action for the medical community from the infectious diseases society of america. Clin Infect Dis. Mahady GB, Huang Y, Doyle BJ, et al.

Natural products as antibacterial agents. In: Atta-ur-Rahman, editor. Studies in natural products chemistry. Elsevier BV. Abdaallah EM. Plants: An alternative source for antimicrobials. J Appl Pharma Sci. Zou L, Hu YY, Chen WX. Antibacterial mechanism and activities of black pepper chloroform extract.

J Food Sci Technol. Sepehri Z, Bagheri G, Mohasseli T, et al. Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum and Piper nigrum against antibiotic resistant Klebsiella pneumonia. Bull Env Pharmacol Life Sci. Khan AU, Ali S, Rehman AU, et al. Antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa and Piper nigrum.

Abdel Gadir WS, Mohamed F, Bakhiet A. Antibacterial activity of Tamarindus indica fruit and Piper nigrum seed. Research Journal of Microbilogy. Karsha PV, Lakshmi OB. Antibacterial activity of black pepper Piper nigrum Linn. with special reference to its mode of action on bacteria.

Indian Journal of Natural Products Resources. Blessy S, Gopinath P, Jayalakshmi. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Black Pepper against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus. Khan M, Siddiqui M. Antimicrobial activity of Pepper fruits.

Natural Product Radiance. Martinelli L, Rosa JM, Ferreira CSB, et al. Antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of essential oils and oleoresins extracted from eight pepper species. Ciência Rural. Rani SKS, Saxena N, Udaysree. Antimicrobial Activity of Black Pepper Piper nigrum L.

Global Journal of Pharmacology. Nagy M, Socaci SA, Tofana M, et al. Determination of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of selected aromatic spices.

Bulletin UASVM Food Science and Technology. Nassan MA, Mohamed EH. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of Black Pepper, Ginger and Thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in Albino Rats.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. Ganesh P, Kumar RS, Saranraj P. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Pepper Piper nigrum L. against some human pathogens. Central European Journal of Experimental Biology. Akthar MS, Birhanu G, Demisse S. Antimicrobial activity of Piper nigrum L.

and Cassia didymobotyra L. leaf extract on selected food borne pathogens. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. Ibrahim MI, Husaini AASA, Muhamad N, et al. Antimicrobial, total phenolic and total flavonoid properties of leaves and seed of Jatropha curcas, Piper nigrum L.

and Piper betle methanolic crude extracts. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. Maharjan D, Singh A, Lekhak B, et al. Study on antibacterial activity of common spices.

Nepal Journal of Science and Technology. Pandey B, Khan S, Singh S. A study of antimicrobial activity of some spices. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. Malik N, Ahmed S. Antimicrobial activity of Carica papaya, Piper nigrum and Datura stramonium plants on drug resistant pathogens isolated from clinical specimens.

Content Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties subject to copyright Report. Sort by. Karsha and Lakshmi pdpper the propeerties inhib In pdpper, black pepper has demonstrated inhibition against some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa [] The phenolic compounds of black pepper are believed to be responsible for this antimicrobial activity by damaging the membranes of bacteria restricting their growth [] Karsha and Lakshmi Fruit Methanol Different clinical strains of Providencia stuartii, P.

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BIO152 Standard Protocol for Investigating the Antimicrobial Properties of Garlic edu uses cookies to antimicroblal content, antimicrkbial ads and improve the user experience. Extrac using our site, you agree Healthy eating for older sports performers our Bkack of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. To browse Academia. edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. During present study the antibacterial activity of black pepper Piper nigrum Linn.

Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties -

Food products should be protected against microorganisms during storage to prevent contamination. Synthetic preservatives have serious health problems with repeated use. So,consumers nowadays concern their efforts to use new natural food additives. Spices and herbs have been used for countries by many cultures enhance the flavor and aroma of foods.

In addition, they have used for preserving foods and as natural antimicrobials. Pepper ethanol extracts and volatile oils can preserve food from spoilage. It is the major alkaloid compound accumulate in the skin and seeds of the fruit. It is a solid substance essentially insoluble in water 1,7 Figure Click here to view figure Alkaloids such as piperine have been investigated for their biological and antibacterial activities.

Plant Material: Black pepper Piper nigrum L. seeds were collected from Mansoura markets, Dakahlia, Egypt. Four pathogenic bacterial strains were used.

The alcoholic solution is left overnight , where upon yellow needles of piperine are deposited,the yield is a bout 0. The seeds were sieved , dried at °C for 2hours and then the oil was extracted by mechanical pressing.

The antibacterial activity of both piperine and pepper oil was evaluated by using agar well diffusion method. Bacterial cultures are mixed in nutrient agar medium and poured in petriplates. Wells of 5mm size were made with sterile borer into agar plates containing the bacterial inoculum.

Antibacterial activity was measured by adding 0. At the end of incubation period, the inhibition zones of microbial growth were measured and recorded. The effect of piperine and black pepper oil as antibacterial agents were listed in the Tables 1 and 2 and Figures 2 and 3.

It could be noticed that antibacterial activity of piperine and black pepper oil increase as the concentrations increases. It is supporting the view of. Black pepper oil with all concentrations gave no zones of inhibition against all the Gram negative species and that was inagreement with 10 who confirmed that spices like turmeric and ginger extracts have potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive more than Gram negative bacteria through individually and by mixtures.

The variation in the inhibition among the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria is due to the cell wall and cell membrane compositions. Coli in compare other Gram negative bacteria to piperine when it used with lowest concentrations resulting from the highly permeable membrane.

On the other hand, piperine alteration in the permeability of the cell wall which contain high level of lipid material. Table 1: Inhibition effect of black pepper oil extract on bacteria in vitro. Click here to view figure. Click here to view figure Conclusions.

Piperine and black pepper oil have potent activity as antibacterial agents especially piperine with both Gram positive and Negative bacteria strains. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Volume 15, number 4 Views: Visited 1, times, 1 visits today PDF Downloads: Introduction Food products should be protected against microorganisms during storage to prevent contamination.

Microbial l Cultures Four pathogenic bacterial strains were used. Assessment of Antimicrobial Activities The antibacterial activity of both piperine and pepper oil was evaluated by using agar well diffusion method. coli 0. G-: Gram negative cells. Table 2: Inhibition effect of piperine extract on bacteria in vitro.

Data given are mean of triplicates. Figure 2: Inhibition effect of piperine extract on bacteria in vitro. Click here to view figure Figure 3: Inhibition effect of black pepper oil extract on bacteria in vitro. Click here to view figure Conclusions Piperine and black pepper oil have potent activity as antibacterial agents especially piperine with both Gram positive and Negative bacteria strains.

Acknowledgements I owe my loving thanks to my parents, sisters, my husband and my daughter. References Badmaev V. piperine an alkaloid derived from black pepper increases serum of beta — carotene during 14 days of oral beta — carotene supplementation.

Bagamboula C. Antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on shigeila sonnei and shigeilla flexneri. Banso A and Adeyemo S. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of tannins isolated from Dichrostachys cinerea.

Bobbarala V. C and Penumajji S. Antifungal activity of selected plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger F Science ans Technol.

Dawidar A. A and Ayyad H. Chemistry of natural products 1st edn. Mansoura Univ. Emad M and Abdalla W. Black pepper fruit pipper nigrum as antibacterial agent:A mini-review. Journal of Bacteriology and Mycology.

Kumoro A. y and Hasan M. Depending on the concentration, the members of this class are known to be bactericide or bacteriostatic.

Their action mechanism is unclear, but some studies suggest that the compounds penetrate the cell, where they interfere with cellular metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 5 essential oils extracted from plants on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and to determinate how different amount of the used oils can influence the results of inhibition tests.

These results showed that mainly all the natural extracts presented an antimicrobial effect. Thereby, some extracts were more efficient than another and the order is: Eucalyptus globulus eucalyptus , Mentha piperita mint , Lavandula angustifolia lavender , Matricaria chamomilla chamomile , Calendula offi amira el-fallal.

Essential oils EO are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plant material, such as flowers, roots, bark, leaves, seeds, peel, fruits, wood, and whole plant. Essential oils are considered to be secondary metabolites and important for plant defence as they often possess antimicrobial properties.

The active compounds of essential oils can be divided into four groups according to their chemical structure: terpenes such as lemon Eo, terpenoids such as jasmine EO, phenyl propenes such as vanilla EO, and others such as mustard EO which has Allyl isothiocyanate AITC as active compound.

Mustard EO showed the highest and strongest antimicrobial activity against all tested pathogens Bacillus subtilis, E.

coli ATCC, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer with biggest inhibition zone diameter for R. stolonifer 20 mm, 16 mm for A. flavus, 15 mm for E. coli and 10 mm for B. subtilis following by Lemon EO which caused 12 mm for A. flavus, 10 mm for E. coli, 5 mm for B.

souad AMGHAR. Katherine Hammer. Bruna Andrade. Ömer Ertürk. in this study, the antimicrobial properties of essential oils obtained from Coriandrum sativum, Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Salvia triloba, Laurus nobilis L.

were investigated. A total of eight microbial organisms belonging to six species of bacteria, namely Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes, as well as two fungi, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger, were studied using a disc-diffusion and agar dilution minimal inhibition concentration method.

the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from the six plants turned out to be more effective in the case of bacteria than against fungi.

the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than against Gram-negative ones. All the investigated plants are known as having healing properties and are used to treat various diseases. the essential oils obtained Dzenita Softic. Richard Gunstone.

João de Andrade. Enrico Brocco. Ai Marlina. Snezana Brankovic. SINDA ZARROUK. Tomasz A. nicolas rodriguez. Larry Hufford. David Niño Reyes. Thorarinn Kristmundsson. Laura Cray. Dong-Yan Jin. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes Marvelous Muchenje. International journal of scientific and research publications.

Rajuddin Syamsuddin. Zhengning Lin. Tae Hyun Baek. Inna Rumainum. Richard Weby. Prentiss A Dantzler. Назира Эрназарова. JF Equey. Denis Sablot. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account?

Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Nenko Nenov. See Full PDF Download PDF. Related Papers. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against certain bacterial species.

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Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, ONLINE FIRST ISSN ; DOI: TENEVA1, Z. DENKOVA1, R. DENKOVA2, T. ATANASOVA3, N. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of fruits of black pepper Piper nigrum L. and cardamom Elettaria cardamomum against pathogenic Escherichia coli ATCC , Escherichia coli ATCC , Salmonella sp.

clinical isolate , Staphylococcus aureus ATCC P, Proteus vulgaris G and saprophytic Bacillus cereus ATCC , Penicillium sp. The essential oils and the extracts inhibited the growth of pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms causing gastrointestinal diseases.

Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the extracts and oils inhibition zones between 9. The tested Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive zones of inhibition between 8 and 12 mm with a minimum bactericidal concentration more than ppm.

The obtained essential oils and extracts are suitable for use as biopreservative agents. Key words: antimicrobial activity, black pepper, cardamom, coriander, cumin, essential oil Antimicrobial properties of the herbs are plants generate a wide variety of com- due to various chemical compounds inclu- pounds, either as part of their develop- ding volatile oils, alkaloids and tannins ment or in response to stress or pathogen that are presented in their tissue.

Plant attack Bakkali et al. ness, influenza and dental caries Gilani et Minced spice fruits were processed at al. Distillation pepper, cumin, coriander and cardamom ended when two consecutive measure- Hajlaoui et al. Essential oils are ments within 30 min did not show an one of the most promising groups of increase in the amount of essential oil.

natural compounds for the development of The extraction was carried out in the safer antifungal agents Moghaddam et laboratory extractor with a volume of 1 al. The pronounced antibacterial dm3 with the following parameters: and antioxidant properties of oils and temperature 25—30 °C, pressure 0.

Freon a 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroetha- safety of food. They are also applied in ne was used as extragen, authorised for perfumery and cosmetics industry and in food. The solvent had the following indi- medicine. The antimicrobial activity of cators: relative density at 20 °C and spices and their effect in food products is kHz — 1.

the technological process and storage of Test microorganisms for determining food products Dobreva et al. As a the antimicrobial activity were as fol- result of the inherent secondary metabo- lowed: Escherichia coli ATCC , lism of plants a number of substances are Escherichia coli ATCC , Salmonella synthesised: essential oils, alkaloids, fla- sp.

clinical isolate , Staphylococcus au- vonoids, tannins, glycosides and other reus ATCC P, Proteus vulgaris G, compounds that explain the antimicrobial Bacillus cereus ATCC , Penicillium properties of the products, derived from sp.

All strains have been deposited in the culture collection of The aim of the present research was to the Department of Microbiology at Uni- determine the antimicrobial activity of versity of Food Technology, Plovdiv.

essential oils and extracts from fruits of The antimicrobial activity was studied black pepper, cumin, coriander and carda- by two methods: mom against pathogenic and saprophytic 1 Agar disc diffusion method using 6 mm microorganisms for their application as paper discs and pipetting 6 μL of the natural preservatives that would improve sample; food safety.

Teneva, Z. Merdzhanov 2 Agar serial tube dilution method with × in order to determine the MIC. results expressed as minimum inhibi- Paper discs soaked in distilled water were tory concentration MIC. used as controls. The results were recor- The essential oils or extracts were ded as diameters of the clear zones around diluted and the experiments were the paper discs, in millimeters, after 24— conducted with dilutions 1×, 10× and 48 hours of incubation of the Petri dishes Table 1.

Antimicrobial activity of extracts from fruits of black pepper, cumin, coriander and cardamom Spices Black pepper Cumin Coriander Cardamom Test-micro- IZ, MIC, IZ, MIC, IZ, MIC, IZ, MIC, organisms mm ppm mm ppm mm ppm mm ppm Bacillus cereus 10±0.

aureus — — 8±0. coli ATCC 9±0. coli ATCC — — 9. Antimicrobial activity of oils from fruits of black pepper, cumin, coriander and cardamom Spices Black pepper Cumin Coriander Cardamom Test-micro- IZ, mm MIC, IZ, MIC, IZ, MIC, IZ, MIC, organisms ppm mm ppm mm ppm mm ppm Bacillus cereus 9.

aureus 10±0. at optimal temperature for the growth of bactericidal concentration exceeded the corresponding test-microorganism at ppm Tables 1 and 2. This was due to the 30 °C for the saprophytic microorganisms difference in the structure and compo- and at 37°C for the pathogenic microor- sition of the cell walls of the two groups ganisms Jirovetz et al.

The MIC of bacteria. The presence of an outer was defined as the lowest concentration of membrane in Gram-negative bacteria hin- the essential oil at which the microorga- dered the diffusion of the extracts through nism does not demonstrate visible growth the membrane to the protoplasm of the Randrianarivelo et al.

cell, making them more stable under the The experiments were performed in effect of the tested extracts. The black quadruplicate. The mean values and the pepper oil demonstrated antimicrobial standard deviations were calculated using activity against all tested test microorga- MS Office Excel The MICs, in nisms as compared to the extract.

This ppm, were calculated on the basis of the was due to the difference in the chemical obtained results. composition of the oil and the extract. The essential oils and the extracts of Strong antimicrobial activity against fungi black pepper, cumin, coriander and car- and yeasts was observed: the respective damom inhibited the growth of pathogenic inhibition zones attained up to 25 mm, and saprophytic microorganisms causing and the MIC was more than ppm.

gastrointestinal diseases. The permeability of Ali, B. Blunden, Pharmaco- the bacterial membranes, the presence of logical and toxicological properties of porin proteins in Gram-negative bacteria Nigella sativa. Phytotherapy Research, 17, and the intracellular distribution of the oil — constituents are key elements that influ- Bakkali, F.

Averbeck, D. ence the diffusion and the action of the Idaomar, Biological effects of es- essential oil into the cell.

BatubaraM. Rafi Effective weight management, M. Pep;er Antioxidant, antibacterial, and degradation Streptococcus mutans biofilms Blakc of black pepper Piper nigrum seed extract. AIP Conf. The phenolic, alkaloids, and Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties oil of black pepper antimicrobiial potential as an antioxidant, antibacterial, and expected to be able to degrade Streptococcus mutans biofilms. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant, antibacterial, and Streptococcus mutans biofilm degradation activities of extract with different solvents water, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and essential oils of black pepper seeds. All extracts, essential oils, and piperin as component of black pepper were active as antioxidant based on phosphomolybdate method.

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During present study the antibacterial activity of black pepper Piper nigrum Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties.

and its mode of action on bacteria were done. The antimicroboal of black pepper were evaluated for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration MIC natkral determined by antiicrobial dilution method and mode of action was studied antimicrobizl membrane leakage of UV and UV absorbing material spectrophotometrically.

Antimicrobizl Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties of Pure herbal focus enhancer zone of inhibition against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria was dor.

The MIC extrsct found to be ppm. Black pepper altered the membrane permeability resulting the leakage of the UV and UV absorbing DIY Fruit Face Masks i. The results indicate excellent inhibition Appetite control exercises Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties growth of Gram positive bacteria like Blafk aureus, followed by Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus faecalis.

Among the Antimicribial negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more susceptible followed by Salmonella nxtural Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties Escherichia coli. Ace Aniñon. farishta shams. Nazia Etract. Rachmi Fanani Hakim. Streptococcus naturaal is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacteria which has Flaxseeds for preventing cancer the main cause of dental caries.

Black pepper Piper nigrum L is one naural herbal plants that compose antibacterial natuarl including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties oils. This study aims Fiber optic cables Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties Antidepressant for PMS effect of black pepper Propertiex nigrum L.

extract to inhibit of Streptococcus antimicrobal. Black Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties extracts ware made by extrat maceration method. The effect of black pepper extract Piper nigrum L.

in inhibition of Streptococcus mutansgrowth by using Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton Agar media. The concentration of black antimicroibal Piper peper L. extracts used antimixrobial this study were 6.

Ahasan Anrimicrobial Khan antimicdobial, dr. Yunita Sari Pane, M. Si-Kedokteran TBA. Black pepper Piper Blaci L. is a popular spice that is grown as tropical and subtropical plant throughout the world.

Boack leaf, flower, fruit, and root are the most important elements of the plant. Asexual or vegetative propagation is becoming highly popular, although the sexual approach is still used for pepper vine cultivation. For mass production of the pepper plant, in vitro culture is also used.

The bioactive components contained in them are extremely important because of their therapeutic potential against a number of diseases. They are usually classed as functional foods because, in addition to providing basic nutrition, provide physiological benefits and help to avoid chronic illness.

The main component of black pepper is piperine. It has a complex phyto-chemistry includes: Volatile oil, alkaloids, and oleoresins. Because of its free-radical scavenging properties, black pepper and its active components can be prevention and control of tumor growth.

Piperine, which can bind and inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the sickness, is present in black pepper and has antibacterial and antiviral effects.

Piperine, a key alkaloid component of black pepper, it also helps to cognitive brain function, nutritional absorption, and gastrointestinal health. Black pepper is known as the "King of Spices" as well as the "King of Medicinal Agents," since it includes a wide variety of bioactive compounds with nutraceutical and pharmacological applications.

An overview of the most common applications for black pepper, along with a strong evidence is present in this review. Izhar Dr. Unani Greco-Arabian-Indian System of Medicine USM is one of the classic and prestigious therapies among Indian system of medicine.

It offers full range of medication through natural products. Black pepper is the commonest drug being used for range of diseases. Although it is considered as one of the well known spice as well as medicinal plant throughout the Globe but it is the most famous spice used in Indian and Indian sub-continent kitchens.

Black Pepper in various forms is good home remedies for lot of common ailments. In USM it is best drug for common cold and cough. In this paper authors try to explain the medicinal aspects of Black pepper in USM. African Journal of Biological Sciences AFJBSPunam DeshpandeChinmai Godbole.

Since ancient times, spices are one of the important part of the human diet. In addition, it is used for providing flavor to food and also it possess various preservatives and medicinal values. Spices like turmeric, ginger and chilli exhibit antimicrobial properties.

Turmeric is useful for home remedies and is now becoming a great research of interest for its anti-cancerous property. Even in Ayurveda spices are used as main ingredients for preparation of various medicines. This research aimed at studying antimicrobial activity of turmeric, ginger and chilli against Gram positive and Gram negative organisms.

Standard laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were selected for this study. Disk Diffusion Method was employed for comparative study of each selected spice on selected standard strains. Gram positive bacteria are more sensitive to chilli and turmeric extracts than Gram negative bacteria whereas Gram negative bacteria are more sensitive to ginger extracts than Gram positive.

Various studies have shown that gingerol, a naturally occurring phenol found in ginger disrupts the cell wall of bacteria causing cytoplasmic leakage. Spices might have greater potential to be used as an antimicrobial agents.

Also, spices other than turmeric, ginger and chilli can be screened for their antimicrobial activities against microbial pathogens. Yona Sidarta. Bassam A. Black pepper Piper nigrum is belong to the Piperaceae family. Its a spices crop, which is used as to enhancing the digestion of food and an essential component in commercial medicine.

The aim of this study to show the antibacterial activity of black pepper and the active compound of its piperine alkaloid and identify the structure by reagents, TLC technique and melting point. Antibacterial activity was checked against.

coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonaas, Streptococcus, Aeromonnas, Klebsiellae, Acinetobacter, which were showed a good biological activity significant of piperine alkaloids compared to crude black pepper and synthetic drugs cefuroxime.

Ses York. putu rahmawati. Mouaaz Nahas. Miroslav Miskovic. Brett Kashmere. Henrique Degraf. Luis Moniz Pereira. Tusneem Elhassan. Arjun Kalyanpur. Ana Maria Maidana. Rosa Rodriguez Mora. Ernst-august Nuppenau. Rita Friaes.

Vivien Roussel. Sabrina Rodrigues. Shigekazu Nagata. Luis Carlos Torres. Matia Borhani. MIJANUR RAHMAN. Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation International Technical Meeting. Todd Walter. A Korom Anita által bemutatott soroksári szarmata korongfibula magyar mondatai.

Varga Géza. Kimberly Renk. Gabriela Robledo Hernández.

: Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties

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Black pepper altered the membrane permeability resulting the leakage of the UV and UV absorbing material i. The results indicate excellent inhibition on the growth of Gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus faecalis.

Among the Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more susceptible followed by Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. Ace Aniñon. farishta shams. Nazia Masood. Rachmi Fanani Hakim. Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacteria which has become the main cause of dental caries.

Black pepper Piper nigrum L is one of herbal plants that compose antibacterial compounds including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and essential oils.

This study aims to determine the effect of black pepper Piper nigrum L. extract to inhibit of Streptococcus mutansgrowth. Black pepper extracts ware made by using maceration method. The effect of black pepper extract Piper nigrum L.

in inhibition of Streptococcus mutansgrowth by using the disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton Agar media. The concentration of black pepper Piper nigrum L.

extracts used in this study were 6. Ahasan Ullah Khan , dr. Yunita Sari Pane, M. Si-Kedokteran TBA. Black pepper Piper nigrum L. is a popular spice that is grown as tropical and subtropical plant throughout the world.

The leaf, flower, fruit, and root are the most important elements of the plant. Asexual or vegetative propagation is becoming highly popular, although the sexual approach is still used for pepper vine cultivation.

For mass production of the pepper plant, in vitro culture is also used. The bioactive components contained in them are extremely important because of their therapeutic potential against a number of diseases.

They are usually classed as functional foods because, in addition to providing basic nutrition, provide physiological benefits and help to avoid chronic illness.

The main component of black pepper is piperine. It has a complex phyto-chemistry includes: Volatile oil, alkaloids, and oleoresins. Because of its free-radical scavenging properties, black pepper and its active components can be prevention and control of tumor growth. Piperine, which can bind and inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the sickness, is present in black pepper and has antibacterial and antiviral effects.

Piperine, a key alkaloid component of black pepper, it also helps to cognitive brain function, nutritional absorption, and gastrointestinal health.

Black pepper is known as the "King of Spices" as well as the "King of Medicinal Agents," since it includes a wide variety of bioactive compounds with nutraceutical and pharmacological applications.

An overview of the most common applications for black pepper, along with a strong evidence is present in this review. Izhar Dr.

Unani Greco-Arabian-Indian System of Medicine USM is one of the classic and prestigious therapies among Indian system of medicine. It offers full range of medication through natural products. Black pepper is the commonest drug being used for range of diseases.

Although it is considered as one of the well known spice as well as medicinal plant throughout the Globe but it is the most famous spice used in Indian and Indian sub-continent kitchens. Black Pepper in various forms is good home remedies for lot of common ailments. In USM it is best drug for common cold and cough.

In this paper authors try to explain the medicinal aspects of Black pepper in USM. African Journal of Biological Sciences AFJBS , Punam Deshpande , Chinmai Godbole. Since ancient times, spices are one of the important part of the human diet. In addition, it is used for providing flavor to food and also it possess various preservatives and medicinal values.

Spices like turmeric, ginger and chilli exhibit antimicrobial properties. Turmeric is useful for home remedies and is now becoming a great research of interest for its anti-cancerous property.

Even in Ayurveda spices are used as main ingredients for preparation of various medicines. This research aimed at studying antimicrobial activity of turmeric, ginger and chilli against Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. Standard laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were selected for this study.

Disk Diffusion Method was employed for comparative study of each selected spice on selected standard strains. Gram positive bacteria are more sensitive to chilli and turmeric extracts than Gram negative bacteria whereas Gram negative bacteria are more sensitive to ginger extracts than Gram positive.

Various studies have shown that gingerol, a naturally occurring phenol found in ginger disrupts the cell wall of bacteria causing cytoplasmic leakage.

Spices might have greater potential to be used as an antimicrobial agents. Also, spices other than turmeric, ginger and chilli can be screened for their antimicrobial activities against microbial pathogens. Yona Sidarta. Bassam A. Black pepper Piper nigrum is belong to the Piperaceae family. Its a spices crop, which is used as to enhancing the digestion of food and an essential component in commercial medicine.

The aim of this study to show the antibacterial activity of black pepper and the active compound of its piperine alkaloid and identify the structure by reagents, TLC technique and melting point.

Antibacterial activity was checked against. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonaas, Streptococcus, Aeromonnas, Klebsiellae, Acinetobacter, which were showed a good biological activity significant of piperine alkaloids compared to crude black pepper and synthetic drugs cefuroxime.

Ses York. putu rahmawati. Mouaaz Nahas. Miroslav Miskovic. Brett Kashmere. Henrique Degraf. Luis Moniz Pereira. Tusneem Elhassan. Arjun Kalyanpur. Ana Maria Maidana. Rosa Rodriguez Mora. Ernst-august Nuppenau. Rita Friaes. Vivien Roussel. Sabrina Rodrigues. Shigekazu Nagata.

Luis Carlos Torres. Matia Borhani. MIJANUR RAHMAN. Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation International Technical Meeting. Todd Walter. A Korom Anita által bemutatott soroksári szarmata korongfibula magyar mondatai. Varga Géza. Kimberly Renk. Gabriela Robledo Hernández.

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Research Article June 04 Antioxidant, antibacterial, and degradation Streptococcus mutans biofilms activities of black pepper Piper nigrum seed extract I. Batubara ; I. Batubara a. a Corresponding author: ime apps. This Site. Google Scholar. Rafi ; M. Yolanda M. Reprints and Permissions.

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Metode Fitokimia: Penuntun Cara Modern Menganalisis Tumbuhan, translate from Phytochemical Methods. This content is only available via PDF.

Black pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.) as antibacterial agent: A mini-review - MedCrave online

Introduction Essential oils EO derived from plant species have been demonstrated to contain lipophilic substances with proven bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, or antimutagenic activities and thus find a wide range of applications [1] [2].

Nanoemulsion Formulation by Emulsion Phase Inversion Method The emulsion Phase Inversion process for formulating BPEO nanoemulsion was done following our previous reports [25] [26].

Determination of Volatile Compounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method GC-MS Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method was used for determining compounds in black pepper essential oil and nanoemulsions by GC Agilent N coupled with MS inert and HP5 — MS capillary column 30m x 0.

Determination of Droplet Size and Polydispersity Index Mean droplet size and polydispersity index were determined by the Dynamic Light Scattering method with HORIBA SZ Nanoparticle Analyzer. Determination of Minimal Inhibitory Concentration MIC and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration MBC by Dilution Method Antibacterial activity of BPEO and BPEO nanoemulsion was carried out over four bacteria including Escherichia coli ATCC , Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC , Salmonella enterica ATCC , and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC Antibacterial Activity of BPEO Nanoemulsion on Meat Infected by Bacteria After indicating bacterial inhibition of BPEO nanoemulsion by dilution method, our system was tested antibacterial activity on pork against E.

Meat Preservation by BPEO Nanoemulsion Many studies were done for testing the food preserving ability of essential oil nanoemulsion on meat products [28] [29].

Statistical Analysis All of the experiments were replicated at least three times and data were analysed by the Analysis of Variance method by Statgraphics Ver. Results and Discussion Characteristics of Black Pepper Essential Oil Nanoemulsion For using BPEO nanoemulsion as a food preservative, this system must be physicochemical steadiness and well-encapsulated bioactive components.

Click here to view Figure In Figure 1, the droplet size distribution of BPEO nanoemulsion after 24 hours and after six-month storage was compared. Click here to view Figure Figure 2 showed the existence of five main volatile compounds in BPEO nanoemulsion. Antibacterial Activity of BPEO and BPEO Nanoemulsion by Dilution Method The BPEO nanoemulsion in our research was determined antibacterial activity against some common food pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica.

Inhibitory of BPEO Nanoemulsion on Pork Infected by Bacteria Depending on the high antibacterial activity of BPEO nanoemulsion against E.

Effect of BPEO Nanoemulsion Concentration on Minced Beef Microorganism Qualification Depending on the tendency for utilization of natural food preservatives, BPEO nanoemulsions were blended in minced beef at different concentrations from 0.

Effect of BPEO Nanoemulsion Concentration on Microorganism Qualification of Seasoning Cured Meat In this experiment, pork and chicken were cured with seasoning and BPEO nanoemulsion and kept at 5 o C for six days.

Conclusion In conclusion, our nanoemulsion formulated by the EPI method could load BPEO and it had been stable for at least 6 months. Acknowledgments We would like to thank Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology HCMUT , VNU-HCM for the support of time and facilities for this study.

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Funding Information No fund for the research. References Properzi A. and Venanzoni R. Some Biological Activities of Essential Oils. Dhifi W. and Mnif W. CrossRef Tongnuanchan P.

and Prodpran T. Comparative studies on properties and antioxidative activity of fish skin gelatin films incorporated with essential oils from various sources. Int Aquat Res. CrossRef Perricone M. and Bevilacqua A. Bioactivity of essential oils: a review on their interaction with food components.

Frontiers in Microbiology. CrossRef El Moussaouiti M. and Kamdem D. Chemical composition and bactericidal evaluation of essential oil of Tetraclinis articulata burl wood from Morocco. J Indian Acad Wood Sci.

CrossRef Akarca G. Composition and antibacterial effect on foodborne pathogens of Hibiscus urrattensis L. calyces essential oil. CrossRef Sayout A. Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of essential oil from avandula tenuisecta Coss. ex Ball. an endemic species from Morocco. European Journal of Integrative Medicine.

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essential oil with gelatin and sodium alginate by complex coacervation. Food Hydrocolloids. CrossRef Kumoro A. and Singh H. Extraction Of Sarawak Black Pepper Essential Oil Using Supercritical Carbon dioxide. Arabian Journal For Science And Engineering.

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and Gopi S. Journal of Biological Macromolecules. CrossRef Li Y. and Yang K. Analysis of chemical components and biological activities of essential oils from black and white pepper Piper nigrum L.

in five provinces of southern China. CrossRef Andrade B. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils. Journal of Essential Oil Research.

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CrossRef Hien L. and Dao D. Black pepper essential oil nanoemulsions formulation using EPI and PIT methods. Journal of food processing and preservation. and Dao T. Characterization of black pepper essential oil nanoemulsion fabricated by emulsion phase inversion method.

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Tusneem Elhassan. Arjun Kalyanpur. Ana Maria Maidana. Rosa Rodriguez Mora. Ernst-august Nuppenau. Rita Friaes. Vivien Roussel. Sabrina Rodrigues.

Shigekazu Nagata. Luis Carlos Torres. Matia Borhani. MIJANUR RAHMAN. Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation International Technical Meeting.

Todd Walter. A Korom Anita által bemutatott soroksári szarmata korongfibula magyar mondatai. Varga Géza. Kimberly Renk. Gabriela Robledo Hernández. Virginia Figueiredo. Jose Luis Cotrina Aguilar. Leonor Acosta Bustamante. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Antibacterial activity of black pepper Piper nigrum Linn. with special reference to its mode of action on bacteria. Yayan Saputra. See Full PDF Download PDF. Related Papers. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Pepper Piper nigrum L.

against some human pathogens. Download Free PDF View PDF. The Effect of Aqueous-Alcoholic Extracts and Black Pepper Essence on Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus. Bactericidal Activity of Black Pepper, Bay Leaf, Aniseed and Coriander Against Oral Isolates.

Dentika Dental Journal Effect of Black Pepper Extract Piper nigrum L towards Streptococcus Mutans Growth. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences Prospect of The Black Pepper Piper nigrum L. as Natural Product Used to an Herbal Medicine. Medicinal Properties of Black Pepper Piper Nigrum Linn : A Common Unani Medicine.

African Journal of Biological Sciences Antimicrobial activity of spices against Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. White Pepper Extract Piper nigrum L. as Antibacterial Agent for Streptococcus mutans In Vitro.

Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources Vol. Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Black pepper, Piper nigrum, Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, Nucleic acids.

IPC code; Int. The various plant products, that are absorbing materials spectrophotometrically were done. regularly used for their therapeutic potential, and plants or plant products that form the part of the food Materials and Methods Plant material or as dietary components, have been receiving Black pepper Piper nigrum berries were considerable attention.

Though much is known about purchased from local market. the chemistry and the antimicrobial action of several phytochemicals, very few reports are available on the Bacterial cultures possible mechanism of action. For phenols and Gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus phenolic compounds, an injury of membrane NCIM , Bacillus cereus NCIM and functions has been proposed as a mechanism of Streptococcus faecalis NCIM and Gram action negative bacteria: Escherichia coli NCIM , Black pepper Piper nigrum Linn.

is a flowering Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIM , Pseudomonas vine of Piperaceae family. It is native to India and has aeruginosa NCIM , and Salmonella typhi been a prized spice since ancient times.

The volatile NCIM were obtained from National Collection oil of pepper has been shown to have antimicrobial of Industrial Micro-organisms NCIM , NCL, Pune.

Black pepper has many medicinal Chemicals properties like it is used to treat vertigo, asthma, Acetone and Dichloromethane DCM as solvents chronic indigestion, colon toxins, obesity, sinusitis, for the extraction of black pepper Berry , nutrient congestion, fever, paralytic, arthritic disorders and agar and nutrient broth for bacterial cultivation, also advised in diarrhoea and cholera3, 6.

The pepper powder 50g was then A small portion of the dry extract was used for extracted with two solvents, viz. acetone and DCM phytochemical screening test11, using soxhlet apparatus by continuous heat extraction for 24 hours. The extracts obtained were concentrated Results and Discussion to dryness by evaporating the solvent under reduced The zone of inhibition was measured for both pressure7.

The concentration thus obtained was acetone and DCM extract of pepper and the results dissolved in DMSO in such a way that the final depicted in Table 1.

bacteria but less efficient than that of standard antibiotic, Ampicillin. Disc diffusion method The acetone extract of black pepper displayed The in vitro antibacterial activity of the acetone and excellent inhibition on the growth of Gram positive DCM extracts of pepper was carried out by disc bacteria.

Staphylococcus was more susceptible diffusion method8. Actively growing log phase followed by Bacillus and Streptococcus. The MIC cultures were mixed in soft agar Nutrient broth with values are , and ppm, respectively.

Natural products as antibacterial agents. In: Atta-ur-Rahman, editor. Studies in natural products chemistry. Elsevier BV. Abdaallah EM. Plants: An alternative source for antimicrobials.

J Appl Pharma Sci. Zou L, Hu YY, Chen WX. Antibacterial mechanism and activities of black pepper chloroform extract. J Food Sci Technol. Sepehri Z, Bagheri G, Mohasseli T, et al. Antibacterial Activity of Cuminum cyminum and Piper nigrum against antibiotic resistant Klebsiella pneumonia.

Bull Env Pharmacol Life Sci. Khan AU, Ali S, Rehman AU, et al. Antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa and Piper nigrum. Abdel Gadir WS, Mohamed F, Bakhiet A. Antibacterial activity of Tamarindus indica fruit and Piper nigrum seed. Research Journal of Microbilogy. Karsha PV, Lakshmi OB.

Antibacterial activity of black pepper Piper nigrum Linn. with special reference to its mode of action on bacteria. Indian Journal of Natural Products Resources. Blessy S, Gopinath P, Jayalakshmi. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Black Pepper against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus.

Khan M, Siddiqui M. Antimicrobial activity of Pepper fruits. Natural Product Radiance. Martinelli L, Rosa JM, Ferreira CSB, et al. Antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of essential oils and oleoresins extracted from eight pepper species.

Ciência Rural. Rani SKS, Saxena N, Udaysree. Antimicrobial Activity of Black Pepper Piper nigrum L. Global Journal of Pharmacology. Nagy M, Socaci SA, Tofana M, et al. Determination of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of selected aromatic spices.

Bulletin UASVM Food Science and Technology. Nassan MA, Mohamed EH. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of Black Pepper, Ginger and Thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in Albino Rats.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. Ganesh P, Kumar RS, Saranraj P. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Pepper Piper nigrum L. against some human pathogens. Central European Journal of Experimental Biology. Akthar MS, Birhanu G, Demisse S.

Antimicrobial activity of Piper nigrum L. and Cassia didymobotyra L. leaf extract on selected food borne pathogens.

Asian Pac J Trop Dis. Ibrahim MI, Husaini AASA, Muhamad N, et al. Antimicrobial, total phenolic and total flavonoid properties of leaves and seed of Jatropha curcas, Piper nigrum L. and Piper betle methanolic crude extracts. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. Maharjan D, Singh A, Lekhak B, et al. Study on antibacterial activity of common spices.

Nepal Journal of Science and Technology. Pandey B, Khan S, Singh S. A study of antimicrobial activity of some spices.

Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. Malik N, Ahmed S. Antimicrobial activity of Carica papaya, Piper nigrum and Datura stramonium plants on drug resistant pathogens isolated from clinical specimens. IOSR Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry IOSR-JBB.

Zhang J, Ye KP, Zhang X, et al. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of Black Pepper essential oil on meat-borne Escherichia coli. Frontiers in Microbiology. Zaki NH, AL Oqaili RMS, Tahreer H. Antibacterial effect of Ginger and Black Pepper extracts alone and in combination with Sesame oil on some pathogenic bacteria.

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Dorman HJD, Deans SG. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of Applied Microbiology. Aldaly ZTK. Antimicrobial Activity of Piperine purified from Piper nigrum.

Journal of Basrah Researches Sciences. Erturk O. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts from eleven spice plants. Biologia, Bratislava. Sasidharan I, Menon AN. Comparative chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of berry and leaf essential oils of Piper nigrum L.

Int J Biol Med Res.

Herbs and Spices’ Antimicrobial Properties and Possible Use in the Food Sector After 24 Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties incubation, zone rxtract DNase was assayed by Dairy-free ingredients of 1N HCl Antibacterial activity and mechanism of propetties of Black Pepper Antioxidant immune defense oil on meat-borne Escherichia coli. However, the pungency of these piperine's analogs are less the Piperine. CrossRef Shams N. See Full PDF Download PDF. Ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, methyl eugenol, tocopherols, eugenol, eudesmol, kaempferol, kaempferolrhamnopyranoside, kaempferol-3,7-dirhamnopyranoside, α-terpinyl acetate, cinnamtannin B1, catechin, terpinenol, 8-cineole. nigrum showed some level of inhibition to all microorganisms but was most effective against…
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Firstly, bacteria colonies were transferred from maintaining agar media to TSB tryptone soy broth , followed by incubation at 37 o C for 48 hours to increase cell mass. Farland 0. The lowest possible concentration of BPEO that causes no visual growth of bacteria after incubation was identified as minimal inhibitory concentration MIC.

The MIC parameter was determined by the dilution method [16]. Firstly, nine glass tubes, which contained 2 mL of sterilized TSB media, were prepared. Next, 2 mL solution in the first tube was transferred to the second one for two-fold dilution. Two-fold dilution was continued for seven residue tubes.

Finally, 0. Additionally, a negative tube containing TSB only and a positive tube containing TSB and bacteria were also prepared.

Amoxicillin was also diluted by the same method to prepare nine different concentrations. All of the tubes were incubated at 37 o C for 24 hours before being added with μL Tetrazolium Chloride TTC 0. The lowest concentration of each drug essential oils or antibiotic that did not cause the tube turning into red was identified as MIC.

On the other hand, before adding TTC solution, 0. After indicating bacterial inhibition of BPEO nanoemulsion by dilution method, our system was tested antibacterial activity on pork against E. The bacteria population was determined on the 2 nd , 4 th , and 6 th day to evaluate nanoemulsion antimicrobial activity.

Many studies were done for testing the food preserving ability of essential oil nanoemulsion on meat products [28] [29]. In this experiment, BPEO nanoemulsion was formed and evaluated its antimicrobial activity in fresh meats. All the experiments were replicated 3 times before collecting and analysing data.

Firstly, minced beef was preserved by BPEO nanoemulsion. Briefly, gram minced beef was mixed with BPEO nanoemulsion at some concentrations 0; 0. In the next experiment, lean pork and chicken were used for testing BPEO nanoemulsion bioactivity. Each meat sample was weighed at g and cut into pieces size at 4 x 5 x 1 cm.

Then, all of the meat samples were cured with a seasoning mixture including 1. All of the experiments were replicated at least three times and data were analysed by the Analysis of Variance method by Statgraphics Ver.

The charts were made with Microsoft Excel. For using BPEO nanoemulsion as a food preservative, this system must be physicochemical steadiness and well-encapsulated bioactive components. After fabricating, BPEO nanoemulsion was kept at room temperature for six months.

The nanoemulsion was then analysed droplet size distribution by DLS method and volatile components by GC — MS method. Figure 1: Droplet Size Distribution of BPEO Nanoemulsions. Click here to view Figure. In Figure 1, the droplet size distribution of BPEO nanoemulsion after 24 hours and after six-month storage was compared.

The data indicated that there was almost no difference in average droplet size after long-term storage. The similarity of the two charts in shape and location showed the physicochemical stabilization of BPEO nanoemulsion. There was an increase in the polydispersity index PdI from 0.

This variation presented a decrease in system homogeneity. According to many authors, nanoemulsion is thermodynamically unstable so its average droplet size rises over time. However, nanoemulsion is kinetically stable and this system could retain steadiness for a very long time if it has appropriate properties [23] [24].

In this case, our BPEO nanoemulsion had been high homogeneous with very small droplets about 18 nm and had retained steadiness for six months. In recent studies, nanoemulsions fabricated by the EPI method also obtained highly homogenous.

D-limonene nanoemulsion formed by the EPI method determined the average droplet size of Vitamin E nanoemulsion with 40 nm of average droplet size was also successfully fabricated by the EPI method [31].

In another study, using the same method, clove and lemongrass oil nanoemulsion got the smallest droplet size of This system showed antimicrobial activity against Fusarium oxysporum. For evaluating the protection for bioactive compounds, BPEO nanoemulsion after six months was determined volatile components by GC — MS method Figure 2.

Figure 2: GC — MS Chromatogram of BPEO Nanoemulsion Volatile Components after Six-Month Storage. Figure 2 showed the existence of five main volatile compounds in BPEO nanoemulsion. These compounds, including α-pinene, β-pinene, D-limonene, 3-carene, and β-caryophyllene, obtained high concentrations of 5.

Comparison with pure BPEO volatile components, which presented in our previous reports [25] [26] , concentrations of four compounds α-pinene, β-pinene, D-limonene, 3-carene almost remained.

However, the concentration of β-caryophyllene was remarkably decreased from The decrease in β-caryophyllene content might be due to the formation of caryophyllene derivatives such as caryophyllene oxide and caryophylladienol at a retention time of Caryophyllene oxide content increased from 1.

While caryophylladienol, which was not identified in pure BPEO, presented in BPEO nanoemulsion after six months at low concentration 0. Therefore, the BPEO nanoemulsion could use as a loading system for improving dispersion and bioactivity of lipophilic BPEO in practical application.

The BPEO nanoemulsion in our research was determined antibacterial activity against some common food pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica. Free BPEO and amoxicillin were also used in this experiment as control samples, and the results were shown in Table 1.

All samples BPEO, BPEO nanoemulsion, and amoxicillin observed high antibacterial activity against E. enterica than S. aureus and P. MIC and MBC of BPEO nanoemulsion for E. It was meant that BPEO nanoemulsion inhibited E.

coli more effectively than free BPEO but presented similar bioactivity to amoxicillin. In the case of S. enteric a, BPEO nanoemulsion showed a better inhibiting effect than free BPEO, but less than amoxicillin. enterica in our experiment. Table 1: MICs and MBCs of Free BPEO, BPEO Nanoemulsion, and Amoxicillin Against Bacteria.

Free BPEO and BPEO nanoemulsion showed better antibacterial activity against P. All three samples presented the worst antibacterial activity against S. aureus with very high MICs and MBCs. Generally, free BPEO and BPEO nanoemulsion presented better antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria E.

coli, S. enterica, and P. aeruginosa than Gram-positive bacteria S. This was corroborated by a previous study where the antibacterial activity of BPEO emulsion was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, showing slightly higher activity against the latter than the former, possibly due to differences in the cell wall and membrane components [33].

The mechanism was further elaborated that lactic acid bacteria and Brochothrix spp. Gram-positive were more resistant to BPEO than Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative. Accordingly, the high susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria against lipophilic essential oil could be explained by a thinner peptidoglycan layer but higher content of lipid lipoprotein and lipopolysaccharide than Gram-positive.

As a result, lipophilic essential oil could easily penetrate the Gram-negative bacteria cytoplasmic [28]. The bacteria inhibitory of BPEO have been reported in numerous studies.

In a previous study, BPEO MICs for S. aureus and E. Other authors pointed that there was a significant difference in inhibition zone diameter between Indian BPEO and control sample against Pseudomonas aeruginosa According to these studies, BPEO could inhibit bacteria but is more effective on Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive ones.

Our work had given more proof for the sensitiveness of Gram-negative bacteria, especially E. enterica , to BPEO nanoemulsion than free BPEO. Depending on the high antibacterial activity of BPEO nanoemulsion against E. Then, meat samples were dipped into these solutions or sterilized water control sample.

Next, 1 mL of bacteria E. coli or S. Then, pork samples were put on plastic dishes, packed over by PE layer, and kept at 5 o C. Bacterial colony counts were analysed on the 2 nd , 4 th , and 6 th days. The data were given in Table 2.

As in Table 2, on the second day, all of the samples dipped into BPEO nanoemulsion solutions could retain E. coli population below 5. From the 2 nd to the 4 th day, the number of E.

coli increased in all samples at different rates. On the fourth day, E. coli population of the control sample was the highest 5. After six days, E. coli number of treatment and control samples were not significantly different.

Note: Different superscript letters a, b, c,… showed the significant difference of data in the same column at 0. As in Table 2, BPEO nanoemulsion could also inhibit the growth of S.

enterica on cold pork. The bacteria count of the control sample was 5. enterica count of 5. In general, BPEO nanoemulsion could reduce the growth of both E. enterica on pork. These results could give the hope to use this system for meat preservation. Effect of BPEO Nanoemulsion Concentration on Minced Beef Microorganism Qualification.

Depending on the tendency for utilization of natural food preservatives, BPEO nanoemulsions were blended in minced beef at different concentrations from 0. Next, these treated samples and control samples without BPEO nanoemulsion were put in plastic dishes, packed over with PE layer, and kept at 5 o C.

The total aerobic microbial count and pH of samples were determined on the 2 nd , 4 th , and 6 th days. In this experiment, the aerobic microbial number and the change of pH index significantly decreased with the increase in nanoemulsion concentration.

It meant that BPEO nanoemulsion could function as a preservative for fresh beef against microorganisms. The microorganism population of untreated beef rose quickly to 9.

BPEO had been also utilized in some recent studies as a preservative. Effect of BPEO Nanoemulsion Concentration on Microorganism Qualification of Seasoning Cured Meat.

In this experiment, pork and chicken were cured with seasoning and BPEO nanoemulsion and kept at 5 o C for six days. The samples were determined total aerobic microbial count during cold storage to evaluate the microbial inhibiting effect of BPEO nanoemulsion on meat.

The data were shown in Table 4. Note: Different superscript letters a, b, c,… showed significant differences in data in the same column at 0. The results revealed that all of the meat samples with BPEO nanoemulsion were a significantly lower microbial number than the control samples.

The control samples obtained above 5. Generally, BPEO nanoemulsion used as a natural preservative could inhibit microbial growth in meat samples both pork and chicken.

In conclusion, our nanoemulsion formulated by the EPI method could load BPEO and it had been stable for at least 6 months. The MIC and MBC values in the dilution assay revealed that BPEO nanoemulsion observed higher antibacterial activity against food pathogens than free BPEO.

enterica were more sensitive than other bacteria P. aeruginosa and S. BPEO nanoemulsion could also inhibit the growth of bacteria on meat infected by E. Last but not least, BPEO nanoemulsion could be an effective preservative for meat samples in our study because this system could reduce total aerobic microbial growth in these samples at 5 o C.

We would like to thank Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology HCMUT , VNU-HCM for the support of time and facilities for this study. Appendix 1: Volatile Components of BPEO Nanoemulsion After 6 Months by GC — MS Method.

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Article Metrics PDF Downloads: Introduction Essential oils EO derived from plant species have been demonstrated to contain lipophilic substances with proven bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, or antimutagenic activities and thus find a wide range of applications [1] [2].

Nanoemulsion Formulation by Emulsion Phase Inversion Method The emulsion Phase Inversion process for formulating BPEO nanoemulsion was done following our previous reports [25] [26].

Determination of Volatile Compounds by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method GC-MS Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method was used for determining compounds in black pepper essential oil and nanoemulsions by GC Agilent N coupled with MS inert and HP5 — MS capillary column 30m x 0.

Determination of Droplet Size and Polydispersity Index Mean droplet size and polydispersity index were determined by the Dynamic Light Scattering method with HORIBA SZ Nanoparticle Analyzer. Determination of Minimal Inhibitory Concentration MIC and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration MBC by Dilution Method Antibacterial activity of BPEO and BPEO nanoemulsion was carried out over four bacteria including Escherichia coli ATCC , Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC , Salmonella enterica ATCC , and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC Antibacterial Activity of BPEO Nanoemulsion on Meat Infected by Bacteria After indicating bacterial inhibition of BPEO nanoemulsion by dilution method, our system was tested antibacterial activity on pork against E.

Meat Preservation by BPEO Nanoemulsion Many studies were done for testing the food preserving ability of essential oil nanoemulsion on meat products [28] [29].

Statistical Analysis All of the experiments were replicated at least three times and data were analysed by the Analysis of Variance method by Statgraphics Ver. Results and Discussion Characteristics of Black Pepper Essential Oil Nanoemulsion For using BPEO nanoemulsion as a food preservative, this system must be physicochemical steadiness and well-encapsulated bioactive components.

Click here to view Figure In Figure 1, the droplet size distribution of BPEO nanoemulsion after 24 hours and after six-month storage was compared. Click here to view Figure Figure 2 showed the existence of five main volatile compounds in BPEO nanoemulsion.

Antibacterial Activity of BPEO and BPEO Nanoemulsion by Dilution Method The BPEO nanoemulsion in our research was determined antibacterial activity against some common food pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica.

Inhibitory of BPEO Nanoemulsion on Pork Infected by Bacteria Depending on the high antibacterial activity of BPEO nanoemulsion against E. Effect of BPEO Nanoemulsion Concentration on Minced Beef Microorganism Qualification Depending on the tendency for utilization of natural food preservatives, BPEO nanoemulsions were blended in minced beef at different concentrations from 0.

Effect of BPEO Nanoemulsion Concentration on Microorganism Qualification of Seasoning Cured Meat In this experiment, pork and chicken were cured with seasoning and BPEO nanoemulsion and kept at 5 o C for six days. Conclusion In conclusion, our nanoemulsion formulated by the EPI method could load BPEO and it had been stable for at least 6 months.

Acknowledgments We would like to thank Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology HCMUT , VNU-HCM for the support of time and facilities for this study. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Funding Information No fund for the research.

References Properzi A. and Venanzoni R. Some Biological Activities of Essential Oils. Dhifi W. and Mnif W. CrossRef Tongnuanchan P. and Prodpran T.

Comparative studies on properties and antioxidative activity of fish skin gelatin films incorporated with essential oils from various sources. Int Aquat Res. CrossRef Perricone M. and Bevilacqua A.

Bioactivity of essential oils: a review on their interaction with food components. Frontiers in Microbiology. CrossRef El Moussaouiti M. clinical isolate , Staphylococcus aureus ATCC P, Proteus vulgaris G and saprophytic Bacillus cereus ATCC , Penicillium sp. The essential oils and the extracts inhibited the growth of pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms causing gastrointestinal diseases.

Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the extracts and oils inhibition zones between 9. The tested Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive zones of inhibition between 8 and 12 mm with a minimum bactericidal concentration more than ppm.

The obtained essential oils and extracts are suitable for use as biopreservative agents. Key words: antimicrobial activity, black pepper, cardamom, coriander, cumin, essential oil Antimicrobial properties of the herbs are plants generate a wide variety of com- due to various chemical compounds inclu- pounds, either as part of their develop- ding volatile oils, alkaloids and tannins ment or in response to stress or pathogen that are presented in their tissue.

Plant attack Bakkali et al. ness, influenza and dental caries Gilani et Minced spice fruits were processed at al. Distillation pepper, cumin, coriander and cardamom ended when two consecutive measure- Hajlaoui et al. Essential oils are ments within 30 min did not show an one of the most promising groups of increase in the amount of essential oil.

natural compounds for the development of The extraction was carried out in the safer antifungal agents Moghaddam et laboratory extractor with a volume of 1 al. The pronounced antibacterial dm3 with the following parameters: and antioxidant properties of oils and temperature 25—30 °C, pressure 0.

Freon a 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroetha- safety of food. They are also applied in ne was used as extragen, authorised for perfumery and cosmetics industry and in food.

The solvent had the following indi- medicine. The antimicrobial activity of cators: relative density at 20 °C and spices and their effect in food products is kHz — 1. the technological process and storage of Test microorganisms for determining food products Dobreva et al.

As a the antimicrobial activity were as fol- result of the inherent secondary metabo- lowed: Escherichia coli ATCC , lism of plants a number of substances are Escherichia coli ATCC , Salmonella synthesised: essential oils, alkaloids, fla- sp.

clinical isolate , Staphylococcus au- vonoids, tannins, glycosides and other reus ATCC P, Proteus vulgaris G, compounds that explain the antimicrobial Bacillus cereus ATCC , Penicillium properties of the products, derived from sp. All strains have been deposited in the culture collection of The aim of the present research was to the Department of Microbiology at Uni- determine the antimicrobial activity of versity of Food Technology, Plovdiv.

essential oils and extracts from fruits of The antimicrobial activity was studied black pepper, cumin, coriander and carda- by two methods: mom against pathogenic and saprophytic 1 Agar disc diffusion method using 6 mm microorganisms for their application as paper discs and pipetting 6 μL of the natural preservatives that would improve sample; food safety.

Teneva, Z. Merdzhanov 2 Agar serial tube dilution method with × in order to determine the MIC. results expressed as minimum inhibi- Paper discs soaked in distilled water were tory concentration MIC. used as controls. The results were recor- The essential oils or extracts were ded as diameters of the clear zones around diluted and the experiments were the paper discs, in millimeters, after 24— conducted with dilutions 1×, 10× and 48 hours of incubation of the Petri dishes Table 1.

Antimicrobial activity of extracts from fruits of black pepper, cumin, coriander and cardamom Spices Black pepper Cumin Coriander Cardamom Test-micro- IZ, MIC, IZ, MIC, IZ, MIC, IZ, MIC, organisms mm ppm mm ppm mm ppm mm ppm Bacillus cereus 10±0.

aureus — — 8±0. coli ATCC 9±0. coli ATCC — — 9. Antimicrobial activity of oils from fruits of black pepper, cumin, coriander and cardamom Spices Black pepper Cumin Coriander Cardamom Test-micro- IZ, mm MIC, IZ, MIC, IZ, MIC, IZ, MIC, organisms ppm mm ppm mm ppm mm ppm Bacillus cereus 9.

aureus 10±0. at optimal temperature for the growth of bactericidal concentration exceeded the corresponding test-microorganism at ppm Tables 1 and 2. This was due to the 30 °C for the saprophytic microorganisms difference in the structure and compo- and at 37°C for the pathogenic microor- sition of the cell walls of the two groups ganisms Jirovetz et al.

The MIC of bacteria. The presence of an outer was defined as the lowest concentration of membrane in Gram-negative bacteria hin- the essential oil at which the microorga- dered the diffusion of the extracts through nism does not demonstrate visible growth the membrane to the protoplasm of the Randrianarivelo et al.

cell, making them more stable under the The experiments were performed in effect of the tested extracts. The black quadruplicate. The mean values and the pepper oil demonstrated antimicrobial standard deviations were calculated using activity against all tested test microorga- MS Office Excel The MICs, in nisms as compared to the extract.

This ppm, were calculated on the basis of the was due to the difference in the chemical obtained results. composition of the oil and the extract. The essential oils and the extracts of Strong antimicrobial activity against fungi black pepper, cumin, coriander and car- and yeasts was observed: the respective damom inhibited the growth of pathogenic inhibition zones attained up to 25 mm, and saprophytic microorganisms causing and the MIC was more than ppm.

gastrointestinal diseases. The permeability of Ali, B. Blunden, Pharmaco- the bacterial membranes, the presence of logical and toxicological properties of porin proteins in Gram-negative bacteria Nigella sativa.

Phytotherapy Research, 17, and the intracellular distribution of the oil — constituents are key elements that influ- Bakkali, F. Averbeck, D. ence the diffusion and the action of the Idaomar, Biological effects of es- essential oil into the cell.

In most lite- sential oils — a review. Food and Chemical rature reports, Gram-positive organisms Toxicology, 46, — appear to be more sensitive than Gram- Balinova, A. Dyakov, Improved negative to essential oils. However, other apparatus for microdestilation of rose studies do not confirm this observation, as flower.

Agricultural Science Sofia , 11, Gram-positive bacteria have been found to 79—85 BG. be less or equally sensitive to Gram- Burt, S. Essential oils: Their antibacte- negative bacteria as well Burt, ; rial properties and potential applications in foods — a review.

International Journal of Randrianarivelo et al. Food Microbiology, 94, — In the present study Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the Dobreva, K.

Boicheva, V. Stoyanova, Antimicrobial activity of extracts and oils inhibition zones between extracts from spice mixtures. Trakia Jour- 9. tory concentration was more than Georgiev, E. Labora- ppm. The tested Gram-negative bacteria tory Manual on Technology of Essential were less sensitive zones of inhibition Oils and Aromatic Compounds, Plovdiv, between 8 and 12 mm with the minimum Merdzhanov Gilani, A.

Aziz, I. Khurram, K. Chaudhary Rajkovic, K. Pekmezovic, A. Barac, J. Iqbal, Arsenijevic, lytic and calcium antagonist activities of Inhibitory effect of thyme and Nigella sativa seeds Kalonji : A traditio- cinnamon essential oils on Aspergillus nal herbal product with multiple medicinal flavus: Optimization and activity predic- uses.

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Sarter, E. Odoux, P. Snoussi, N. Ksouri, Brat, M. Lebrun, B. Romestand, C. Menut, Chemical composition and biological acti- H. Andrianoelisoa, M. Raherimandimby vities of Tunisian Cuminum cyminum L.

Danthu, Composition and anti- essential oil: A high effectiveness against microbial activity of essential oils of Cin- Vibrio spp. Food and Chemical namosma fragrans. Food Chemistry, , Toxicology, 48, — Iacobellis, N. Cantore, F. Souza, E. Stamford, E. Lima, V.

Antibacterial activity of J. Filho, Antimicrobial effectiveness Cuminum cyminum L. and Carum carvi L.

of spices: An approach for use in food essential oils. Journal of Agricultural and conservation systems. Brazilian Archives Food Chemistry, 53, 57— of Biology and Technology, 48, — Jirovetz, L.

Buchbauer, Z. Denkova, A. Slavchev, A. Schmidt, Chemical composition, antimicro- Paper received and Thuja sp. essential publication Moghaddam, M. Taheri, A. Mehdizadeh, Chemical compo- sition and antifungal activity of essential Desislava Teneva oil from the seed of Echinophora pla- Department of Microbiology, tyloba DC.

against phytopathogens fungi University of Food Technologies by two different screening methods. com BJVM, ××, No × 5. RELATED PAPERS. Research in Science Education Students' perceptions of teaching and learning in first-year university physics. Εγκύκλιος 42ου Συμποσίου ΧΑΕ Analytical Sciences Use of Radial Basis Function Networks and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Determination of Total Nitrogen Content in Soils from Sao Paulo State.

Herbs and Spices’ Antimicrobial Properties and Possible Use in the Food Sector | IntechOpen aureus growth with an optimum inhibitory effort of 0. Corresponding Author Email: ltmhien. One of their applications could be to assist reduce the fat, sugar content, and salt in food products. British Journal of Anaesthesia. Erturk O. officinale has antifungal activity against a variety of fungi, including Aspergillus [ 63 ]. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices.
Black pepper extract for natural antimicrobial properties

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