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Garlic for fungal infections

Garlic for fungal infections

Thanks for signing up! Richard Clark Getty Images. Infectioms effect and mechanism of garlic oil on Penicillium funiculosum. Garlic for fungal infections

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albicans after garlic oil treatment, the percentage of genes in each GO category was analyzed. Within the biological process category, 16 terms were enriched in differentially expressed genes. Among them, cellular response to drugs, oxidation-reduction processes, pathogenesis and cellular response to starvation were significantly enriched.

The ATP-binding, zinc-ion-binding and DNA-binding terms were significantly enriched in the molecular function category. Membrane-integrated, nucleus, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosome and cell surface terms were significantly enriched in the cellular component category.

The results can be summarized in three main categories: biological process, cellular component and molecular function.

To further understand the biological functions of the differentially expressed genes, KEGG analysis was performed to classify the functions of the identified genes. The differentially expressed genes were mapped to 19 pathways in the KEGG database, as shown in Table S These 19 KEGG pathways were all essential to the survival and reproduction of C.

albicans , including oxidative phosphorylation, spliceosome, cell cycle, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, pyrimidine metabolism, meiosis, RNA transport, ribosome biogenesis, RNA degradation, proteasome, the mRNA surveillance pathway, nucleotide excision repair, basal transcription factors, DNA replication, RNA polymerase, various types of N-glycan biosynthesis, protein export and the MAPK signaling pathway.

A photo of the 2D-DIGE analysis gel is shown in Fig. Comparison of the proteome of C. albicans treated with garlic oil and that of the control treatment, suggested that most differentially expressed proteins were downregulated, while only a small number of proteins were upregulated.

Four upregulated proteins and five downregulated proteins were selected for mass spectrometry MS analysis. The four upregulated proteins were identified with high probability as putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase 5. The five downregulated proteins were identified with high probability as hypothetical proteins CaO Details of the nine identified proteins are shown in Table 1.

Proteins were separated in the first dimension at pH 3. Control green fluorescence and 1. The results of antifungal activity measurement by the poisoned food technique demonstrated an MIC of garlic oil against C.

albicans of 0. Compared to our previous study, this study indicated that garlic oil has stronger antifungal activity against C.

albicans than Penicillium funiculosum , against which the garlic oil has an MIC of 0. The antifungal kinetic curves of garlic oil against C.

albicans indicated that garlic oil has a time- and dose-dependent antifungal effect. Due to the gradual evaporation and consumption of garlic oil in broth cultures, a small number of persistent C.

albicans cells were able to grow after an initial lag phase, the duration of which was correlated to the initial garlic oil concentration. Essential oils can penetrate the plasma membrane because of their lipophilic characteristic 18 , TEM observation showed that some organelles, such as the mitochondria and vacuoles, were damaged in C.

albicans cells after garlic oil treatment. These observations were consistent with the damages observed in P. funiculosum mycelia treated with garlic oil 17 and Aspergillus niger treated with citronella oil 20 and indicated that garlic oil could penetrate the membranes of organelles such as the mitochondria.

The volcano plots showed that nearly three thousand genes were differentially expressed and most of them were downregulated.

The gene expression of C. albicans was severely altered by garlic oil treatment. GO analysis demonstrated that over differentially expressed genes were enriched in the GO term of cellular response to drugs. Thus, C. albicans cells engaged in drug response following treatment with garlic oil.

This observation is consistent with the high antifungal activity of garlic oil against C. Nearly two hundred differentially expressed genes were involved in the oxidation-reduction processes. This result suggests that the oxidation-reduction process was severely disrupted by garlic oil treatment.

Oxidation-reduction processes are ubiquitous and essential to in vivo biochemical processes with regulatory functions critical for cell signal transduction and gene transcription. The disruption of oxidation-reduction processes is fatal to cells.

Most of the differentially expressed genes related to pathogenesis were downregulated and a small portion was upregulated. This indicates that garlic oil caused downregulation of pathogenicity-related genes and in turn could reduce the virulence and pathogenicity of C.

The significantly enriched GO term associated with cellular response to starvation suggests that the normal metabolic activity of C.

albicans cells was also disrupted. Similarly, the significant enrichment of GO terms in the molecular function category indicates that the expression levels of ATP-binding, zinc-ion-binding and DNA-binding genes were significantly changed.

The notably enriched terms in the cellular component category suggest that nearly all cellular components were affected including the nucleus, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes and the cell surface.

The differentially expressed genes were primarily clustered in 19 KEGG pathways. The most significant KEGG pathway identified was associated with oxidative phosphorylation.

Oxidative phosphorylation is an important biochemical process in the cell. It is the final metabolic pathway of cellular respiration and a key step required for ATP generation and occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells.

Consistent with the finding using KEGG analysis, we observed severe mitochondrial damages in garlic oil-treated C. albicans cells. These results indicated that oxidative phosphorylation occurring in the inner membrane of the mitochondria was severely disrupted.

The second KEGG pathway identified was associated with spliceosomes. RNA splicing is a very important biological process of gene expression in eukaryotic cells and protein synthesis is critically dependent upon spliceosome activity. Gene transcripts must undergo RNA splicing in order to become mature mRNA containing appropriate protein coding information and therefore, RNA splicing is vital for gene expression.

Disruption of this pathway indicates that C. albicans gene expression was severely affected by garlic oil treatment.

Given the effects on this spliceosome pathway, it is not surprising that so many other KEGG pathways were also affected by garlic oil treatment including the cell cycle, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, pyrimidine metabolism, meiosis, RNA transport, ribosome biogenesis, RNA degradation, proteasome functions, the mRNA surveillance pathway, nucleotide excision repair, basal transcription factors, DNA replication, RNA polymerase activity, various types of N-glycan biosynthesis, protein export and the MAPK signaling pathway.

The KEGG pathways of the cell cycle, meiosis and DNA replication are all closely related to cell reproduction, whereas the pathways for RNA transport, RNA degradation, mRNA surveillance and RNA polymerase are all responsible for gene expression.

Protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes, nucleotide excision repair and protein export are important KEGG pathways in the regulation of protein synthesis. Additionally, the N-glycan biosynthesis pathways are responsible for glycan biosynthesis.

Therefore, almost all of the critical physiological and metabolic processes of C. albicans were severely impacted by garlic oil treatment. The 2D-DIGE results showed the upregulation of putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase, pyruvate decarboxylase, hexokinase and heat shock protein Ssc1.

The putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase belongs to the adenylate kinase family and adenylate kinase catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between adenosine triphosphate ATP and adenosine monophosphate AMP 21 , 22 , 23 , It also plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis and in the metabolism of adenine nucleotides.

Adenylate kinase activity is critical for the regulation of the phosphate utilization and AMP de novo biosynthesis pathways 21 , 22 , 23 , KEGG pathway analysis by RNA sequencing demonstrated that the energy balance in the cells was altered due to the disruption in cellular oxidative phosphorylation.

Consistent with the RNA sequencing results, the 2D-DIGE analysis indicates with high probability that cytoplasmic adenylate kinase upregulation may be required to maintain energy homeostasis in the cell. Pyruvate decarboxylase is a thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzyme within the glycolytic pathway in fermenting cells.

It catalyzes the non-oxidative conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide Pyruvate decarboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase utilize pyruvate as a substrate to produce either ethanol or initiate the citric acid TCA cycle.

Under anaerobic conditions, the concentration of pyruvate is elevated by glycolysis and pyruvate decarboxylase catalyzes the generation of ethanol from pyruvate. Under aerobic condition, the concentration of pyruvate is reduced and pyruvate dehydrogenase catalyzes the generation of acetyl-CoA from pyruvate for subsequent initiation of the TCA cycle The upregulation of pyruvate decarboxylase shown in the proteomic analysis suggests the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular metabolic process.

The highly probable elevation of putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase and pyruvate decarboxylase detected by 2D-DIGE analysis were both consistent with severely disturbed oxidative phosphorylation and cellular respiration pathways revealed by KEGG analysis of RNA sequencing results.

Hexokinase is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes phosphorylation of glucose, mannose and fructose into the corresponding hexose 6-phosphates, which could then be broken down into pyruvate by mean of glycolysis, or utilized for various biosynthesis reactions Upregulation of hexokinase might result from the need for increased glycolysis to supply energy in C.

albicans cells treated with garlic oil. This is also consistent with the severe oxidative phosphorylation and cellular energy balance disturbances indicated by the KEGG analysis.

The dramatic upregulation of the heat shock proteins is a key part of the heat shock response, induced primarily by heat shock factors Production of high levels of heat shock proteins may also be triggered by exposure to different types of environmental stress conditions such as cellular exposure to toxins, starvation, hypoxia, or water deprivation Therefore, heat shock proteins are also referred to as stress proteins and their upregulation is often described more generally as part of the stress response.

The significant upregulation of heat shock protein Ssc1 might be associated with the stress response of C. albicans cells as a result of exposure to garlic oil. The GO analysis of the RNA sequencing also demonstrated some degree of cellular response in C. albicans similar to that observed in cellular responses to drugs and starvation.

Therefore, the results of 2D-DIGE were consistent with that of RNA sequencing. In conclusion, garlic oil exhibited strong antifungal activity against C. albicans and its MIC was 0. Moreover, garlic oil had a time- and dose-dependent antifungal effect on C.

Garlic oil could penetrate not only the cellular membrane, but also the membranes of organelles such as the mitochondria, resulting in damaged organelles and cell death.

In addition, garlic oil treatment induced differential expression of several critical genes including those involved in the cellular drug response, oxidation-reduction processes, pathogenesis and the cellular starvation response.

Moreover, the differentially expressed genes were mainly clustered in 19 KEGG pathways associated with oxidative phosphorylation, spliceosome, cell cycle, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, pyrimidine metabolism, meiosis, RNA transport, ribosome biogenesis and RNA degradation.

In addition, four of the upregulated proteins were identified by MS as highly probable for putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase, pyruvate decarboxylase, hexokinase and heat shock proteins. These results suggest that anaerobic metabolic processes are involved in some of the responses observed in C.

albicans cells following garlic oil treatment. Many proteins were downregulated, resulting in significant disruptions of the normal cellular metabolism and physical functions of C. Garlic oil was purchased from Guangzhou Baihua Flavours and Fragrances Company Ltd Guangzhou, China.

The garlic oil was pure with a density of 1. albicans strain ATCC was purchased from the American Type Culture Collection ATCC and maintained in our laboratory before experiments. Sabouraud dextrose broth SDB medium purchased from Guangzhou Huankai Microbial Sci.

and Tech. Sabouraud dextrose agar SDA medium was prepared by adding 1. All solvents and reagents were of analytical grade. Antifungal activity was measured using the poisoned food technique as described in our previous study 20 with slight modification.

The experimental concentrations of garlic oil were 0 as control , 0. Every SDA plate was inoculated with approximately 10 5 CFU of C. The MIC of garlic oil against C. albicans was determined as the lowest concentration at which no visible growth was observed during the 7 day incubation period.

The experiment was carried out in triplicate. The fungicidal kinetics of garlic oil against C. albicans was determined as described in our previous study The experimental concentrations of garlic oil in SDB medium were 0 as control , 0. The concentrations of C. Fungicidal kinetics curves were plotted based on the total number of living cells per milliliter, with the number of living cells in log scale on the ordinate and the processing time on the abscissa.

The experimental methods used to evaluate the antifungal effect of garlic oil on C. albicans cells were the same as those described in our previous study The experimental concentrations of garlic oil were 0 as control and 1.

albicans cells were added to two conical flasks. Garlic oil or PBS buffer were then added to the cultures to achieve 0 control or 1. The cells were then sampled and centrifuged. The cell precipitates in the control and the 1. RNA purity was assessed using an ND NanoDrop.

Each RNA sample had an A A ratio between 1. RNA integrity was evaluated using the Agilent Tape Station Agilent Technologies, USA and each sample had an RNA integrity number above 7. The purified library products were evaluated using the Agilent Tape Station and Qubit 2.

RNA sequencing was performed at Guangzhou RiboBio Co. on an Illumina HiSeq Prior to sequencing, the raw data were filtered to produce high-quality clean data. All the subsequent analyses were performed using the clean data. RNA sequencing data are available in the Gene Expression Omnibus GEO database under the accession numbers GSE The reference genome and gene model annotation files were downloaded directly from the NCBI library.

The clean reads were aligned to the reference genome using TopHat Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA. The functional annotations of genetic variants were generated using ANNOVAR Read alignments were processed by Cufflinks software package 31 to determine the differential expression of genes.

Gene expression values were quantified as reads per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads RPKM. Statistical analysis of the differentially expressed genes was performed using DEGseq software. To better understand the functional implications and the metabolic pathways of the differentially expressed genes, the web-based gene set analysis toolkit WebGestalt 32 , 33 was employed to retrieve the gene ontology GO categories and KEGG pathways associated with the differentially expressed genes.

WebGestalt used a hypergeometric test to calculate the p -values to evaluate the statistical significance of enrichment within a category by comparing the occurrence of genes in the input against that of the reference database.

Then, the p -values were adjusted for the multiple tests performed using the Benjamini and Hochberg method For comparison, the GO categories and KEGG pathways of the differentially expressed genes were also obtained.

albicans cells and garlic oil were added to conical flasks. The cell precipitates in the control and 1. Then, the mixture was vortexed and subjected to ultrasound. The cell extract was centrifuged and the supernatant was kept as a crude protein sample. The protein samples were purified by precipitation using a 2-D Clean-up kit GE Healthcare following the procedure recommended by the manufacturer.

The protein concentration was determined via a copper iron assay using a 2-D Quant kit GE Healthcare Two 2D-analysis gels and two preparative gels were prepared, in which proteins were labeled with CyDye GE Healthcare. Three fluorescent dyes, Cy2, Cy3 and Cy5, were used to label the samples using a chemical coupling method The immobilized DryStrip pH 3—10, GE Healthcare was embedded in 0.

Four gels were performed simultaneously on an Ettan DALTsix electrophoresis system GE Healthcare. The Cy2 pool sample -, Cy3 control sample - and Cy5 1. DeCyder software GE Healthcare was used to detect and quantify fluorescence intensity in images.

We selected protein spots whose mean expression ratios were greater or less with at least 3-fold. The proteins of interest were excised robotically by an Ettan spot handling workstation GE Healthcare for subsequent MS and database interrogation.

Peptide mass fingerprinting was carried out by MALDI-TOF-MS Ettan, GE Healthcare. Proteins identified by peptide mass fingerprinting were interrogated using the MASCOT search engine How to cite this article : Li, W.

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Stability, activity and structure of adenylate kinase mutants. Eur J Biochem , — One study published in compared the effects of oral garlic tablets to fluconazole, an antifungal. The researchers found garlic tablets a good alternative for treating and reducing yeast infection symptoms.

However, not enough research exists to know if garlic tablets and creams can safely replace conventional yeast infection treatments. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ACOG still recommend fluconazole and other similar antifungal agents for standard treatment.

Make sure to see a healthcare provider for a diagnosis if you have yeast infection symptoms before trying oral or topical garlic supplements. Garlic may cause side effects and interact with other medications.

Consuming garlic, especially when it's raw, may also cause body odor, heartburn, and upset stomach. Other risks of oral and topical garlic supplements include:.

Yeast infections are not always preventable, but you may be able to reduce your risk. Here are some ways to prevent a yeast infection:.

A yeast infection is not dangerous but can have a significant impact on your life. Effective antifungal treatments are available over the counter. Treatments include creams, tablets, ointments, or suppositories that you insert into the vagina. A healthcare provider can prescribe oral medication if you are not pregnant.

They might recommend prolonged antifungal use if you develop four or more yeast infections per year. Yeast infections are common, but they are not the only cause of unpleasant vaginal and vulvar symptoms. People often mistake a more severe health condition, such as an STI, for a yeast infection and try at-home remedies like garlic.

Misdiagnosis and unapproved remedies can delay proper treatment, which can be dangerous. Talk to a healthcare provider first if you have itching or burning in or around the vagina. Getting medical help can be useful even if you have previously had yeast infections. Effective antifungal treatments are available for people with one-time and repeat infections.

Jeanmonod R, Chippa V, Jeanmonod D. Vaginal candidiasis. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing; Felix TC, de Brito Röder DVD, Dos Santos Pedroso R. Alternative and complementary therapies for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Folia Microbiol Praha. Yeast infections. Office on Women's Health.

Vaginal yeast infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ebrahimy F, Dolatian M, Moatar F, et al. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of Garcin ® and fluconazole on Candida vaginitis.

Singapore Med J. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis VVC. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.

Vaginal yeast infection. Use limited data to select advertising. Create profiles for personalised advertising. Use profiles to select personalised advertising. Create profiles to personalise content. Use profiles to select personalised content. Measure advertising performance. Measure content performance.

We include products we think are infetcions for our Garlic for fungal infections. Dungal you buy through links infecgions this page, we may earn fungql small commission. Healthline only shows you Garlic for fungal infections and products that we stand behind. Yeast infections are a relatively common occurrence for women. According to Harvard Health, 75 percent of all women have or will have at least one vaginal yeast infection in their lives. Garlic is known to have positive biological effects on your immune systemcardiovascular system, cancers, and other conditions. Garlic Allium infectiions L. is grown Garlic for fungal infections foor the world Garlic for fungal infections seasoning and Gaarlic vegetable Proven Fat Burning Ingredients 3, BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to infectinos the fuhgal of its Garljc activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin Americais dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises.

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